Udant Martand

Udant Martand (Udant=" News/TIdings" , Martand="Sun") was the first Hindi language newspaper published in India. Started on 30 May 1826, from Calcutta (now Kolkata), the weekly newspaper was published every Tuesday by Pt. Jugal Kishore Shukla.[1][2]

Udant Martand
उदन्त मार्तण्ड
TypeWeekly newspaper
PublisherJugal Kishore Shukla
Founded30 May 1826
LanguageHindi
Ceased publication4 December 1827
Headquarters37, Amartalla Lane, Kolutolla,
near Barabazar Market, Kolkata
Circulation500 (1st issue)

HistoryEdit

By the early 19th century, educational publications in Hindi had already started, thus journalism was only a matter time. By the 1820s, newspapers in several Indian languages were starting, including Bengali and Urdu; however, printing in Devanagari script was still rare. Soon after Calcutta School Book started printing, Samachar Darpan, a Bengali journal which started in 1819, had some portions in Hindi. However, Hindi reading audience base was still at a nascent stage. Thus few of the early attempts were successful, but they nevertheless were a start.[3]

Shukla was a lawyer originally from Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, who had settled in Calcutta,[4] and became Proceedings Reader at the Sadr Diwani Adalat (Civil and Revenue High Court), and later on a pleader.[5][6] On 16 February 1826, he along with Munnu Thakur of Banstala Gali, Calcutta, received a license to publish a newspaper in Hindi.[6][7]

The newspaper was started on 30 May 1826; with it for the first time a newspaper was published completely in Hindi, using Devanagari script. Udant Martand employed a mix of Khari Boli and Braj Bhasha dialects of Hindi.[5][8] The first issue printed 500 copies,[3] and the newspaper was published every Tuesday.[6] The office of newspaper was at 37, Amartalla Lane, Kolutolla, near Barabazar Market in Kolkata.[9]

Owing to its distance from the Hindi-speaking areas of North India, the newspaper had difficulty in finding subscribers.[6] The publisher tried to get government subscription, and patronage in the form of postal fee exemption for eight newspapers to be posted to North India. However, it didn't receive the subscription and only one newspaper was allowed postal fee exemption, which meant that the paper could never be financially viable.[6] Nevertheless, it briefly gained prominence for featuring the controversy that rose Bengali-language magazine, Samachar Chandrika and traders from interiors, who were based in Calcutta.[4]

However soon due to higher postal rates as well as distant readership, the newspaper ran into financial difficulties. The publication expected some funding from the government, which didn't come through, and eventually closed on 4 December 1827.[1][4][10] A year later in 1828, government withdrew government subscription for newspapers, started during the liberal period of Governor-General Lord William Bentinck, which led to several small newspapers closing.[6]

Many years later in 1850, Shukla also started a magazine, Samdand Martand,[1] which ran till 1929.[citation needed]

LegacyEdit

Today, "Hindi Journalism Day" or Hindi Patrakarita Diwas is celebrated on 30 May each year, as it marked the "beginning to journalism in Hindi language".[11]

The oldest continuing Printing Press services in India is Martand Press , managed by Awasthi Brothers Of Rewa . This press was established by Pandit Rambharose Awasthi , Freedom Fighter in his younger years in 1887 as Ganesh Press . Ganesh Press faced obstacles due to its name and revival of Ganesh Puja in Maharastra by Bal gangadhar Tilak . So Awasthi family decided to change its name and Martand Press came into existence in 1916 AD . Bharat bhrata , a old newspaper of this area used to get printed in here , which was a mouthpiece of Rewa State activities . Martand Press was instrumental in revolutionary activities and published India's First National Song " Vande matram " and distributed the copies in Congres party Tripuri Session . The Press was banned and the copies were seized from Allahabad and Benaras apart from Jabalpur . The modern version of this press is still active in Rewa and they are into book publishing and a weekly newspaper .


ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Hena Naqvi (2007). Journalism And Mass Communication. Upkar Prakashan. pp. 42–. ISBN 978-81-7482-108-9.
  2. ^ S. B. Bhattacherjee (2009). Encyclopaedia of Indian Events & Dates. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. A119. ISBN 978-81-207-4074-7.
  3. ^ a b Ronald Stuart McGregor (1974). Hindi Literature of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 83–84. ISBN 978-3-447-01607-0.
  4. ^ a b c J V Vilanilam (2005). Mass Communication In India: A Sociological Perspective. SAGE Publications. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-0-7619-3372-4.
  5. ^ a b Rajendra Lal Handa (1978). History of Hindi language and literature. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 330.
  6. ^ a b c d e f A.F. Salahuddin Ahmed (1965). Social Ideas and Social Change in Bengal 1818-1835. Brill Archive. pp. 93–94. GGKEY:8YWY14NBR66.
  7. ^ Brijendra Mohan Sankhdher (1984). Press, politics, and public opinion in India: dynamics of modernization and social transformation: On the role of the press in India, 1780-1835. Deep & Deep Publications. pp. 132–133.
  8. ^ Brijendra Mohan Sankhdher (1986). Pioneers of freedom and social change in India. Deep & Deep Publications. p. 94.
  9. ^ Samaren Roy (2005). Calcutta: Society and Change 1690-1990. iUniverse. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-595-34230-3.
  10. ^ "The first Hindi newspaper 'Udant Martand' was ...-- This Day In Indian History of Indian Publication 30-May-1826 - IndianAge.Com". Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  11. ^ "Hindi Journalism Day Celebrated In India to Mark 187 Years of Hindi Journalism". Jagran Josh. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2014.

SourcesEdit