U.S. Route 278 in South Carolina

U.S. Route 278 (US 278) is a 146.130-mile (235.173 km) east–west United States highway that traverses through the South Carolina Lowcountry, from North Augusta to Hilton Head Island.

U.S. Highway 278 marker
U.S. Highway 278
Route of US 278 in South Carolina highlighted in red
Route information
Auxiliary route of US 78
Maintained by SCDOT
Length146.130 mi[1][2][3][4][5][6] (235.173 km)
Existed1965[citation needed]–present
Tourist
routes
Hilton Head Scenic Byway
Major junctions
West end US 1 / US 25 / US 78 / US 278 at the Georgia state line near North Augusta
 
East end
US 278 Bus. in Hilton Head
Location
CountiesAiken, Barnwell, Allendale, Hampton, Jasper, Beaufort
Highway system
SC 277 SC 281

Route descriptionEdit

After crossing the Savannah River from Georgia, US 278 bypasses downtown North Augusta, South Carolina to the south en route to Beech Island and Johnson Crossroads. It then forms a de facto northern boundary of the Savannah River Site, crossing into the property on a few occasions. The route then continues eastward and then southward through the communities of Barnwell, Kline, Allendale, Fairfax, Hampton, Varnville, Ridgeland, and Hardeeville where it meets I-95. US 278 shares the route between Ridgeland and Hardeeville with US 17.[7]

Upon reaching Hardeeville, the route heads eastward toward the Atlantic with large residential and commercial developments lining the spine of the road from Hardeeville through Okatie and Bluffton. The route crosses over Calibogue Sound onto Hilton Head Island. After a five-mile stretch in which the route is tolled, US 278 ends at US 278 Business on the southern portion of Hilton Head Island, just outside Sea Pines Plantation.[7]

Cross Island ParkwayEdit

On Hilton Head Island, US 278 was previously routed along what is now US 278 Business until a new toll road, named the Cross Island Parkway, opened on January 16, 1998.[8] The 6.8-mile (10.9 km) section of roadway[8] cost $83 million to build and was funded with a combination of state funds, federal funds, state highway bonds and tolls.[9]

The controlled access toll road has only one interchange along its route at Marshland Drive. It was the first toll road built in South Carolina in modern history.[8] A majority of the road users pay their tolls using Palmetto Pass, South Carolina's system for electronic toll collection. Tolls will be removed on June 30, 2021, not long after the last of the bonds sold to build the road are retired.[9][10]

The completion of the Cross Island Parkway (a direct expressway connection from the north side to the south side of the island) has caused a great amount of commercial and residential development along the road.[citation needed] Before the toll road opened, it could take one hour to travel the 12-mile (19 km) route of what was then signed as US 278 (William Hilton Parkway) during peak tourism season.[8] The Cross Island Parkway greatly relieved congestion on that road when it opened.[9]

TollsEdit

 
Cross Island Parkway Toll Plaza

Toll rates, for 2-axle vehicles, along Cross Island Parkway were $1.25 at the toll plaza and $1.00 at the Marshland Road/Spanish Wells Road interchange. Each additional axle was $1.00 (plaza and ramps). The toll plaza had both electronic toll collection (ETC) and cash lanes, which were manned 24 hours a day; Marshland Road/Spanish Wells Road interchange accept only ETC or exact change only. Those that did not have exact change or do not pay the toll had five days to contact the Cross Island Parkway Customer Service Center to make a payment; after that time, a violation notice was mailed. Travelers that made a mistake of taking the toll road may request a "Turn Around Pass", which gives them ten minutes to continue along the highway, turn around at the roundabout and return the pass at the toll plaza on the return trip.[11]

Only the Palmetto Pass was accepted on the Cross Island Parkway.

On July 1, 2021, the tolls were removed because the final bond payment was paid on the $81 million road that was opened in 1998.

HistoryEdit

US 278 was established, in South Carolina, in 1965, traveling from Augusta, Georgia to Hilton Head Island. Crossing the Savannah River, in concurrency with US 1/US 25/US 78/SC 121, it then overlapped with SC 125 on Atomic Road, to Beech Island. Replacing SC 28 from Beech Island to Almeda, where it then replaced SC 128, going through Ridgeland, to Old House. Replacing part of SC 462, it went south into Bluffton and then east into Hilton Head Island, replacing part of SC 46.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

Throughout the 1980s, US 278 was widen to four-lane, in phases, east of SC 170, in Bluffton. In 1996-1997, US 278 was rerouted south of Ridgeland to Hardeeville, then east on new primary routing to SC 170, in Bluffton. Its former routing was replaced by SC 336 to Old House and SC 462 to SC 170.[24][25] In 1998, US 278 was rerouted onto new routing along the west side of Hilton Head Island; known as the Cross Island Parkway, the toll road provides quicker access to the far south end of the island. The old alignment, in Hilton Head Island, became US 278 Business.[26][27]

Major intersectionsEdit

CountyLocationmi[1][2][3][4][5][6]kmDestinationsNotes
AikenNorth Augusta0.000–
0.005
0.000–
0.0080
       US 1 south / US 25 south / US 78 west / US 278 west / SR 10 west / SR 121 south (Gordon Highway) – Augusta
 
 
SC 121 begins
Western end of SC 121 concurrency; continuation from Georgia over the Savannah River; western terminus of SC 121
0.188–
0.340
0.303–
0.547
5th Street Bridge / River North DriveInterchange
0.640–
0.710
1.030–
1.143
   US 25 north / SC 121 north – North Augusta, EdgefieldNorthern end of US 25 and SC 121 concurrencies
0.8701.400East Buena Vista Avenue west (SC 125 Conn. north)[28]Southern terminus of SC 125 Conn.; no access from Jefferson Davis Highway northbound to SC 125 Conn. or vice versa
1.560–
1.950
2.511–
3.138
  I-520 (Palmetto Parkway) – Augusta, Columbia, AtlantaI-520 exit 17
Clearwater2.3803.830   
 
US 1 north / US 78 east (Jefferson Davis Highway) / SC 421 begins – Aiken, North Augusta, Clearwater
Eastern end of US 1 and US 78 concurrencies; western end of SC 421 concurrency; southern terminus of SC 421; interchange
2.380–
2.465
3.830–
3.967
  SC 125 north (Atomic Road) – North AugustaEastern end of SC 421 concurrency (eastbound only); western end of SC 125 concurrency; interchange
Beech Island7.270–
7.500
11.700–
12.070
   SC 28 west (Sand Bar Ferry Road) / SC 125 south (Atomic Road) – Savannah River Site, AugustaEastern end of SC 125 concurrency; eastern terminus of SC 28; interchange
13.48021.694  SC 302 (Silver Bluff Road) – Jackson, Aiken
New Ellenton19.69031.688  SC 19 north – New Ellenton, Aiken, Savannah River SiteSouthern terminus of SC 19
29.06046.768  SC 781 east – Williston, CharlestonWestern terminus of SC 781
Barnwell32.73052.674  SC 39 – Williston
41.17066.257  SC 37 north – Elko, WillistonSouthern terminus of SC 37
Barnwell43.50070.006  SC 64 west (Dunbarton Boulevard) – Savannah River SiteWestern end of SC 64 concurrency
43.76070.425  SC 70 east (Allen Street) / Dunbarton Boulevard – DenmarkWestern terminus of SC 70
44.10070.972  SC 64 east (Hagood Avenue) – WalterboroEastern end of SC 64 concurrency
45.43073.112  SC 3 north (Marlboro Avenue) – ColumbiaWestern end of SC 3 concurrency
46.67075.108  SC 3 south – SylvaniaEastern end of SC 3 concurrency
46.90075.478  SC 300 south – UlmerNorthern terminus of SC 300
AllendaleAllendale60.61097.542  US 301 north (Burton's Ferry Highway) – WalterboroWestern end of US 301 concurrency; to USC Salkehatchie
60.92098.041   US 301 south (Main Street) / SC 125 north (Railroad Avenue) – Savannah River Site, Augusta, SylvaniaEastern end of US 301 concurrency
Fairfax66.370106.812  US 321 (Hampton Avenue) – Estill, Savannah, Orangeburg, ColumbiaTo USC Salkehatchie
HamptonHampton75.330121.232  SC 363 west (Shaw Drive) – Lake Warren State ParkWestern end of SC 363 concurrency
75.490121.489  US 601 north (Hoover Street) – OrangeburgWestern end of US 601 concurrency
76.050122.391  US 601 south (First Street) – Estill, SavannahEastern end of US 601 concurrency
76.240122.696  SC 363 east (Third Street) – Walterboro, CharlestonEastern end of SC 363 concurrency
Varnville78.130125.738  SC 63 east (Main Street) – WalterboroWestern terminus of SC 63
Almeda80.240129.134  SC 68 east (Yemassee Highway) – YemasseeWestern terminus of SC 68
JasperGrays91.870147.850  SC 3 north (Heritage Road) – Early BranchSouthern terminus of SC 3
Gillisonville96.750155.704  SC 462 west (Gillison Branch Road) – PinelandWestern end of SC 462 concurrency
97.570157.024  SC 462 east (Morgandollar Road) – CoosawhatchieEastern end of SC 462 concurrency
102.310164.652  SC 652 west (Calf Pen Bay Road) – PinelandEastern terminus of SC 652
Ridgeland106.288171.054Russell Street south (US 278 Conn. east) / Town Square eastWestern terminus of US 278 Conn. and Town Square; northern terminus of Russell Street
106.370171.1863rd Avenue west (US 278 Conn. west)Eastern terminus of US 278 Conn., which takes on the 3rd Avenue name
106.640171.620  US 17 north (Jacob Smart Boulevard) – CharlestonWestern end of US 17 concurrency
106.780171.846  SC 336 (Main Street) – Tillman, Beaufort, Hilton Head Island
109.050175.499 
 
SR 13 south to I-95 – Savannah, Florence
Northern terminus of SC 13
Hardeeville119.440192.220  US 17 south (Whyte Hardee Boulevard) – HardeevilleEastern end of US 17 concurrency
119.730192.687  I-95 – Savannah, FlorenceI-95 exit 8
Beaufort127.580–
127.601
205.320–
205.354
  SC 170 (Okatie Highway) – Savannah, BeaufortTo Parris Island; interchange
Bluffton133.510214.864  SC 46 west (Bluffton Road) – BlufftonEastern terminus of SC 46
137.293220.952Bluffton ParkwayNo direct access from US 278 eastbound to Bluffton Parkway or Bluffton Parkway to US 278 westbound; interchange
Hilton Head Island140.720–
141.102
226.467–
227.082
 
 
  US 278 Bus. east (William Hilton Parkway)
Western terminus of US 278 Bus.; interchange; provides access to Hilton Head Airport
143.290–
143.497
230.603–
230.936
Marshland Road / Spanish Wells RoadInterchange
143.854231.511Toll plaza
144.331232.278Charles E. Fraser Bridge over Broad Creek
146.130235.173 
 
US 278 Bus. west (William Hilton Parkway) / Greenwood Drive west / Pope Avenue south
Eastern terminus of US 278 and US 278 Bus.; roundabout; to Coligny Beach
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Highway Logmile Report". South Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Highway Logmile Report". South Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Highway Logmile Report". South Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  4. ^ a b "Highway Logmile Report". South Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  5. ^ a b "Highway Logmile Report". South Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  6. ^ a b "Highway Logmile Report". South Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  7. ^ a b Google (April 12, 2014). "Overview map of US 278 in South Carolina" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d Associated Press (January 16, 1998). "Hilton Head toll road to open". The Augusta Chronicle. Morris Communications. Archived from the original on February 17, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  9. ^ a b c "27-in-7 Peak Performance" (PDF). South Carolina Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 17, 2013.
  10. ^ "News Release - SCDOT to Discontinue Toll Collections on Hilton Head's Cross Island Parkway June 30, 2021". hiltonheadislandsc.gov.
  11. ^ "Cross Island Parkway FAQ's". South Carolina Department of Transportation. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
  12. ^ General Highway Map, Aiken County, South Carolina (PDF) (Map). Cartography by SCDOT. South Carolina Department of Transportation. 1956. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  13. ^ General Highway Map, Aiken County, South Carolina (PDF) (Map). Cartography by SCDOT. South Carolina Department of Transportation. 1967. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  14. ^ General Highway Map, Barnwell County, South Carolina (PDF) (Map). Cartography by SCDOT. South Carolina Department of Transportation. 1962. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  15. ^ General Highway Map, Barnwell County, South Carolina (PDF) (Map). Cartography by SCDOT. South Carolina Department of Transportation. 1967. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  16. ^ General Highway Map, Allendale County, South Carolina (PDF) (Map). Cartography by SCDOT. South Carolina Department of Transportation. 1962. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  17. ^ General Highway Map, Allendale County, South Carolina (PDF) (Map). Cartography by SCDOT. South Carolina Department of Transportation. 1967. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  18. ^ General Highway Map, Hampton County, South Carolina (PDF) (Map). Cartography by SCDOT. South Carolina Department of Transportation. 1963. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  19. ^ General Highway Map, Hampton County, South Carolina (PDF) (Map). Cartography by SCDOT. South Carolina Department of Transportation. 1967. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  20. ^ General Highway Map, Jasper County, South Carolina (PDF) (Map). Cartography by SCDOT. South Carolina Department of Transportation. 1959. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  21. ^ General Highway Map, Jasper County, South Carolina (PDF) (Map). Cartography by SCDOT. South Carolina Department of Transportation. 1966. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  22. ^ General Highway Map, Beaufort County, South Carolina (PDF) (Map). Cartography by SCDOT. South Carolina Department of Transportation. 1963. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  23. ^ General Highway Map, Beaufort County, South Carolina (PDF) (Map). Cartography by SCDOT. South Carolina Department of Transportation. 1966. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  24. ^ General Highway System, Jasper County (PDF) (Map). South Carolina Department of Transportation. June 2005. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  25. ^ General Highway System, Beaufort County (PDF) (Map). South Carolina Department of Transportation. January 2005. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  26. ^ "Report of the Special Committee on U.S. Route Numbering to the Standing Committee on Highways" (PDF). AASHTO. November 6, 1998. p. 11. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
  27. ^ Hilton Head Island Urban Area, Beaufort County (PDF) (Map). South Carolina Department of Transportation. December 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  28. ^ Aiken & North Augusta Urban Area (PDF) (Map). South Carolina Department of Transportation. August 2019. p. Sheet 6. Retrieved September 12, 2020.

External linksEdit

KML is not from Wikidata


  U.S. Route 278
Previous state:
Georgia
South Carolina Next state:
Terminus