Typhoon Hagupit (2014)

Typhoon Hagupit (ha-gu-PIT, [hɐguˈpit]; Filipino word meaning "to lash" or "to flog"), known in the Philippines as Typhoon Ruby, was the second most intense tropical cyclone in 2014. Hagupit particularly impacted the Philippines in early December while gradually weakening, killing 18 people and causing $114 million (2014 USD) in the country.[1] Prior to making landfall, Hagupit was considered the worst threat to the Philippines in 2014, but it was significantly smaller than 2013's Typhoon Haiyan.[2]

Typhoon Hagupit (Ruby)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Hagupit 2014-12-04 0438Z.jpg
Typhoon Hagupit shortly before peak intensity on December 4
Formed30 November 2014
Dissipated12 December 2014
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 215 km/h (130 mph)
1-minute sustained: 285 km/h (180 mph)
Lowest pressure905 hPa (mbar); 26.72 inHg
Fatalities18 total
Damage$114 million (2014 USD)
Areas affectedCaroline Islands, Palau, Philippines, Vietnam
Part of the 2014 Pacific typhoon season

Hagupit developed into the 22nd tropical storm of the annual typhoon season on 1 December 2014 and became that year's eleventh typhoon the next day.[3][4] Under a favorable environment, the typhoon underwent rapid deepening and reached peak intensity northwest of Palau on 4 December, with a clear eye.[5] Hagupit slightly weakened but restrengthened on 5 December, but subsequently started to weaken again, due to subsidence associated with an upper-level trough.[6]

The typhoon made first landfall over the province of Eastern Samar in the Philippines on 6 December, and then made three other landfalls over the country.[7] For land interaction and the slow movement, Hagupit weakened into a tropical storm on 8 December.[8] When arriving at the South China Sea on 9 December, deep convection of the storm diminished significantly.[9] The system could not overcome the hostile environment and weakened into a tropical depression on 11 December, before it eventually dissipated southeast of Ho Chi Minh City on 12 December.[10]

Meteorological historyEdit

 
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

A tropical disturbance formed about 130 km (80 mi) north of the equator and about 530 km (330 mi) south-southwest of Kosrae in the afternoon of 29 November, resulting in the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issuing a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the next day for consolidating under favorable upper-level conditions.[11][12] Early on 1 December, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) upgraded it to a tropical depression, and so did the JTWC designating it as 22W.[13][14] Only six hours later, the JMA upgraded the system to a tropical storm and named it Hagupit, as well as the JTWC, owing to a consolidating low-level circulation center (LLCC) with tightly curved banding wrapping into the system.[3][15] However, the RSMC best track data indicated that the system had been already a tropical depression since 30 November and a tropical storm early on 1 December.[16] With low vertical wind shear and excellent radial outflow, Hagupit consolidated further on 2 December and was upgraded to a severe tropical storm by the JMA and a typhoon by the JTWC at noon.[4][17] Late on the same day, the JMA upgraded it to a typhoon when it began to track west-northwestward along the southern periphery of the subtropical ridge.[18]

A swath of GPM/GMI precipitation rates over Typhoon Hagupit

Remaining in a favorable environment, Hagupit underwent rapid deepening in the afternoon on 3 December and as a result, the JTWC upgraded it to a super typhoon due to the system depicting a significant eye.[19]

The PAGASA named the typhoon Ruby as it entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility early on 4 December.[20] Simultaneously, Hagupit presented the very tightly curved and deep convective banding with a clear 35 km (25 mi) eye, which 1-minute maximum sustained winds reached 285 km/h (180 mph), equivalent to Category 5 of the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS).[21] The JTWC also forecast that Hagupit would become as strong as Typhoon Haiyan, but it failed to intensify further.[22] The JMA analyzed that Hagupit had reached peak intensity at 06:00 UTC, with the 10-minute maximum sustained winds at 215 km/h (130 mph) and the central pressure at 905 hPa (26.72 inHg).[5] However, the system then started an eyewall replacement cycle and due to moderate easterly vertical wind shear, became less symmetric, with the bulk of the deep convection displaced over the western semi-circle.[23]

 
Typhoon Hagupit approaching the Philippines on 6 December

As Hagupit slowed down and continued a weakening trend, the eye became cloud-filled early on 5 December, and as a result, was no longer equivalent to Category 5 of the SSHWS.[24][25] Because of a robust poleward outflow channel into the mid-latitude westerlies to the north, the eye became clearer and was surrounded by a symmetric annulus of intense convection; the JMA also indicated the brief intensification at noon.[26] Moreover, a slight break in the steering and the zonal flow along the southern periphery of the mid-latitude trough lacked the dynamics to influence Hagupit, making the typhoon move westward very slowly.[27] Outflow in the southeast quadrant got hampered due to subsidence associated with an upper-level trough, resulting in a cloud-filled eye again. Thus, Hagupit weakened further, causing the JTWC to downgrade it to a typhoon early on 6 December.[6][28] At 21:15 PST (13:15 UTC), Typhoon Hagupit made landfall over Dolores, Eastern Samar, with the 10-minute maximum sustained winds of 165 km/h (105 mph).[7][16] Half a day later, the system made its second landfall over Cataingan, Masbate and turned west-northwestward.[29]

Owing to land interaction and its slow movement, the JMA downgraded Hagupit to a severe tropical storm on 7 December, at 21:00 UTC.[30] The JTWC also downgraded Hagupit to a tropical storm early on 8 December, right before the fragmented system made its third landfall over Torrijos, Marinduque.[31][32] After its fourth landfall over San Juan, Batangas at 17:45 PST (09:45 UTC), the JMA downgraded Hagupit to a tropical storm at noon.[8][33] On 9 December, deep convection over the LLCC weakened significantly when Hagupit arrived at the South China Sea and turned westward, although good poleward outflow channel tapping into the mid-latitude westerlies helped the system sustain its minimal tropical storm intensity.[9] Soon after that, due to a marginally favorable environment, deep convection over the partially exposed LLCC increased again.[34] Hagupit briefly intensified in the afternoon on 9 December, under moderate vertical wind shear offset by vigorous poleward outflow into the strong westerly flow to the north.[35] However, deep convection began to be displaced from the partially exposed LLCC one day after.[36]

On 11 December, despite favorable poleward outflow, Hagupit was not able to overcome upper-level subsidence in the southeastern quadrant and increasing vertical wind shear, as low-level northeasterly winds became completely out of phase with the upper-level.[37] Consequently, the JMA downgraded it to a tropical depression, and so did the JTWC.[10][38] The JTWC issued its final warning on Hagupit due to the LLCC of Hagupit being displaced from the deep convection and rapidly unraveling early on 12 December.[39] Hagupit eventually dissipated southeast of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, before noon on 12 December.[40][41]

PreparationsEdit

 
PSWS Map in the Philippines during the passage of Typhoon Hagupit (Ruby)

Typhoon Hagupit, also known as Typhoon Ruby, entered the PAR late on 3 December, at the same time it was upgraded into a Category 5 super typhoon. With this, the NDRRMC reported that schools were suspended in the areas: Samar, Biliran and Tacloban during 4–5 December.[42] On 5 December, the NDRRMC had put up Signal Warnings No. 1 and 2 from the lower part of Luzon to the upper part of Mindanao. Rough seas and gale-force winds were warned over the seaboards over the eastern part of the country.[43] The Department of Health went under Code Red alert at DOH-retained hospitals in regions expected to be hit by the typhoon starting on 6 December.[44] At the same time, PAGASA has put up Signal No. 3 warnings over Samar and were expecting storm surge up to 4 metres high.[45] Residents in at least 42 areas in Bicol and Visayas took precautionary measures against possible storm surge due to Ruby. As of 7:30 a.m, Project NOAH said three of the 42 are under Storm Surge Advisory (SSA) 3, 11 are under SSA 2, and the rest are under SSA 1. SSA 3 involves waves of up to four meters above sea level; SSA 2 three meters; and SSA 1 two meters.[46] It was also reported that schools and businesses were closed from 5–6 December in places in Visayas and southern Luzon.[47]

Because of its slow movement, preparations were further warned in areas such as southern Luzon and western Visayas. The PAGASA and NDRRMC warned that classes and businesses were suspended again during 8–9 December in Regions III, IV-A, IV-B and NCR.[48] Early on 8 December, the PAGASA had issued a Signal No. 2 warning over Metro Manila and the MMDA has also been put on red alert because of the typhoon.[49] On 8 December, the NDRRMC had reported that other regions such as Regions I, V, VII and CARAGA has no classes during 8–9 December.[50]

ImpactEdit

As a weakening Category 3 typhoon, Hagupit first made landfall over Dolores, Eastern Samar on 6 December.[51] Because of its slow movement, Signal Warning No. 3 were still up in some places in Visayas. The next day, Hagupit made its second landfall over Cataingan, Masbate.[52]

As of 19 December, at least 18 people had been confirmed dead by the typhoon, leaving nearly 916 injured according to the NDRRMC. Total financial loss were calculated at PhP5.09 billion (US$114 million).[53]

RetirementEdit

The name Ruby was the replacement for the name Reming, which was retired by PAGASA after its 2006 incarnation. Despite being used for the first time, PAGASA announced that the name Ruby would be retired from its naming lists after incurring over PhP1 billion in damages.[54] The name Rosita has been selected by PAGASA to replace Ruby for the 2018 season, which was itself retired after the season.[55][56]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "SitRep No. 27 re Effects of Typhoon "Ruby" (Hagupit)" (PDF). National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. 19 December 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  2. ^ Freedman, Andrew (4 December 2014). "Super Typhoon Hagupit poses deadly risks to Philippines, raises specter of Haiyan". Mashable. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  3. ^ a b "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory – December 1, 2014 0600Z". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  4. ^ a b "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory – December 2, 2014 1200Z". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  5. ^ a b "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory – December 4, 2014 0600Z". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 21". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  7. ^ a b "RubyPH Update: as of 09:15 PM, 06 December 2014". PAGASA. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  8. ^ a b "Tropical Cyclone Advisory for Analysis and Forecast 2014-12-08T12:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  9. ^ a b "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 33". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  10. ^ a b "Tropical Cyclone Advisory for Analysis and Forecast 2014-12-11T12:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  11. ^ "Track file of Super Typhoon 22W (Hagupit)" (TXT). U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  12. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  13. ^ "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory – December 1, 2014 0000Z". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  14. ^ "Tropical Depression 22W (Twentytwo) Warning Nr 001". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  15. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Twentytwo) Warning Nr 02". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  16. ^ a b "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Best Track Name 1422 Hagupit (1422)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  17. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 07". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  18. ^ "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory – December 2, 2014 1800Z". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  19. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 12". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  20. ^ "Weather Bulletin Number Two". PAGASA. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  21. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 13". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  22. ^ "Super Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 013". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  23. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 15". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  24. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Advisory for Analysis and Forecast 2014-12-05T00:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  25. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 17". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  26. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Advisory for Analysis and Forecast 2014-12-05T12:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  27. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Super Typhoon 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 19". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 11 December 2014.[dead link]
  28. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Advisory for Analysis and Forecast 2014-12-06T00:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  29. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin No. 14". PAGASA. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  30. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Advisory for Analysis and Forecast 2014-12-07T21:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  31. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 29". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  32. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin No. 18". PAGASA. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  33. ^ "RubyPH Update: as of 05:45 PM, 08 December 2014". PAGASA. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  34. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 35". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  35. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 38". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  36. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 40". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  37. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 41". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  38. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Depression 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 43". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  39. ^ "Tropical Depression 22W (Hagupit) Warning Nr 45". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  40. ^ "Marine Weather Warning for GMDSS Metarea XI 2014-12-12T06:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  41. ^ "Marine Weather Warning for GMDSS Metarea XI 2014-12-12T12:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  42. ^ "SitRep No. 01 re Preparedness Measures for TY "RUBY" (HAGUPIT)" (PDF). NDRRMC. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  43. ^ "SitRep No. 03 re Preparedness Measures for TY "RUBY" (HAGUPIT)" (PDF). NDRRMC. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  44. ^ "All hands on deck in govt hospitals in areas threatened by Ruby". Trisha Macas. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  45. ^ "Signal No. 3 up over three provinces as Ruby moves toward Eastern Visayas". GMA News. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  46. ^ "Storm surge warnings up in 42 areas". GMA News. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  47. ^ "List of class and work suspensions for Dec. 5 and 6". GMA News. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  48. ^ "List of Dec. 8–9 class suspensions due to Typhoon Ruby". GMA News. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  49. ^ "Signal No. 2 raised over Metro Manila; NCR to feel Ruby's effects Monday evening". GMA News. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  50. ^ "SitRep No. 09 re Effects of TY "RUBY" (HAGUPIT)" (PDF). NDRRMC. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  51. ^ "Typhoon Ruby makes first landfall in Dolores, Eastern Samar". Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  52. ^ "Ruby makes second landfall, seven areas under Signal No. 3". GMA News. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  53. ^ "SitRep No. 27 re Effects of Typhoon "Ruby" (Hagupit)" (PDF). National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. 19 December 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  54. ^ "Ruby faces removal from storm list". Sun Star. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  55. ^ "Pagasa kills names of killer typhoons". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 8 February 2015. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
  56. ^ "Philippine Tropical Cyclone Names". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on 1 February 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.

External linksEdit