Tunceli (Kurdish: Dêrsim,[3] Zazaki: Mamekîye[4]) is a city in eastern Turkey. It is the capital of Tunceli Province, located in the middle of Eastern Anatolia Region. The city has a Kurdish-majority[5][6][7] and was a site of the infamous Dersim massacre.[8]

Tunceli
Dêrsim
T.C. Tunceli Belediyesi
Tunceli in Munzur valley
Tunceli in Munzur valley
Tunceli is located in Turkey
Tunceli
Tunceli
Location in Turkey
Coordinates: 39°06′N 39°33′E / 39.100°N 39.550°E / 39.100; 39.550Coordinates: 39°06′N 39°33′E / 39.100°N 39.550°E / 39.100; 39.550
Country Turkey
ProvinceTunceli Province
Government
 • MayorFatih Mehmet Maçoğlu (TKP)
Area
 • District881.76 km2 (340.45 sq mi)
Elevation
940 m (3,085 ft)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
31,469
 • District
35,898
 • District density41/km2 (110/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (TRT)
Postal code
62000
Area code(s)0428
Licence plate62
Websitehttp://www.tunceli.bel.tr

EtymologyEdit

Tunceli means the land (el) of bronze (tunç) in Turkish, a partial calque of the city's archaic name “Dersim” (or Dêsim), means silver (sim) door (der) in Kurdish. Whether the name of the town is Tunceli or Dersim has been a reason for political quarrels. The local authority decided to call it Dersim in May 2019, while the Governor said it was against the law to call it Dersim.[9]

GeographyEdit

Tunceli at 39°06′N 39°33′E / 39.100°N 39.550°E / 39.100; 39.550 is situated just to the north of the intersection point of two rivers, Munzur and Pülümür, both flowing southwards. The city is founded in the valley of Munzur which is known for its picturesque appearance. It is surrounded by high mountains called Munzur mountains. The city has a limited means of transport to other cities. The population of the city is 32815 as of 2011.[10] It is one of the least populated province centers of Turkey.

HistoryEdit

During the Ottoman Empire, Tunceli (then known as Kalan) was a part of the region named Dersim. In 1847 Dersim was declared a sanjak (a historical administrative unit smaller than the province). The capital of the sanjak was Hozat. During the Republican period Tunceli Province was established in 1935. In 1946 the former town of Kalan was renamed as Tunceli and it was declared as the capital city of the province.[11]

As a result of the Turkish campaign of "Turkification" Tunceli became a main target of Turkish officials after the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Tunceli played a role in the Dersim rebellion.

Tunceli is famous for excellent rankings in National Education statistics.[12]

PoliticsEdit

In the Municipal Elections which took place on 31st of March 2019, Fatih Mehmet Maçoğlu was elected Mayor.[13] He is the first mayor of Tunceli from the Communist Party of Turkey.

In 2018, Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan stated that if "those involved with terrorism" (referring to the HDP party[14]) were to win the elections, that his government would "appoint trustees without delay".[15]

In May 2019 the Municipal Council decided to use the city's historic name Dersim and also to offer municipal services in Zazaki and Kurmanji. 4 Members of the newly elected municipal council had their certificates revoked in May 2019 for having been dismissed from public office in the past.[16]

EconomyEdit

The main economic activity is animal breeding. Wheat is the only notable agricultural product. There are chromium salt and marble deposits. But only salt is produced. There are a few factories based on agriculture.[17]

ClimateEdit

Tunceli has a continental climate (Köppen: Dsa, Trewartha: Dc) with very hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters.

Climate data for Tunceli (1991–2020, extremes 1960–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.2
(57.6)
19.4
(66.9)
26.0
(78.8)
32.2
(90.0)
36.6
(97.9)
39.0
(102.2)
43.5
(110.3)
43.5
(110.3)
40.3
(104.5)
35.6
(96.1)
27.0
(80.6)
21.7
(71.1)
43.5
(110.3)
Average high °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
5.8
(42.4)
12.1
(53.8)
18.5
(65.3)
24.3
(75.7)
30.7
(87.3)
35.5
(95.9)
36.0
(96.8)
30.8
(87.4)
23.2
(73.8)
13.9
(57.0)
6.0
(42.8)
20.1
(68.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.0
(30.2)
0.6
(33.1)
6.4
(43.5)
12.1
(53.8)
17.0
(62.6)
22.8
(73.0)
27.3
(81.1)
27.4
(81.3)
21.9
(71.4)
15.2
(59.4)
7.0
(44.6)
1.3
(34.3)
13.2
(55.8)
Average low °C (°F) −4.6
(23.7)
−3.4
(25.9)
1.5
(34.7)
6.3
(43.3)
10.2
(50.4)
14.7
(58.5)
19.1
(66.4)
19.0
(66.2)
13.5
(56.3)
8.6
(47.5)
1.9
(35.4)
−2.1
(28.2)
7.1
(44.8)
Record low °C (°F) −30.3
(−22.5)
−29.0
(−20.2)
−24.7
(−12.5)
−7.1
(19.2)
−0.1
(31.8)
1.0
(33.8)
9.2
(48.6)
7.7
(45.9)
2.6
(36.7)
−4.0
(24.8)
−16.4
(2.5)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−30.3
(−22.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 121.0
(4.76)
103.7
(4.08)
110.1
(4.33)
100.1
(3.94)
73.8
(2.91)
16.6
(0.65)
5.0
(0.20)
5.0
(0.20)
23.5
(0.93)
60.4
(2.38)
86.5
(3.41)
120.9
(4.76)
826.6
(32.54)
Average precipitation days 11.50 10.83 14.07 15.10 13.60 5.27 2.40 1.77 3.83 9.03 8.83 11.50 107.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 102.3 118.7 164.3 195.0 257.3 324.0 356.5 331.7 276.0 207.7 153.0 96.1 2,582.6
Mean daily sunshine hours 3.3 4.2 5.3 6.5 8.3 10.8 11.5 10.7 9.2 6.7 5.1 3.1 7.1
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[18]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ adem Avcıkıran (2009). Kürtçe Anamnez Anamneza bi Kurmancî (PDF) (in Turkish and Kurdish). p. 56. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  4. ^ "Mamekîye de konferansê terteleyê Dêrsimî" (in Zazaki). 21 November 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  5. ^ Sertel, Savaş (2016-01-31). "TÜRKİYE CUMHURİYETİ'NİN İLK GENEL NÜFUS SAYIMINA GÖRE DERSİM BÖLGESİNDE DEMOGRAFİK YAPI". Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 24 (1). doi:10.18069/fusbed.82073. ISSN 1300-9702.
  6. ^ Eke, Deniz Cosan (2021). The Changing Leadership Roles of »Dedes« in the Alevi Movement: Ethnographic Studies on Alevi Associations in Turkey and Germany from the 1990s to the Present. transcript Verlag. p. 64.
  7. ^ Gültekin, Ahmet Kerim (2019). Kurdish Alevism: Creating New Ways of Practicing the Religion (PDF). University of Leipzig. p. 4.
  8. ^ İsmail Besikçi, Tunceli Kanunu (1935) ve Dersim Jenosidi, Belge Yayınları, 1990.
  9. ^ "A short history of Turkification: From Dersim to Tunceli". Ahval. Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  10. ^ "Turkish statistical Institute". Archived from the original on 2014-10-12.
  11. ^ Tunceli governor's page on history Archived 2013-09-28 at the Wayback Machine (in Turkish)
  12. ^ "Eğitim sıralamasında Tunceli birinci".
  13. ^ "Tunceli Seçim Sonuçları: 31 Mart 2019 Tunceli Yerel Seçim Sonuçları". Sözcü (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  14. ^ "Turkey: HDP official accused of aiding PKK terrorist". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2021-08-29.
  15. ^ SCF (2018-10-08). "Turkey's Erdoğan vows re-seizure of municipalities should pro-Kurdish HDP win local elections". Stockholm Center for Freedom. Retrieved 2021-08-29.
  16. ^ Kurdistan24. "Kurdish city returns to original name 'Dersim,' attracts Turkish ire". Kurdistan24. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  17. ^ "TUNCELİ - Ekonomik Faaliyetler". www.cografya.gen.tr.
  18. ^ "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Mevism Normalleri (1991–2020)" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 7 August 2021.