Genetically modified animal
Genetically modified animals are animals that have been genetically modified for a variety of purposes including producing drugs, enhancing yields, increase resistance to disease, etc. The vast majority of genetically modified animals are at the research stage with the number close to entering the market remains small.
- 1 Production
- 2 History
- 3 Mammals
- 4 Fish
- 5 Insects
- 6 Birds
- 7 Amphibians
- 8 Nematodes
- 9 Other
- 10 References
The process of genetically engineering mammals is a slow, tedious, and expensive process. As with other genetically modified organisms (GMOs), first genetic engineers must isolated the gene they wish to insert into the host organism. This can be taken from a cell containing the gene or artificially synthesised. If the chosen gene or the donor organism's genome has been well studied it may already be accessible from a genetic library. The gene is then combined with other genetic elements, including a promoter and terminator region and usually a selectable marker.
A number of techniques are available for inserting the isolated gene into the host genome. With animals DNA is generally inserted into using microinjection, where it can be injected through the cell's nuclear envelope directly into the nucleus, or through the use of viral vectors. The first transgenic animals were produced by injecting viral DNA into embryos and then implanting the embryos in females. It is necessary to ensure that the inserted DNA is present in the embryonic stem cells. The embryo would develop and it would be hoped that some of the genetic material would be incorporated into the reproductive cells. Then researchers would have to wait until the animal reached breeding age and then offspring would be screened for presence of the gene in every cell, using PCR, Southern hybridization, and DNA sequencing.
New technologies are making genetic modifications easier and more precise. Gene targeting techniques, which creates double-stranded breaks and takes advantage on the cells natural homologous recombination repair systems, have been developed to target insertion to exact locations. Genome editing uses artificially engineered nucleases that create breaks at specific points. There are four families of engineered nucleases: meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the Cas9-guideRNA system (adapted from CRISPR). TALEN and CRISPR are the two most commonly used and each has its own advantages. TALENs have greater target specificity, while CRISPR is easier to design and more efficient. The development of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system has effectively halved the amount of time needed to develop genetically modified animals.
Humans have domesticated animals since around 12,000 BCE, using selective breeding or artificial selection (as contrasted with natural selection). The process of selective breeding, in which organisms with desired traits (and thus with the desired genes) are used to breed the next generation and organisms lacking the trait are not bred, is a precursor to the modern concept of genetic modification:1 Various advancements in genetics allowed humans to directly alter the DNA and therefore genes of organisms. In 1972 Paul Berg created the first recombinant DNA molecule when he combined DNA from a monkey virus with that of the lambda virus.
In 1974 Rudolf Jaenisch created a transgenic mouse by introducing foreign DNA into its embryo, making it the world's first transgenic animal. However it took another eight years before transgenic mice were developed that passed the transgene to their offspring. Genetically modified mice were created in 1984 that carried cloned oncogenes, predisposing them to developing cancer. Mice with genes knocked out (knockout mouse) were created in 1989. The first transgenic livestock were produced in 1985 and the first animal to synthesise transgenic proteins in their milk were mice, engineered to produce human tissue plasminogen activator in 1987.
The first genetically modified animal to be commercialised was the GloFish, a Zebra fish with a fluorescent gene added that allows it to glow in the dark under ultraviolet light. It was released to the US market in 2003. The first genetically modified animal to be approved for food use was AquAdvantage salmon in 2015. The salmon were transformed with a growth hormone-regulating gene from a Pacific Chinook salmon and a promoter from an ocean pout enabling it to grow year-round instead of only during spring and summer.
GM mammals are created for research purposes, production of industrial or therapeutic products, agricultural uses or improving their health. There is also a market for creating genetically modified pets.
Mammals are the best models for human disease, making genetic engineered ones vital to the discovery and development of cures and treatments for many serious diseases. Knocking out genes responsible for human genetic disorders allows researchers to study the mechanism of the disease and to test possible cures. Genetically modified mice have been the most common mammals used in biomedical research, as they are cheap and easy to manipulate. Pigs are also a good target as they have a similar body size and anatomical features, physiology, pathophysiological response and diet. Nonhuman primates are the most similar model organisms to humans, but there is less public acceptance towards using them as research animals. In 2009, scientists announced that they had successfully transferred a gene into a primate species (marmosets) and produced a stable line of breeding transgenic primates for the first time. Their first research target for these marmosets was Parkinson's disease, but they were also considering amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease.
Human proteins expressed in mammals are more likely to be similar to their natural counterparts than those expressed in plants or microorganisms. Stable expression has been accomplished in sheep, pigs, rats and other animals. In 2009, the first human biological drug produced from such an animal, a goat., was approved. The drug, ATryn, is an anticoagulant which reduces the probability of blood clots during surgery or childbirth was extracted from the goat's milk. Human alpha-1-antitrypsin is another protein that is used in treating humans with this deficiency. Another area is in creating pigs with greater capacity for human organ transplants (xenotransplantation). Pigs have been genetically modified so that their organs can no longer carry retroviruses or have modifications to reduce the chance of rejection. Pig lungs from genetically modified pigs are being considered for transplantation into humans. There is even potential to create chimeric pigs that can carry human organs.
Livestock are modified with the intention of improving economically important traits such as growth-rate, quality of meat, milk composition, disease resistance and survival. Animals have been engineered to grow faster, be healthier and resist diseases. Modifications have also improved the wool production of sheep and udder health of cows.
Goats have been genetically engineered to produce milk with strong spiderweb-like silk proteins in their milk. The goat gene sequence has been modified, using fresh umbilical cords taken from kids, in order to code for the human enzyme lysozyme. Researchers wanted to alter the milk produced by the goats, to contain lysozyme in order to fight off bacteria causing diarrhea in humans.
Enviropig was a genetically enhanced line of Yorkshire pigs in Canada created with the capability of digesting plant phosphorus more efficiently than conventional Yorkshire pigs. The A transgene construct consisting of a promoter expressed in the murine parotid gland and the Escherichia coli phytase gene was introduced into the pig embryo by pronuclear microinjection. This caused the pigs to produce the enzyme phytase, which breaks down the indigestible phosphorus, in their saliva. As a result, they excrete 30 to 70% less phosphorus in manure depending upon the age and diet. The lower concentrations of phosphorus in surface runoff reduces algal growth, because phosphorus is the limiting nutrient for algae. Because algae consume large amounts of oxygen, excessive growth can result in dead zones for fish. Funding for the Enviropig program ended in April 2012, and as no new partners were found the pigs were killed. However, the genetic material will be stored at the Canadian Agricultural Genetics Repository Program. In 2006, a pig was engineered to produce omega-3 fatty acids through the expression of a roundworm gene.
In 1990, the world's first transgenic bovine, Herman the Bull, was developed. Herman was genetically engineered by micro-injected embyonic cells with the human gene coding for lactoferrin. The Dutch Parliament changed the law in 1992 to allow Herman to reproduce. Eight calves were born in 1994 and all calves inherited the lactoferrin gene. With subsequent sirings, Herman fathered a total of 83 calves. Dutch law required Herman to be slaughtered at the conclusion of the experiment. However the Dutch Agriculture Minister at the time, Jozias van Aartsen, granted him a reprieve provided he did not have more offspring after public and scientists rallied to his defence. Together with cloned cows named Holly and Belle, he lived out his retirement at Naturalis, the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden. On 2 April 2004, Herman was euthanised by veterinarians from the University of Utrecht because he suffered from osteoarthritis. At the time of his death Herman was one of the oldest bulls in the Netherlands. Herman's hide has been preserved and mounted by taxidermists and is permanently on display in Naturalis. They say that he represents the start of a new era in the way man deals with nature, an icon of scientific progress, and the subsequent public discussion of these issues.
Researchers have developed GM dairy cattle to grow without horns (sometimes referred to as "polled") which can cause injuries to farmers and other animals. DNA was taken from the genome of Red Angus cattle, which is known to suppress horn growth, and inserted into cells taken from an elite Holstein bull called "Randy". Each of the progeny will be a clone of Randy, but without his horns, and their offspring should also be hornless. In 2011, Chinese scientists generated dairy cows genetically engineered with genes from human beings to produce milk that would be the same as human breast milk. This could potentially benefit mothers who cannot produce breast milk but want their children to have breast milk rather than formula. The researchers claim these transgenic cows to be identical to regular cows. Two months later, scientists from Argentina presented Rosita, a transgenic cow incorporating two human genes, to produce milk with similar properties as human breast milk. In 2012, researchers from New Zealand also developed a genetically engineered cow that produced allergy-free milk.
Scientists have genetically engineered several organisms, including some mammals, to include green fluorescent protein (GFP), for research purposes. GFP and other similar reporting genes allow easy visualisation and localisation of the products of the genetic modification. Fluorescent pigs have been bred to study human organ transplants, regenerating ocular photoreceptor cells, and other topics. In 2011 green-fluorescent cats were created to find therapies for HIV/AIDS and other diseases as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is related to HIV.
Genetically modification with a myxoma virus has been proposed to conserve European wild rabbits in the Iberian peninsula and to help regulate them in Australia. To protect the Iberian species from viral diseases, the myxoma virus was genetically modified to immunize the rabbits, while in Australia the same myxoma virus was genetically modified to lower fertility in the Australian rabbit population. There have also been suggestions that genetic engineering could be used to bring animals back from extinction. It involves changing the genome of a close living relative to resemble the extinct one and is currently being attempted with the passenger pigeon. Genes associated with the woolly mammoth have been added to the genome of an African Elephant, although the lead researcher says he has no intention of using live elephants.
Gene therapy, uses genetically modified viruses to deliver genes which can cure disease in humans. Although gene therapy is still relatively new, it has had some successes. It has been used to treat genetic disorders such as severe combined immunodeficiency, and Leber's congenital amaurosis. Treatments are also being developed for a range of other currently incurable diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Parkinson's disease, cancer, diabetes, heart disease and muscular dystrophy. These treatments only affect somatic cells, meaning any changes would not be inheritable. Germline gene therapy results in any change being inheritable, which has raised concerns within the scientific community. In 2015, CRISPR was used to edit the DNA of non-viable human embryos. In November 2018, He Jiankui announced that he had edited the genomes of two human embryos, to attempt to disable the CCR5 gene, which codes for a receptor that HIV uses to enter cells. He said that twin girls, Lulu and Nana, had been born a few weeks earlier and that they carried functional copies of CCR5 along with disabled CCR5 (mosaicism) and were still vulnerable to HIV. The work was widely condemned as unethical, dangerous, and premature.
Genetically modified fish are used for scientific research, as pets and as a food source. Aquaculture is a growing industry, currently providing over half the consumed fish worldwide. Through genetic engineering It is possible to increase growth rates, reduce food intake, remove allergenic properties, increase cold tolerance and provide disease resistance.
Fish can also be used to detect aquatic pollution or function as bioreactors. Several groups have been developing zebrafish to detect pollution by attaching fluorescent proteins to genes activated by the presence of pollutants. The fish will then glow and can be used as environmental sensors.
The GloFish is a brand of genetically modified fluorescent zebrafish with bright red, green, and orange fluorescent color. It was originally developed by one of the groups to detect pollution, but is now part of the ornamental fish trade, becoming the first genetically modified animal to become publicly available as a pet when it was introduced for sale in 2003.
GM fish are widely used in basic research in genetics and development. Two species of fish, zebrafish and medaka, are most commonly modified because they have optically clear chorions (membranes in the egg), rapidly develop, and the 1-cell embryo is easy to see and microinject with transgenic DNA. Zebrafish are model organisms for developmental processes, regeneration, genetics, behaviour, disease mechanisms and toxicity testing. Their transparency allows researchers to observe developmental stages, intestinal functions and tumour growth. The generation of transgenic protocols (whole organism, cell or tissue specific, tagged with reporter genes) has increased the level of information gained by studying these fish.
GM fish have been developed with promoters driving an over-production of "all fish" growth hormone for use in the aquaculture industry to increase the speed of development and potentially reduce fishing pressure on wild stocks. This has resulted in dramatic growth enhancement in several species, including salmon, trout and tilapia.
AquaBounty Technologies have produced a salmon that can mature in half the time as wild salmon. The fish is an Atlantic salmon with a Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) gene inserted. This allows the fish to produce growth hormones all year round compared to the wild-type fish that produces the hormone for only part of the year. The fish also has a second gene inserted from the eel-like ocean pout that acts like an "on" switch for the hormone. Pout also have antifreeze proteins in their blood, which allow the GM salmon to survive near-freezing waters and continue their development. The wild-type salmon takes 24 to 30 months to reach market size (4–6 kg) whereas the producers of the GM salmon say it requires only 18 months for the GM fish to achieve this. In November 2015, the FDA of the USA approved the AquAdvantage salmon for commercial production, sale and consumption, the first non-plant GMO food to be commerialised.
AquaBounty say that to prevent the genetically modified fish inadvertently breeding with wild salmon, all the fish will be female and reproductively sterile, although a small percentage of the females may remain fertile. Some opponents of the GM salmon have dubbed it the "Frankenfish".
In biological research, transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) are model organisms used to study the effects of genetic changes on development. Fruit flies are often preferred over other animals due to their short life cycle and low maintenance requirements. It also has a relatively simple genome compared to many vertebrates, with typically only one copy of each gene, making phenotypic analysis easy. Drosophila have been used to study genetics and inheritance, embryonic development, learning, behavior, and aging. Transposons (particularly P elements) are well developed in Drosophila and provided an early method to add transgenes to their genome, although this has been taken over by more modern gene-editing techniques.
Due to their significance to human health, scientists are looking at ways to control mosquitoes through genetic engineering. Malaria-resistant mosquitoes have been developed in the laboratory. by inserting a gene that reduces the development of the malaria parasite and then use homing endonucleases to rapidly spread that gene throughout the male population (known as a gene drive). This has been taken further by swapping it for a lethal gene. In trials the populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the single most important carrier of dengue fever and Zika virus, were reduced by between 80% and by 90%. Another approach is to use the sterile insect technique, whereby males genetically engineered to be sterile out compete viable males, to reduce population numbers.
Other insect pests that make attractive targets are moths. Diamondback moths cause US$4 to $5 billion of damage a year worldwide. The approach is similar to the mosquitoes, where males transformed with a gene that prevents females from reaching maturity will be released. They underwent field trials in 2017. Genetically modified moths have previously been released in field trials. A strain of pink bollworm that were sterilised with radiation were genetically engineered to express a red fluorescent protein making it easier for researchers to monitor them.
Silkworm, the larvae stage of Bombyx mori, is an economically important insect in sericulture. Scientists are developing strategies to enhance silk quality and quantity. There is also potential to use the silk producing machinery to make other valuable proteins. Proteins expressed by silkworms include; human serum albumin, human collagen α-chain, mouse monoclonal antibody and N-glycanase. Silkworms have been created that produce spider silk, a stronger but extremely difficult to harvest silk, and even novel silks.
Attempts to produce genetically modified birds began before 1980. Chickens have been genetically modified for a variety of purposes. This includes studying embryo development, preventing the transmission of bird flu and providing evolutionary insights using reverse engineering to recreate dinosaur-like phenotypes. A GM chicken that produces the drug Kanuma, an enzyme that treats a rare condition, in its egg passed regulatory approval in 2015.
One potential use of GM birds could be to reduce the spread of avian disease. Researchers at Roslin Institute have produced a strain of GM chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) that does not transmit avian flu to other birds; however, these birds are still susceptible to contracting it. The genetic modification is an RNA molecule that prevents the virus reproduction by mimicking the region of the flu virus genome that controls replication. It is referred to as a "decoy" because it diverts the flu virus enzyme, the polymerase, from functions that are required for virus replication.
A team of geneticists led by University of Montana paleontologist Jack Horner is seeking to modify a chicken to express several features present in ancestral maniraptorans but absent in modern birds, such as teeth and a long tail, creating what has been dubbed a 'chickenosaurus'. Parallel projects have produced chicken embryos expressing dinosaur-like skull, leg, and foot anatomy.
Genetically modified frogs, in particular Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis, are used in development biology. GM frogs can also being used as pollution sensors, especially for endocrine disrupting chemicals. There are proposals to use genetic engineering to control cane toads in Australia.
The nemotode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the major model organisms for researching molecular biology. RNA interference (RNAi) was discovered in C elegans and could be induced by simply feeding them bacteria modified to express double stranded RNA. It is also relatively easy to produce stable transgenic nemotodes and this along with RNAi are the major tools used in studying their genes. The most common use of transgenic nematodes has been studying gene expression and localisation by attaching reporter genes. Transgenes can also be combined with RNAi to rescue phenotypes, altered to study gene function, imaged in real time as the cells develop or used to control expression for different tissues or developmental stages. Transgenic nematodes have been used to study viruses, toxicology, and diseases and to detect environmental pollutants.
Systems have been developed to create transgenic organisms in a wide variety of other animals. The gene responsible for Albinism in sea cucumbers has been found and used to engineer white sea cucumbers, a rare delicacy. The technology also opens the way to investigate the genes responsible for some of the cucumbers more unusual traits, including hibernating in summer, eviscerating their intestines, and dissolving their bodies upon death. Flatworms have the ability to regenerate themselves from a single cell. Until 2017 there was no effective way to transform them, which hampered research. By using microinjection and radiation scientist have now created the first genetically modified flatworms. The bristle worm, a marine annelid, has been modified. It is of interest due to its reproductive cycle being synchronised with lunar phases, regeneration capacity and slow evolution rate. Cnidaria such as Hydra and the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis are attractive model organisms to study the evolution of immunity and certain developmental processes. Other organisms that have been genetically modified include snails, geckos, turtles, crayfish, oysters, shrimp, clams, abalone and sponges.
- Forabosco F, Löhmus M, Rydhmer L, Sundström LF (May 2013). "Genetically modified farm animals and fish in agriculture: A review". Livestock Science. 153 (1–3): 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.livsci.2013.01.002.
- Murray, Joo (20). Genetically modified animals. Canada: Brainwaving
- Nicholl DS (2008-05-29). An Introduction to Genetic Engineering. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN 9781139471787.
- Liang J, Luo Y, Zhao H (2011). "Synthetic biology: putting synthesis into biology". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine. 3 (1): 7–20. doi:10.1002/wsbm.104. PMC 3057768. PMID 21064036.
- Berg P, Mertz JE (January 2010). "Personal reflections on the origins and emergence of recombinant DNA technology". Genetics. 184 (1): 9–17. doi:10.1534/genetics.109.112144. PMC 2815933. PMID 20061565.
- Chen I, Dubnau D (March 2004). "DNA uptake during bacterial transformation". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 2 (3): 241–9. doi:10.1038/nrmicro844. PMID 15083159.
- Jaenisch R, Mintz B (April 1974). "Simian virus 40 DNA sequences in DNA of healthy adult mice derived from preimplantation blastocysts injected with viral DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 71 (4): 1250–4. Bibcode:1974PNAS...71.1250J. doi:10.1073/pnas.71.4.1250. PMC 388203. PMID 4364530.
- National Research Council (US) Committee on Identifying and Assessing Unintended Effects of Genetically Engineered Foods on Human Health (2004-01-01). Methods and Mechanisms for Genetic Manipulation of Plants, Animals, and Microorganisms. National Academies Press (US).
- Setlow JK (2002-10-31). Genetic Engineering: Principles and Methods. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 109. ISBN 9780306472800.
- Grizot S, Smith J, Daboussi F, Prieto J, Redondo P, Merino N, Villate M, Thomas S, Lemaire L, Montoya G, Blanco FJ, Pâques F, Duchateau P (September 2009). "Efficient targeting of a SCID gene by an engineered single-chain homing endonuclease". Nucleic Acids Research. 37 (16): 5405–19. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp548. PMC 2760784. PMID 19584299.
- Gao H, Smith J, Yang M, Jones S, Djukanovic V, Nicholson MG, West A, Bidney D, Falco SC, Jantz D, Lyznik LA (January 2010). "Heritable targeted mutagenesis in maize using a designed endonuclease". The Plant Journal. 61 (1): 176–87. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2009.04041.x. PMID 19811621.
- Townsend JA, Wright DA, Winfrey RJ, Fu F, Maeder ML, Joung JK, Voytas DF (May 2009). "High-frequency modification of plant genes using engineered zinc-finger nucleases". Nature. 459 (7245): 442–5. Bibcode:2009Natur.459..442T. doi:10.1038/nature07845. PMC 2743854. PMID 19404258.
- Shukla VK, Doyon Y, Miller JC, DeKelver RC, Moehle EA, Worden SE, Mitchell JC, Arnold NL, Gopalan S, Meng X, Choi VM, Rock JM, Wu YY, Katibah GE, Zhifang G, McCaskill D, Simpson MA, Blakeslee B, Greenwalt SA, Butler HJ, Hinkley SJ, Zhang L, Rebar EJ, Gregory PD, Urnov FD (May 2009). "Precise genome modification in the crop species Zea mays using zinc-finger nucleases". Nature. 459 (7245): 437–41. Bibcode:2009Natur.459..437S. doi:10.1038/nature07992. PMID 19404259.
- Christian M, Cermak T, Doyle EL, Schmidt C, Zhang F, Hummel A, Bogdanove AJ, Voytas DF (October 2010). "Targeting DNA double-strand breaks with TAL effector nucleases". Genetics. 186 (2): 757–61. doi:10.1534/genetics.110.120717. PMC 2942870. PMID 20660643.
- Li T, Huang S, Jiang WZ, Wright D, Spalding MH, Weeks DP, Yang B (January 2011). "TAL nucleases (TALNs): hybrid proteins composed of TAL effectors and FokI DNA-cleavage domain". Nucleic Acids Research. 39 (1): 359–72. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq704. PMC 3017587. PMID 20699274.
- Esvelt KM, Wang HH (2013). "Genome-scale engineering for systems and synthetic biology". Molecular Systems Biology. 9: 641. doi:10.1038/msb.2012.66. PMC 3564264. PMID 23340847.
- Tan WS, Carlson DF, Walton MW, Fahrenkrug SC, Hackett PB (2012). "Precision editing of large animal genomes". Advances in Genetics Volume 80. Advances in Genetics. 80. pp. 37–97. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-404742-6.00002-8. ISBN 9780124047426. PMC 3683964. PMID 23084873.
- Malzahn A, Lowder L, Qi Y (2017-04-24). "Plant genome editing with TALEN and CRISPR". Cell & Bioscience. 7: 21. doi:10.1186/s13578-017-0148-4. PMC 5404292. PMID 28451378.
- "How CRISPR is Spreading Through the Animal Kingdom". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
- Clive Root (2007). Domestication. Greenwood Publishing Groups.
- Jackson DA, Symons RH, Berg P (October 1972). "Biochemical method for inserting new genetic information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: circular SV40 DNA molecules containing lambda phage genes and the galactose operon of Escherichia coli". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 69 (10): 2904–9. Bibcode:1972PNAS...69.2904J. doi:10.1073/pnas.69.10.2904. PMC 389671. PMID 4342968.
- M. K. Sateesh (25 August 2008). Bioethics And Biosafety. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. pp. 456–. ISBN 978-81-906757-0-3. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Jaenisch, R. and Mintz, B. (1974 ) Simian virus 40 DNA sequences in DNA of healthy adult mice derived from preimplantation blastocysts injected with viral DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. 71(4): 1250–54 
- "'Any idiot can do it.' Genome editor CRISPR could put mutant mice in everyone's reach". Science | AAAS. 2016-11-02. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
- Gordon JW, Ruddle FH (December 1981). "Integration and stable germ line transmission of genes injected into mouse pronuclei". Science. 214 (4526): 1244–6. Bibcode:1981Sci...214.1244G. doi:10.1126/science.6272397. PMID 6272397.
- Costantini F, Lacy E (November 1981). "Introduction of a rabbit beta-globin gene into the mouse germ line". Nature. 294 (5836): 92–4. Bibcode:1981Natur.294...92C. doi:10.1038/294092a0. PMID 6945481.
- Hanahan D, Wagner EF, Palmiter RD (September 2007). "The origins of oncomice: a history of the first transgenic mice genetically engineered to develop cancer". Genes & Development. 21 (18): 2258–70. doi:10.1101/gad.1583307. PMID 17875663.
- Brophy B, Smolenski G, Wheeler T, Wells D, L'Huillier P, Laible G (February 2003). "Cloned transgenic cattle produce milk with higher levels of beta-casein and kappa-casein". Nature Biotechnology. 21 (2): 157–62. doi:10.1038/nbt783. PMID 12548290.
- Clark AJ (July 1998). "The mammary gland as a bioreactor: expression, processing, and production of recombinant proteins". Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia. 3 (3): 337–50. doi:10.1023/a:1018723712996. PMID 10819519.
- Gordon K, Lee E, Vitale JA, Smith AE, Westphal H, Hennighausen L (1987). "Production of human tissue plasminogen activator in transgenic mouse milk. 1987". Biotechnology. 24 (11): 425–8. doi:10.1038/nbt1187-1183. PMID 1422049.
- Vàzquez-Salat N, Salter B, Smets G, Houdebine LM (2012-11-01). "The current state of GMO governance: are we ready for GM animals?". Biotechnology Advances. Special issue on ACB 2011. 30 (6): 1336–43. doi:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2012.02.006. PMID 22361646.
- "CNN.com - Glowing fish to be first genetically changed pet - Nov. 21, 2003". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 2018-12-25.
- "Aquabounty Cleared to Sell Salmon in USA for Commercial Purposes". FDA. 2019-06-19.
- Bodnar, Anastasia (October 2010). "Risk Assessment and Mitigation of AquAdvantage Salmon" (PDF). ISB News Report.
- Rudinko, Larisa (20). Guidance for industry. USA: Center for veterinary medicine Link.
- Perleberg C, Kind A, Schnieke A (January 2018). "Genetically engineered pigs as models for human disease". Disease Models & Mechanisms. 11 (1): dmm030783. doi:10.1242/dmm.030783. PMC 5818075. PMID 29419487.
- Sato K, Sasaki E (February 2018). "Genetic engineering in nonhuman primates for human disease modeling". Journal of Human Genetics. 63 (2): 125–131. doi:10.1038/s10038-017-0351-5. PMID 29203824.
- Sasaki E, Suemizu H, Shimada A, Hanazawa K, Oiwa R, Kamioka M, Tomioka I, Sotomaru Y, Hirakawa R, Eto T, Shiozawa S, Maeda T, Ito M, Ito R, Kito C, Yagihashi C, Kawai K, Miyoshi H, Tanioka Y, Tamaoki N, Habu S, Okano H, Nomura T (May 2009). "Generation of transgenic non-human primates with germline transmission". Nature. 459 (7246): 523–7. Bibcode:2009Natur.459..523S. doi:10.1038/nature08090. PMID 19478777.
- Schatten G, Mitalipov S (May 2009). "Developmental biology: Transgenic primate offspring". Nature. 459 (7246): 515–6. Bibcode:2009Natur.459..515S. doi:10.1038/459515a. PMC 2777739. PMID 19478771.
- Cyranoski D (May 2009). "Marmoset model takes centre stage". Nature. 459 (7246): 492. doi:10.1038/459492a. PMID 19478751.
- Britt Erickson, 10 February 2009, for Chemical & Engineering News. FDA Approves Drug From Transgenic Goat Milk Accessed 6 October 2012
- Spencer LT, Humphries JE, Brantly ML (May 2005). "Antibody response to aerosolized transgenic human alpha1-antitrypsin". The New England Journal of Medicine. 352 (19): 2030–1. doi:10.1056/nejm200505123521923. PMID 15888711.
- Editing of Pig DNA May Lead to More Organs for People
- Zeyland J, Gawrońska B, Juzwa W, Jura J, Nowak A, Słomski R, Smorąg Z, Szalata M, Woźniak A, Lipiński D (August 2013). "Transgenic pigs designed to express human α-galactosidase to avoid humoral xenograft rejection". Journal of Applied Genetics. 54 (3): 293–303. doi:10.1007/s13353-013-0156-y. PMC 3720986. PMID 23780397.
- GTKO study conducted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the U.S. National Institutes of Health
- New life for pig-to-human transplants
- United Therapeutics considering pig-lungs for transplant into humans
- Wu J, Platero-Luengo A, Sakurai M, Sugawara A, Gil MA, Yamauchi T, Suzuki K, Bogliotti YS, Cuello C, Morales Valencia M, Okumura D, Luo J, Vilariño M, Parrilla I, Soto DA, Martinez CA, Hishida T, Sánchez-Bautista S, Martinez-Martinez ML, Wang H, Nohalez A, Aizawa E, Martinez-Redondo P, Ocampo A, Reddy P, Roca J, Maga EA, Esteban CR, Berggren WT, Nuñez Delicado E, Lajara J, Guillen I, Guillen P, Campistol JM, Martinez EA, Ross PJ, Izpisua Belmonte JC (January 2017). "Interspecies Chimerism with Mammalian Pluripotent Stem Cells". Cell. 168 (3): 473–486.e15. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.036. PMC 5679265. PMID 28129541.
- Lai L, Kang JX, Li R, Wang J, Witt WT, Yong HY, et al. (April 2006). "Generation of cloned transgenic pigs rich in omega-3 fatty acids". Nature Biotechnology. 24 (4): 435–6. doi:10.1038/nbt1198. PMC 2976610. PMID 16565727.
- Tucker I (2018-06-24). "Genetically modified animals". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2018-12-21.
- Zyga L (2010). "Scientist bred goats that produce spider silk". Phys.org. Archived from the original on 30 April 2015.
- "These GMO Goats Could Save Lives. Fear and Confusion Prevent It". Undark. Retrieved 2018-10-02.
- Guelph (2010). Enviropig Archived 2016-01-30 at the Wayback Machine. Canada:
- Schimdt, Sarah. "Genetically engineered pigs killed after funding ends", Postmedia News, 22 June 2012. Accessed 31 July 2012.
- Golovan SP, Meidinger RG, Ajakaiye A, Cottrill M, Wiederkehr MZ, Barney DJ, Plante C, Pollard JW, Fan MZ, Hayes MA, Laursen J, Hjorth JP, Hacker RR, Phillips JP, Forsberg CW, et al. (August 2001). "Pigs expressing salivary phytase produce low-phosphorus manure". Nature Biotechnology. 19 (8): 741–5. doi:10.1038/90788. PMID 11479566.
- Canada. "Enviropig – Environmental Benefits | University of Guelph". Uoguelph.ca. Archived from the original on 2017-10-30.
- Leung, Wendy. University of Guelph left foraging for Enviropig funding, The Globe and Mail, Apr. 2, 2012. Accessed July 31, 2012.
- Schimdt, Sarah. Genetically engineered pigs killed after funding ends, Postmedia News, June 22, 2012. Accessed July 31, 2012.
- Lai L, Kang JX, Li R, Wang J, Witt WT, Yong HY, Hao Y, Wax DM, Murphy CN, Rieke A, Samuel M, Linville ML, Korte SW, Evans RW, Starzl TE, Prather RS, Dai Y (April 2006). "Generation of cloned transgenic pigs rich in omega-3 fatty acids" (PDF). Nature Biotechnology. 24 (4): 435–6. doi:10.1038/nbt1198. PMC 2976610. PMID 16565727. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-08-16.
- "Herman the bull - Herman becomes a father. "Biotech Notes."". U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1994. Archived from the original on 2008-12-03.
- "Herman the bull heads to greener pastures". Expatica News. April 2, 2004.
- Expatica News (2 April 2004). Herman the bull heads to greener pastures. Accessed on 3 January 2009 from http://www.expatica.com/nl/news/local_news/herman-the-bull-heads-to-greener-pastures--6273.html
- Naturalis (2008). Herman the Bull stabled in Naturalis. Accessed 3 January 2009 from http://www.naturalis.nl/naturalis%2Een/naturalis%2Een/i000968%2Ehtml. Retrieved 3 September 2014. Missing or empty
- Hall, M. (April 28, 2013). "Scientists design 'health and safety' cow with no horns". The Telegraph. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
- Gray, Richard (2011). "Genetically modified cows produce 'human' milk". The Telegraph.
- Classical Medicine Journal (14 April 2010). "Genetically modified cows producing human milk". Archived from the original on 6 November 2014.
- Yapp R (11 June 2011). "Scientists create cow that produces 'human' milk". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- Classical Medicine Journal (14 April 2010). "Genetically modified cows producing human milk". Archived from the original on 2014-11-06.
- Yapp, Robin (11 June 2011). "Scientists create cow that produces 'human' milk". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- Jabed A, Wagner S, McCracken J, Wells DN, Laible G (October 2012). "Targeted microRNA expression in dairy cattle directs production of β-lactoglobulin-free, high-casein milk". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 (42): 16811–6. Bibcode:2012PNAS..10916811J. doi:10.1073/pnas.1210057109. PMC 3479461. PMID 23027958.
- "Green fluorescent protein takes Nobel prize". Lewis Brindley. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
- Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). "Studying Gene Expression and Function". Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.).
- Randall S (2008). "Genetically Modified Pigs for Medicine and Agriculture" (PDF). Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. 25: 245–66. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2014.
- Wongsrikeao P, Saenz D, Rinkoski T, Otoi T, Poeschla E (September 2011). "Antiviral restriction factor transgenesis in the domestic cat". Nature Methods. 8 (10): 853–9. doi:10.1038/nmeth.1703. PMC 4006694. PMID 21909101.
- Staff (3 April 2012). "Biology of HIV". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014.
- Angulo E, Cooke B (December 2002). "First synthesize new viruses then regulate their release? The case of the wild rabbit". Molecular Ecology. 11 (12): 2703–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294X.2002.01635.x. hdl:10261/45541. PMID 12453252.
- Biello, David. "Ancient DNA Could Return Passenger Pigeons to the Sky". Scientific American. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
- Association, Penny Sarchet, Press. "Can we grow woolly mammoths in the lab? George Church hopes so". New Scientist. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
- Selkirk SM (October 2004). "Gene therapy in clinical medicine". Postgraduate Medical Journal. 80 (948): 560–70. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2003.017764. PMC 1743106. PMID 15466989.
- Cavazzana-Calvo M, Fischer A (June 2007). "Gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency: are we there yet?". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 117 (6): 1456–65. doi:10.1172/JCI30953. PMC 1878528. PMID 17549248.
- Richards, Sabrina (6 November 2012) "Gene therapy arrives in Europe" The Scientist, Retrieved 15 April 2013
- Rosenecker J, Huth S, Rudolph C (October 2006). "Gene therapy for cystic fibrosis lung disease: current status and future perspectives". Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics. 8 (5): 439–45. PMID 17078386.
- Persons DA, Nienhuis AW (July 2003). "Gene therapy for the hemoglobin disorders". Current Hematology Reports. 2 (4): 348–55. PMID 12901333.
- LeWitt PA, Rezai AR, Leehey MA, Ojemann SG, Flaherty AW, Eskandar EN, Kostyk SK, Thomas K, Sarkar A, Siddiqui MS, Tatter SB, Schwalb JM, Poston KL, Henderson JM, Kurlan RM, Richard IH, Van Meter L, Sapan CV, During MJ, Kaplitt MG, Feigin A (April 2011). "AAV2-GAD gene therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease: a double-blind, sham-surgery controlled, randomised trial". The Lancet. Neurology. 10 (4): 309–19. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70039-4. PMID 21419704.
- Gallaher, James "Gene therapy 'treats' Parkinson's disease" BBC News Health, 17 March 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011
- Urbina, Zachary (12 February 2013) "Genetically Engineered Virus Fights Liver Cancer Archived 16 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine" United Academics, Retrieved 15 February 2013
- "Treatment for Leukemia Is Showing Early Promise". The New York Times. Associated Press. 11 August 2011. p. A15. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- Coghlan, Andy (26 March 2013) "Gene therapy cures leukaemia in eight days" The New Scientist, Retrieved 15 April 2013
- Staff (13 February 2013) "Gene therapy cures diabetic dogs" New Scientist, Retrieved 15 February 2013
- (30 April 2013) "New gene therapy trial gives hope to people with heart failure" British Heart Foundation, Retrieved 5 May 2013
- Foster K, Foster H, Dickson JG (December 2006). "Gene therapy progress and prospects: Duchenne muscular dystrophy". Gene Therapy. 13 (24): 1677–85. doi:10.1038/sj.gt.3302877. PMID 17066097.
- "1990 The Declaration of Inuyama". 5 August 2001. Archived from the original on 5 August 2001.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Smith KR, Chan S, Harris J. Human germline genetic modification: scientific and bioethical perspectives. Arch Med Res. 2012 Oct;43(7):491-513. doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2012.09.003. PMID 23072719
- Kolata, Gina (23 April 2015). "Chinese Scientists Edit Genes of Human Embryos, Raising Concerns". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- Liang P, Xu Y, Zhang X, Ding C, Huang R, Zhang Z, Lv J, Xie X, Chen Y, Li Y, Sun Y, Bai Y, Songyang Z, Ma W, Zhou C, Huang J (May 2015). "CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes". Protein & Cell. 6 (5): 363–372. doi:10.1007/s13238-015-0153-5. PMC 4417674. PMID 25894090.
- Begley, Sharon (28 November 2018). "Amid uproar, Chinese scientist defends creating gene-edited babies – STAT". STAT.
- "Half Of Fish Consumed Globally Is Now Raised On Farms, Study Finds". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2018-12-21.
- Tonelli, Fernanda M.P.; Lacerda, Samyra M.S.N.; Tonelli, Flávia C.P.; Costa, Guilherme M.J.; De França, Luiz Renato; Resende, Rodrigo R. (2017-11-01). "Progress and biotechnological prospects in fish transgenesis". Biotechnology Advances. 35 (6): 832–844. doi:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.06.002. ISSN 0734-9750. PMID 28602961.
- Nebert DW, Stuart GW, Solis WA, Carvan MJ (January 2002). "Use of reporter genes and vertebrate DNA motifs in transgenic zebrafish as sentinels for assessing aquatic pollution". Environmental Health Perspectives. 110 (1): A15. doi:10.1289/ehp.110-a15. PMC 1240712. PMID 11813700.
- Mattingly CJ, McLachlan JA, Toscano WA (August 2001). "Green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a marker of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) function in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio)". Environmental Health Perspectives. 109 (8): 845–9. doi:10.1289/ehp.01109845. PMC 1240414. PMID 11564622.
- Hallerman E (June 2004). "Glofish, the first GM animal commercialized: profits amid controversy". ISB News Report.
- Hackett PB, Ekker SE, Essner JJ (2004). "Chapter 16: Applications of transposable elements in fish for transgenesis and functional genomics". In Gong Z, Korzh V (eds.). Fish Development and Genetics. World Scientific, Inc. pp. 532–80.
- Meyers JR (2018). "Zebrafish: Development of a Vertebrate Model Organism". Current Protocols in Essential Laboratory Techniques. 16 (1): e19. doi:10.1002/cpet.19.
- Lu JW, Ho YJ, Ciou SC, Gong Z (September 2017). "Innovative Disease Model: Zebrafish as an In Vivo Platform for Intestinal Disorder and Tumors". Biomedicines. 5 (4): 58. doi:10.3390/biomedicines5040058. PMC 5744082. PMID 28961226.
- Barriuso J, Nagaraju R, Hurlstone A (March 2015). "Zebrafish: a new companion for translational research in oncology". Clinical Cancer Research. 21 (5): 969–75. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2921. PMC 5034890. PMID 25573382.
- Burket CT, Montgomery JE, Thummel R, Kassen SC, LaFave MC, Langenau DM, Zon LI, Hyde DR (April 2008). "Generation and characterization of transgenic zebrafish lines using different ubiquitous promoters". Transgenic Research. 17 (2): 265–79. doi:10.1007/s11248-007-9152-5. PMC 3660017. PMID 17968670.
- Du SJ, Gong Z, Fletcher GL, Shears MA, King MJ, Idler DR, Hew CL (1992). "Growth Enhancement in Transgenic Atlantic Salmon by the Use of an 'All Fish' Chimeric Growth Hormone Gene Construct". Nature Biotechnology. 10 (2): 176–81. doi:10.1038/nbt0292-176. PMID 1368229.
- Devlin RH, Biagi CA, Yesaki TY, Smailus DE, Byatt JC (February 2001). "Growth of domesticated transgenic fish". Nature. 409 (6822): 781–2. Bibcode:2001Natur.409..781D. doi:10.1038/35057314. PMID 11236982.
- Rahman MA, et al. (2001). "Growth and nutritional trials on transgenic Nile tilapia containing an exogenous fish growth hormone gene". Journal of Fish Biology. 59 (1): 62–78. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2001.tb02338.x.
- Pollack A (21 December 2012). "Engineered Fish Moves a Step Closer to Approval". The New York Times.
- "FDA: Genetically engineered fish would not harm nature". USA Today. 2012. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
- Firger, J. (2014). "Controversy swims around genetically modified fish". CBS News. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
- Environmental Assessment for AquAdvantage Salmon
- Steenhuysen, J.; Polansek, T. (November 19, 2015). "U.S. clears genetically modified salmon for human consumption". Reuters. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
- "AquAdvantage Salmon". FDA. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- "FDA Has Determined That the AquAdvantage Salmon is as Safe to Eat as Non-GE Salmon". U.S. Food & Drug Administration. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- Connor S. (2012). "Ready to eat: the first GM fish for the dinner table". The Independent. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
- "Online Education Kit: 1981–82: First Transgenic Mice and Fruit Flies". genome.gov.
- Weasner BM, Zhu J, Kumar JP (2017). FLPing Genes On and Off in Drosophila. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1642. pp. 195–209. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-7169-5_13. ISBN 978-1-4939-7167-1. PMC 5858584. PMID 28815502.
- Jennings, Barbara H. (2011-05-01). "Drosophila – a versatile model in biology & medicine". Materials Today. 14 (5): 190–195. doi:10.1016/S1369-7021(11)70113-4.
- Ren X, Holsteens K, Li H, Sun J, Zhang Y, Liu LP, Liu Q, Ni JQ (May 2017). "Genome editing in Drosophila melanogaster: from basic genome engineering to the multipurpose CRISPR-Cas9 system". Science China Life Sciences. 60 (5): 476–489. doi:10.1007/s11427-017-9029-9. PMID 28527116.
- Gallagher, James "GM mosquitoes offer malaria hope" BBC News, Health, 20 April 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011
- Corby-Harris V, Drexler A, Watkins de Jong L, Antonova Y, Pakpour N, Ziegler R, Ramberg F, Lewis EE, Brown JM, Luckhart S, Riehle MA (July 2010). Vernick KD (ed.). "Activation of Akt signaling reduces the prevalence and intensity of malaria parasite infection and lifespan in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes". PLoS Pathogens. 6 (7): e1001003. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001003. PMC 2904800. PMID 20664791.
- Windbichler N, Menichelli M, Papathanos PA, Thyme SB, Li H, Ulge UY, Hovde BT, Baker D, Monnat RJ, Burt A, Crisanti A (May 2011). "A synthetic homing endonuclease-based gene drive system in the human malaria mosquito". Nature. 473 (7346): 212–5. Bibcode:2011Natur.473..212W. doi:10.1038/nature09937. PMC 3093433. PMID 21508956.
- Wise de Valdez MR, Nimmo D, Betz J, Gong HF, James AA, Alphey L, Black WC (March 2011). "Genetic elimination of dengue vector mosquitoes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (12): 4772–5. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.4772W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1019295108. PMC 3064365. PMID 21383140.
- Knapton, Sarah (6 February 2016). "Releasing millions of GM mosquitoes 'could solve zika crisis'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- Harris AF, Nimmo D, McKemey AR, Kelly N, Scaife S, Donnelly CA, Beech C, Petrie WD, Alphey L (October 2011). "Field performance of engineered male mosquitoes". Nature Biotechnology. 29 (11): 1034–7. doi:10.1038/nbt.2019. PMID 22037376.
- Staff (March 2011) "Cayman demonstrates RIDL potential" Oxitec Newsletter, March 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011
- Benedict MQ, Robinson AS (August 2003). "The first releases of transgenic mosquitoes: an argument for the sterile insect technique". Trends in Parasitology. 19 (8): 349–55. doi:10.1016/s1471-4922(03)00144-2. PMID 12901936.
- Zhang, Sarah (2017-09-08). "Genetically Modified Moths Come to New York". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
- Scharping, Nathaniel (2017-05-10). "After Mosquitos, Moths Are the Next Target For Genetic Engineering". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
- Reeves R, Phillipson M (January 2017). "Mass Releases of Genetically Modified Insects in Area-Wide Pest Control Programs and Their Impact on Organic Farmers". Sustainability. 9 (1): 59. doi:10.3390/su9010059.
- Simmons GS, McKemey AR, Morrison NI, O'Connell S, Tabashnik BE, Claus J, Fu G, Tang G, Sledge M, Walker AS, Phillips CE, Miller ED, Rose RI, Staten RT, Donnelly CA, Alphey L (2011-09-13). "Field performance of a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm". PLOS ONE. 6 (9): e24110. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...624110S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024110. PMC 3172240. PMID 21931649.
- Xu H, O'Brochta DA (July 2015). "Advanced technologies for genetically manipulating the silkworm Bombyx mori, a model Lepidopteran insect". Proceedings. Biological Sciences. 282 (1810): 20150487. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.0487. PMC 4590473. PMID 26108630.
- Tomita M (April 2011). "Transgenic silkworms that weave recombinant proteins into silk cocoons". Biotechnology Letters. 33 (4): 645–54. doi:10.1007/s10529-010-0498-z. PMID 21184136.
- Xu J, Dong Q, Yu Y, Niu B, Ji D, Li M, Huang Y, Chen X, Tan A (August 2018). "Bombyx mori". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115 (35): 8757–8762. doi:10.1073/pnas.1806805115. PMC 6126722. PMID 30082397.
- Le Page M. "GM worms make a super-silk completely unknown in nature". New Scientist. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
- Scott, B.B.; Lois, C. (2005). "Generation of tissue-specific transgenic birds with lentiviral vectors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (45): 16443–16447. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10216443S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0508437102. PMC 1275601. PMID 16260725.
- "Poultry scientists develop transgenic chicken to aid study of embryo development". projects.ncsu.edu. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
- "Genetically modified chickens that don't transmit bird flu developed; Breakthrough could prevent future bird flu epidemics". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
- Botelho JF, Smith-Paredes D, Soto-Acuña S, O'Connor J, Palma V, Vargas AO (March 2016). "Molecular development of fibular reduction in birds and its evolution from dinosaurs". Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 70 (3): 543–54. doi:10.1111/evo.12882. PMC 5069580. PMID 26888088.
- Becker R (2015). "US government approves transgenic chicken". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2015.18985.
- "GM chickens that don't transmit bird flu". The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
- Landers, Jackson (November 10, 2014). "Paleontologist Jack Horner is hard at work trying to turn a chicken into a dinosaur". The Washington Times. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- Horner JR, Gorman J (2009). How to build a dinosaur: extinction doesn't have to be forever. New York: Dutton. ISBN 978-0-525-95104-9. OCLC 233549535.
- Reverse Engineering Birds’ Beaks Into Dinosaur Bones by Carl Zimmer, NY Times, May 12, 2015
- Francisco Botelho J, Smith-Paredes D, Soto-Acuña S, Mpodozis J, Palma V, Vargas AO (May 2015). "Skeletal plasticity in response to embryonic muscular activity underlies the development and evolution of the perching digit of birds". Scientific Reports. 5: 9840. Bibcode:2015NatSR...5E9840F. doi:10.1038/srep09840. PMC 4431314. PMID 25974685.
- Fini JB, Le Mevel S, Turque N, Palmier K, Zalko D, Cravedi JP, Demeneix BA (August 2007). "An in vivo multiwell-based fluorescent screen for monitoring vertebrate thyroid hormone disruption". Environmental Science & Technology. 41 (16): 5908–14. Bibcode:2007EnST...41.5908F. doi:10.1021/es0704129. PMID 17874805.
- "Removing Threat from Invasive Species with Genetic Engineering?". Science in the News. 2014-07-28. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
- "Cane toads to get the Crispr treatment". Radio National. 2017-11-17. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
- "History of research on C. elegans and other free-living nematodes as model organisms". www.wormbook.org. Retrieved 2018-12-24.
- Hopkin, Michael (2006-10-02). "RNAi scoops medical Nobel". News@nature. doi:10.1038/news061002-2. ISSN 1744-7933.
- Conte D, MacNeil LT, Walhout AJ, Mello CC (January 2015). RNA Interference in Caenorhabditis elegans. Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. 109. pp. 26.3.1–30. doi:10.1002/0471142727.mb2603s109. ISBN 9780471142720. PMC 5396541. PMID 25559107.
- Praitis V, Maduro MF (2011). Transgenesis in C. elegans. Methods in Cell Biology. 106. pp. 161–85. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-544172-8.00006-2. ISBN 9780125441728. PMID 22118277.
- Diogo J, Bratanich A (November 2014). "The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to study viruses". Archives of Virology. 159 (11): 2843–51. doi:10.1007/s00705-014-2168-2. PMID 25000902.
- Tejeda-Benitez L, Olivero-Verbel J (2016). Caenorhabditis elegans, a Biological Model for Research in Toxicology. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 237. pp. 1–35. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-23573-8_1. ISBN 978-3-319-23572-1. PMID 26613986.
- Schmidt J, Schmidt T (2018). Animal Models of Machado-Joseph Disease. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 1049. pp. 289–308. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-71779-1_15. ISBN 978-3-319-71778-4. PMID 29427110.
- Griffin EF, Caldwell KA, Caldwell GA (December 2017). "Genetic and Pharmacological Discovery for Alzheimer's Disease Using Caenorhabditis elegans". ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 8 (12): 2596–2606. doi:10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00361. PMID 29022701.
- Daniells C, Mutwakil MH, Power RS, David HE, De Pomerai DI (2002). "Transgenic Nematodes as Biosensors of Environmental Stress". Biotechnology for the Environment: Strategy and Fundamentals. Focus on Biotechnology. Springer, Dordrecht. pp. 221–236. doi:10.1007/978-94-010-0357-5_15. ISBN 9789401039079.
- "More valuable than gold, but not for long: genetically-modified sea cucumbers headed to China's dinner tables". South China Morning Post. 2015-08-05. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
- Zeng A, Li H, Guo L, Gao X, McKinney S, Wang Y, Yu Z, Park J, Semerad C, Ross E, Cheng LC, Davies E, Lei K, Wang W, Perera A, Hall K, Peak A, Box A, Sánchez Alvarado A (June 2018). "+ Neoblasts Are Adult Pluripotent Stem Cells Underlying Planaria Regeneration". Cell. 173 (7): 1593–1608.e20. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.05.006. PMID 29906446. Lay summary – Nature.
- Wudarski J, Simanov D, Ustyantsev K, de Mulder K, Grelling M, Grudniewska M, Beltman F, Glazenburg L, Demircan T, Wunderer J, Qi W, Vizoso DB, Weissert PM, Olivieri D, Mouton S, Guryev V, Aboobaker A, Schärer L, Ladurner P, Berezikov E (December 2017). "Efficient transgenesis and annotated genome sequence of the regenerative flatworm model Macrostomum lignano". Nature Communications. 8 (1): 2120. Bibcode:2017NatCo...8.2120W. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-02214-8. PMC 5730564. PMID 29242515.
- Zantke J, Bannister S, Rajan VB, Raible F, Tessmar-Raible K (May 2014). "Genetic and genomic tools for the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii". Genetics. 197 (1): 19–31. doi:10.1534/genetics.112.148254. PMC 4012478. PMID 24807110.
- Wittlieb J, Khalturin K, Lohmann JU, Anton-Erxleben F, Bosch TC (April 2006). "Transgenic Hydra allow in vivo tracking of individual stem cells during morphogenesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103 (16): 6208–11. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103.6208W. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510163103. PMC 1458856. PMID 16556723.
- Perry KJ, Henry JQ (February 2015). "CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome modification in the mollusc, Crepidula fornicata". Genesis. 53 (2): 237–44. doi:10.1002/dvg.22843. PMID 25529990.
- Nomura T, Yamashita W, Gotoh H, Ono K (2015-02-24). "Genetic manipulation of reptilian embryos: toward an understanding of cortical development and evolution". Frontiers in Neuroscience. 9: 45. doi:10.3389/fnins.2015.00045. PMC 4338674. PMID 25759636.
- Rasmussen RS, Morrissey MT (2007). "Biotechnology in Aquaculture: Transgenics and Polyploidy". Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 6 (1): 2–16. doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2007.00013.x.
- Ebert MS, Sharp PA (November 2010). "MicroRNA sponges: progress and possibilities". RNA. 16 (11): 2043–50. doi:10.1261/rna.2414110. PMC 2957044. PMID 20855538.