Transcription factor II D
Transcription factor II D (TFIID) is one of several general transcription factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex. RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited to the promoters of protein-coding genes in living cells. It consists of RNA polymerase II, a subset of general transcription factors, and regulatory proteins known as SRB proteins. Before the start of transcription, the transcription Factor II D (TFIID) complex binds to the TATA box in the core promoter of the gene.
- Coordinates the activities of more than 70 polypeptides required for initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II
- Binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly
- Serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex
- Acts as a channel for regulatory signals
TFIID is itself composed of TBP and several subunits called TATA-binding protein Associated Factors (TBP-associated factors, or TAFs). In a test tube, only TBP is necessary for transcription at promoters that contain a TATA box. TAFs, however, add promoter selectivity, especially if there is no TATA box sequence for TBP to bind to. TAFs are included in two distinct complexes, TFIID and B-TFIID. The TFIID complex is composed of TBP and more than eight TAFs. But, the majority of TBP is present in the B-TFIID complex, which is composed of TBP and TAFII170 (BTAF1) in a 1:1 ratio. TFIID and B-TFIID are not equivalent, since transcription reactions utilizing TFIID are responsive to gene specific transcription factors such as SP1, while reactions reconstituted with B-TFIID are not.
Subunits in the TFIID complex include:
- TBP (TATA binding protein), or:
- TAF1 (TAFII250)
- TAF2 (CIF150)
- TAF3 (TAFII140)
- TAF4 (TAFII130/135)
- TAF4B (TAFII105)
- TAF5 (TAFII100)
- TAF6 (TAFII70/80)
- TAF7 (TAFII55)
- TAF8 (TAFII43)
- TAF9 (TAFII31/32)
- TAF9B (TAFII31L)
- TAF10 (TAFII30)
- TAF11 (TAFII28)
- TAF12 (TAFII20/15)
- TAF13 (TAFII18)
- TAF15 (TAFII68)
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