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The Toyota Caldina (Japanese: トヨタ・カルディナ, Toyota Karudina) is an automobile manufactured by Toyota for the Japanese market and released in 1992. It replaced the Corona and Carina wagons, and was sold at both Toyota Store and Toyopet Store locations in Japan.

Toyota Caldina
Toyota Caldina 1.8 X 2003 (cropped).jpg
2003 Toyota Caldina 1.8 X (ZZT241)
Overview
ManufacturerToyota
ProductionNovember 1992 – June 2007
Body and chassis
ClassCompact car
Layout
Chronology
Predecessor
Successor

While the Caldina has never been officially exported by Toyota outside Japan, its All-Trac 4WD capability and large capacity have made it a popular grey import in Australia, New Zealand, Russia and many South American countries.

The Caldina was discontinued in 2007, with the T270 series Avensis wagon/estate assuming the market position previously held by the Caldina.

First generation (T190; 1992–2002)Edit

First generation (T190)
 
1992 Toyota Caldina (pre-facelift)
Overview
Also calledToyota Corona/Carina E (T190)
Production
  • November 1992 – 1997 (wagon)
  • November 1992 – July 2002 (van)
Body and chassis
Body style5-door station wagon/van
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,580 mm (101.6 in)
Length4,545 mm (178.9 in)
Width1,695 mm (66.7 in)
Height1,450–1,555 mm (57.1–61.2 in)
Chronology
SuccessorToyota Succeed (van)

The first generation Caldina is a 5-door wagon and commercial van version (1992–2002) of the Corona/Carina sedan in Japan. The wagon has independent strut rear suspension while the commercial wagon has semi-independent leaf springs.

Second generation (T210; 1997–2002)Edit

Second generation (T210)
 
1997 Toyota Caldina 2.0 G (ST215; pre-facelift)
Overview
Also calledToyota Avensis (T220)
ProductionSeptember 1997 – September 2002
Body and chassis
Body style5-door station wagon
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.8 L 7A-FE I4 (petrol)
  • 2.0 L 3S-FE I4 (petrol)
  • 2.0 L 3S-GE I4 (petrol)
  • 2.0 L 3S-GTE I4-T (petrol)
  • 2.0 L 2C-T I4-T (diesel)
  • 2.2 L 3C-TE I4-T (diesel)
Power output
  • 85 kW (114 hp; 116 PS) (7A-FE)
  • 99–103 kW (133–138 hp; 135–140 PS) (3S-FE)
  • 140 kW (188 hp; 190 PS) (3S-GE)
  • 191 kW (256 hp; 260 PS) (3S-GTE)
  • 69 kW (93 hp; 94 PS) (3C-TE)
Transmission
  • 5-speed manual
  • 4-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,580 mm (101.6 in)
Length4,520 mm (178.0 in)
Width1,695–1,720 mm (66.7–67.7 in)
Height1,475–1,570 mm (58.1–61.8 in)
Kerb weight1,280 kg (2,822 lb)

The second generation Caldina is the Japanese version of the European Avensis wagon, launched in Japan in 1997.

The 4WD models are coded ST215, and were also offered as Active Sports GT models with the 3S-GE engine. The top-of-the-line GT-T came with the turbocharged 260 PS (191 kW; 256 hp) fourth generation 3S-GTE engine, and included a four-wheel drive system similar to the Celica GT-Four. The GT-T also came with optional electronic stability control (standard on Active Sports versions). The Aerial version features a large sunroof and contoured roof racks as standard. Weighing 1,640 kg (3,616 lb), the manual Caldina GT-T has a 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) time of 7.4 seconds, with the automatic version only 0.1 seconds slower.[1] A refresh was given in 2000 with new plastic bumpers and plastic headlights. The mostly-plastic interior was also updated. In 2001, an extra lug was added to the turbo manifold to prevent the manifold from warping which had been a common issue on GT-T models.[2] Reliability of the GT-T engines proved to be a concern throughout the lifespan of the 3S powered GT-Ts, with spun main bearings and shattered oil pump gears being common issues amongst owners.[citation needed]

Engines for lesser models are the 1.8 L 7A-FE petrol, the 2.0 L 3S-FE petrol and the 2.2 L 3C-TE diesel. Reliability and maintenance issues combined with relative obscurity, hampered perceived resale values of the GT-T in countries outside Japan, making the GT-T a very cheap people carrier in grey markets like Australia.[citation needed]

Third generation (T240; 2002–2007)Edit

Third generation (T240)
 
2002–2004 Toyota Caldina GT-Four (ST246; pre-facelift, Japan)
Overview
ProductionSeptember 2002 – June 2007
AssemblyJapan: Toyota, Aichi (Tsutsumi plant)[3]
DesignerShogo Tokutake and Tetsu Endo[4]
Body and chassis
Body style5-door station wagon
Related
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.8 L 1ZZ-FE I4 (petrol)
  • 2.0 L 1AZ-FSE I4 (petrol)
  • 2.0 L 3S-GTE I4-T (petrol)
Power output
  • 97 kW (130 hp; 132 PS) (1ZZ-FE)
  • 114 kW (153 hp; 155 PS) (1AZ-FSE)
  • 191 kW (256 hp; 260 PS) (3S-GTE)
Transmission4-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,700 mm (106.3 in)
Length4,510 mm (177.6 in)
Width1,740 mm (68.5 in)
Height1,445 mm (56.9 in)
Kerb weight1,240–1,490 kg (2,734–3,285 lb)

The third generation Caldina launched in September 2002 is a pure sports wagon and does not share body panels with Allion, Premio and Avensis. Engines for the Caldina are 1.8 L 1ZZ-FE, 2.0 L 1AZ-FSE and 2.0 L turbocharged 3S-GTE. Trim levels are 1.8 X, 1.8 Z, 2.0 Z, 2.0 ZT and GT-Four (the latter is coded ST246). All models have an automatic transmission and the GT-Four model only comes in a tiptronic transmission.

As a tribute to Toyota's motorsports development guru and the creator of the first GT-Four, Hiromu Naruse, a special edition Caldina GT-Four was produced, the Caldina GT-Four "N" edition (N for Naruse).[citation needed] This model was equipped with several performance enhancements specified by Naruse:

  • Sports ABS
  • Improved shocks and altered spring ratings
  • Front upper strut bar
  • Torsen rear LSD
  • Recaro front seats and interior trim

Production of the third generation Caldina ended in mid-2007 without a direct successor, but is indirectly replaced with the T270 series Avensis wagon/estate imported from UK.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Toyota Caldina GT-T". 1001Moteurs. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
  2. ^ "3S-GTE Generations". Faster Than Jesus. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
  3. ^ "History of KANTO AUTO WORKS". Kanto-aw.co.jp. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
  4. ^ https://patents.google.com/patent/USD520909S1/en?q=~patent%2fUSD497841S1