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Therapeutic effect refers to the responses(s) after a treatment of any kind, the results of which are judged to be useful or favorable.[1][2][3] This is true whether the result was expected, unexpected, or even an unintended consequence. An adverse effect (including nocebo) is the converse and refers to harmful or undesired responses(s). What constitutes a therapeutic effect versus a side effect is a matter of both the nature of the situation and the goals of treatment. No inherent difference separates therapeutic and undesired side effects; both responses are behavioral/physiologic changes that occur as a response to the treatment strategy or agent.[2]

Contents

Treatment scopeEdit

To maximize therapeutic effects (desired) and minimize side effects (undesired) requires recognition and quantification of the treatment in multiple dimensions. In the specific case of targeted pharmaceutical interventions a combination of therapies is often needed to achieve the desired results.[4]

Pharmacology examplesEdit

Non-pharmacology examplesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Definition of therapeutic". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  2. ^ a b Kramer, Thomas A. M. "Side Effects and Therapeutic Effects". MEDSCAPE.COM. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  3. ^ "Drug, pharmacology and therapeutic". pharmacorama.com. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  4. ^ Fitzgerald, Jonathan B; Schoeberl, Birgit; Nielsen, Ulrik B; Sorger, Peter K (2006). "Systems biology and combination therapy in the quest for clinical efficacy". Nature Chemical Biology. Springer Nature. 2 (9): 458–466. doi:10.1038/nchembio817. ISSN 1552-4450.
  5. ^ Radha, Maharjan H.; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P. (2015). "Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review". Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. Elsevier BV. 5 (1): 21–26. doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.10.006. ISSN 2225-4110.
  6. ^ Didari, Tina (2015). "Effectiveness of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome: Updated systematic review with meta-analysis". World Journal of Gastroenterology. Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. 21 (10): 3072. doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i10.3072. ISSN 1007-9327.
  7. ^ Iorio, Raffaele; Damato, Valentina; Alboini, Paolo Emilio; Evoli, Amelia (12 October 2014). "Efficacy and safety of rituximab for myasthenia gravis: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Neurology. Springer Nature. 262 (5): 1115–1119. doi:10.1007/s00415-014-7532-3. ISSN 0340-5354.
  8. ^ Sarris, Jerome; Murphy, Jenifer; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I.; Fava, Maurizio; Berk, Michael; Ng, Chee H. (2016). "Adjunctive Nutraceuticals for Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses". American Journal of Psychiatry. American Psychiatric Publishing. 173 (6): 575–587. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15091228. ISSN 0002-953X.
  9. ^ Morra, Mostafa Ebraheem; Elgebaly, Ahmed; Elmaraezy, Ahmed; Khalil, Adham M.; Altibi, Ahmed M. A.; Vu, Tran Le-Huy; Mostafa, Mostafa Reda; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hirayama, Kenji (5 July 2016). "Therapeutic efficacy and safety of Botulinum Toxin A Therapy in Trigeminal Neuralgia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". The Journal of Headache and Pain. Springer Nature. 17 (1). doi:10.1186/s10194-016-0651-8. ISSN 1129-2369.
  10. ^ Akyurekli, Celine; Le, Yevgeniya; Richardson, Richard B.; Fergusson, Dean; Tay, Jason; Allan, David S. (5 August 2014). "A Systematic Review of Preclinical Studies on the Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Microvesicles". Stem Cell Reviews and Reports. Springer Nature. 11 (1): 150–160. doi:10.1007/s12015-014-9545-9. ISSN 1550-8943.
  11. ^ Gu, Jenny; Strauss, Clara; Bond, Rod; Cavanagh, Kate (2015). "How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies". Clinical Psychology Review. Elsevier BV. 37: 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.006. ISSN 0272-7358.
  12. ^ Ginani, Fernanda; Soares, Diego Moura; Barreto, Mardem Portela e Vasconcelos; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvão (13 March 2015). "Effect of low-level laser therapy on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation: a systematic review". Lasers in Medical Science. Springer Nature. 30 (8): 2189–2194. doi:10.1007/s10103-015-1730-9. ISSN 0268-8921.
  13. ^ Fuller, Joel T; Hartland, Michael C; Maloney, Luke T; Davison, Kade (16 March 2018). "Therapeutic effects of aerobic and resistance exercises for cancer survivors: a systematic review of meta-analyses of clinical trials". British Journal of Sports Medicine. BMJ: bjsports–2017–098285. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2017-098285. ISSN 0306-3674.
  14. ^ Lu, Zhihua; Lin, Guiting; Reed-Maldonado, Amanda; Wang, Chunxi; Lee, Yung-Chin; Lue, Tom F. (2017). "Low-intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment Improves Erectile Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". European Urology. Elsevier BV. 71 (2): 223–233. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2016.05.050. ISSN 0302-2838.