Extracorporeal shockwave therapy
|Extracorporeal shockwave therapy|
ESWT device (EMS Swiss DolorClast)
The most common use of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is for lithotripsy to treat kidney stones (urinary calculosis) and biliary calculi (stones in the gallbladder or in the liver) using an acoustic pulse. It is also reported to be used for salivary stones and pancreatic stones.
In the UK, NICE has found that the evidence for ESWT in the majority of indications is conflicting, as such ESWT should only be used where there are special arrangements for clinical governance and audit. Two 2017 reviews had similar findings, with moderate level evidence at best.
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy is used as a second line measure to treat tennis elbow, shoulder rotator cuff pain, achilles tendinitis, plantar fasciitis, and greater trochanteric pain syndrome.
ESWT is used for wound healing and has shown positive results in short-term and long-term outcomes in diabetic patients suffering from foot ulcers. Randomised controlled trials into the use of ESWT for healing venous leg ulcers are needed as there is a lack of evidence in this area.
The lithotriptor attempts to break up the stone with minimal collateral damage by using an externally applied, focused, high-intensity acoustic pulse. The patient is usually sedated or anesthetized for the procedure in order to help them remain still and reduce possible discomfort. Sedation is not required in its application for soft tissue injuries.
Beginning in 1969 and funded by the German Ministry of Defense, Dornier began a study of the effects of shock waves on tissue. In 1972, on the basis of preliminary studies performed by Dornier Medical Systems, an agreement was reached with Egbert Schmiedt, director of the urologic clinic at the University of Munich. The development of the Dornier lithotripter progressed through several prototypes, ultimately culminating in February 1980 with the first treatment of a human by SWL.The production and distribution of the Dornier HM3 lithotripter began in late 1983, and SWL was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1984.
In the 1980s people using ESWT for kidney stones noticed that it appeared to increase bone density in nearby bones, leading them to explore it for orthopedic purposes.
As of 2018 use of ESWT had been studied as a potential treatment for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in three small studies; there were short term improvements in symptoms and few adverse effects, but the medium term results are unknown, and the results are difficult to generalize due to low quality of the studies.
ESWT is used in physical therapy for pain reduction, increase in metabolism at cellular level,[further explanation needed] revascularisation, and recovering normal muscle tone following various disorders. The use of ESWT was demonstrated in patients with frozen shoulders compared to therapeutic ultrasound with exercises.
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- Steuri, R; Sattelmayer, M; Elsig, S; Kolly, C; Tal, A; Taeymans, J; Hilfiker, R (September 2017). "Effectiveness of conservative interventions including exercise, manual therapy and medical management in adults with shoulder impingement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 51 (18): 1340–7. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096515. PMC 5574390. PMID 28630217.
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- Louwerens JK, Sierevelt IN, van Noort A, van den Bekerom MP (2014). "Evidence for minimally invasive therapies in the management of chronic calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. 23 (8): 1240–9. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2014.02.002. PMID 24774621.
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- Wang CJ, Cheng JH, Kuo YR, Schaden W, Mittermayr R (2015). "Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in diabetic foot ulcers". International Journal of Surgery. 24 (Pt B): 207–9. doi:10.1016/j.ijsu.2015.06.024. PMID 26079500.
- Cooper, Ben; Bachoo, Paul (2018-06-11). "Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for the healing and management of venous leg ulcers". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6: CD011842. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011842.pub2. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 6513251. PMID 29889978.
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- Chamberlain, GA; Colborne, GR (2016). "A review of the cellular and molecular effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy". Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology. 29 (2): 99–107. doi:10.3415/VCOT-15-04-0057. PMID 26846274.
- Franco, Juan Va; Turk, Tarek; Jung, Jae Hung; Xiao, Yu-Tian; Iakhno, Stanislav; Garrote, Virginia; Vietto, Valeria (12 May 2018). "Non-pharmacological interventions for treating chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 5: CD012551. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012551.pub3. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 6494451. PMID 29757454.
- Ramprasad M, Ayesha AR, Fatma AA (Feb 2019). "The effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy for frozen shoulder in patients with diabetes: randomized control trial". J. Phys. Ther. Sci. 31 (7): 0493–97. doi:10.1589/jpts.31.493. PMC 6642889. PMID 31417208.
- Aboumarzouk OM, Monga M, Kata SG, Traxer O, Somani BK (Oct 2012). "Flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy for stones >2 cm: a systematic review and meta-analysis". J Endourol. 26 (10): 1257–63. doi:10.1089/end.2012.0217. PMID 22642568.