The South is My Country
The South is My Country (Portuguese: O Sul é o Meu País) is a separatist movement that claims the independence of Brazil's South Region, formed by the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The group claims the region is under-represented by Brasilia.
O Sul é o Meu País
|Purpose||Conduct studies on the possibility of political and administrative emancipation for the South of Brazil|
During the Empire of Brazil, several separatist movements existed in the region. Among the main reasons for secession, the groups complained about high taxation of dry meat, the main export product of the region during the time. Armed conflict broke out in the Ragamuffin War, when Rio Grande do Sul unsuccessfully tried to gain independence. During the transition to the republic, federalist groups formed in the region, culminating in the Federalist Revolution.
In the context of the Brazilian República Velha (Old Republic), the so-called coffee with milk politics were in practice, favoring the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, the largest in terms of population and wealth - producers of coffee and dairy products, respectively. Rio Grande do Sul, among other states, joined the political opposition, forming the Liberal Alliance (Portuguese: Aliança Liberal) and launched Getúlio Vargas as candidate for president, who lost to Júlio Prestes. Vargas had almost 100% of the votes in Rio Grande do Sul. The Liberal Alliance refused to accept the results of the election, claiming that Prestes' victory was fraudulent. This led to a coup d'état known as Revolution of 1930, which made Getulio Vargas the new president, ending the Old Republic. Since then, only three presidents from the south region (Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina) came to power democratically: Getúlio Vargas, João Goulart and Dilma Rousseff.
The movement arose during the Second Separatist Congress celebrated in 1992 at Laguna, founded by Adílcio Cadorin, freemason and former mayor of the city. It upholds the concept of self-determination of the peoples and does not constitute a political party, despite its founders being directly involved with politics. The movement is headquartered in Curitiba and the President is Celso Deucher.
Its defenders allege that the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul have particular and distinct characteristics from the rest of Brazil, and thus they claim the right to political, economic, social and cultural self-determination, based on the expectation of self-sufficiency to direct better the resources of the state to attend to its regional peculiarities.
On 1 October 2016, Plebisul - an unofficial referendum - was held. Voters were asked if they wanted to secede from Brazil, forming a new country with the three states. A total of 616,917 votes (which represents less than 3% the number of registered voters in these states) were counted according to the organizers of the ballot, 95% voting yes. They were hoping to reach up to a million votes throughout the three Brazilian states.
|State||YES votes||%||NO votes||%||Participation (absolute)||Registered voters||Participation (relative)|
|Rio Grande do Sul||311,356||97.21||8,924||2.79||320,280||8,362,830||3.83|
|City||YES votes||%||NO votes||%||Participation (absolute)||Registered voters||Participation (relative)|
|Caxias do Sul||8,654||96.05||356||3.95||9,010||293,417||3.07|
|São José dos Pinhais||1,264||85.93||207||14.07||1,471||170,706||0.86|
|Foz do Iguaçu||-||-||-||-||0||165,730||0.00|
Some academics claim that the movement bases its separatist claims in "natural differences", such as the region's climate, and that although these might create an "identity" for the region, the people and their culture are not much different from the rest of the country. Others claim there are cultural differences, such as in religion, literature, food, clothing, dances, music, etc. Some go as far as to say that Brazilians identify first with their home state, and only then as Brazilians. On the other hand, it is argued[by whom?] that it's impossible to identify each state's identity due to a shared "Brazilian" culture, which includes the Portuguese language, sport preferences, etc.
- "Insight - No Country for Southern Men – Wide Orbits". Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- "Líder de movimento "O Sul é o meu País" defende a independência dos três estados do Sul: "Somos diferentes" - A Gazeta Web" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- JAMES BROOKE (12 May 1993). "Santa Cruz Journal; White Flight in Brazil? Secessionist Caldron Boils - New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
- "History of Brazil Republic". Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- "Contemporary Separatist Movements (Brazil)". Crwflags.com. 20 December 2008. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
- Movimento o Sul é o Meu Páis, Carta de Princípios Movimento O Sul é o Meu País.
- "In Informal Referendum, 95% Vote for the Separation of the South Region from the Rest of Brazil". Folha de São Paulo. 5 October 2016.
- "Resultado" [Results] (in Portuguese). Plebisul. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "'Sim' vence consulta para criar país com três estados do Sul do Brasil" ['Yes' wins vote to create a new country with three states from the South of Brazil] (in Portuguese). Jornal do Comércio. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- TSE - Estatísticas da Eleição 2016
- Arruda, Gilmar. "O Chão de Nossa História:Natureza, Patrimônio Ambiental e Identidade". Unesp – Fclas – CEDAP, v.2, n.2, 2006, página 11.
- Alencar, M. A. G. Cultura e Identidade nos sertões do Brasil. In: III Congresso Latinoamericano de la IASPM, 2000, Bogotá. Resumos do III Congresso Latinoamericano de Músicas Populares, 2000. pg. 2
- Nardi, J. B. Cultura, Identidade e Língua Nacional no Brasil: Uma Utopia?. In: 1. Caderno de Estudos FUNESA, Ararapica, AL, 2000. pg. 12, 18