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The Dagda (Irish: An Dagda) is an important god of the Tuatha Dé Danann in Irish mythology and is portrayed as a father-figure, king, and druid.[1][2][3] He is associated with fertility, agriculture, manliness and strength, as well as magic, druidry and wisdom.[1][2][4][5] He is said to have control over life and death, the weather and crops, as well as time and the seasons.

The Dagda
Member of the Tuatha Dé Danann
AbodeBrú na Bóinne
WeaponsClub
BattlesMagh Tuiredh
Artefacts
Personal information
Consorts
Children
Parents
SiblingsNuada, Ogma

He is often described as a large bearded man or giant[4] wearing a hooded cloak.[6] He owns a magic staff or club (the lorg mór or lorg anfaid) which can kill with one end and bring to life with the other, a cauldron (the coire ansic) which never runs empty, and a magic harp (uaithne) which can control men's emotions and change the seasons. He is said to dwell in Brú na Bóinne (Newgrange). Other places associated with or named after him include Uisneach, Grianan of Aileach, Assaroe Falls and Lough Neagh. The Dagda is said to be husband of the Morrígan, who is called his "envious wife".[4][7] His children include Aengus, Brigit, Bodb Derg, Cermait, Aed, and Midir.[1] He is said to have two brothers, Nuada and Ogma, but this may be an instance of the tendency to triplicate deities.[4] Elsewhere the Dagda is linked exclusively with Ogma, and the two are called "the two brothers."[8]

It is argued that the death and ancestral god Donn was originally a form of the Dagda,[9] and he also has similarities with the later harvest figure Crom Dubh.[10] Several tribal groupings saw the Dagda as an ancestor and were named after him, such as the Uí Echach and the Dáirine.

The Dagda has been likened to the Germanic god Odin, the Gaulish god Sucellos,[1] and the Roman god Dīs Pater.[4]

Contents

Name and epithetsEdit

The name Dagda is believed to come from Proto-Celtic: *Dagodeiwos, "the good god" or "the great god"[11] but may ultimately be derived from the Proto-Indo-European *Dhagho-deiwos "shining divinity", the first element being cognate with the English word "day", and possibly a byword for a deification of a notion such as "splendour". This etymology would tie in well with Dagda's mythic association with the sun and the earth, with kingship and excellence in general. *Dhago-deiwos would have been inherited into Proto-Celtic as *Dago-deiwos, thereby punning with the Proto-Celtic word *dago-s "good".

The Dagda has several other names or epithets which reflect aspects of his character.[12] These include Eochu or Eochaid Ollathair ("horseman, great father" or "all-father"),[13] Ruad Rofhessa ("mighty one/lord of great knowledge"),[5][14] Dáire ("the fertile one"),[4] Aed ("the fiery one"),[15][16] Fer Benn ("horned man" or "man of the peak"), Cera (possibly "creator"),[17] Cerrce (possibly "striker"),[2] Easal[18] and Eogabal.[6]

DescriptionEdit

Tales depict the Dagda as a figure of immense power. He is said to own a magic staff, club or mace which could kill nine men with one blow; but with the handle he could return the slain to life. It was called the lorg mór ("the great staff/club/mace") or the lorg anfaid ("the staff/club/mace of wrath"). His magic cauldron was known as the coire ansic ("the un-dry cauldron") and was said to be bottomless, from which no man left unsatisfied.[19] It was said to have a ladle so big that two people could fit in it.[20] Uaithne, also known as "the Four Angled Music", was a richly ornamented magic harp made of oak which, when the Dagda played it, put the seasons in their correct order; other accounts tell of it being used to command the order of battle. He possessed two pigs, one of which was always growing whilst the other was always roasting, and ever-laden fruit trees.

The Dagda was one of the kings of the Tuatha De Danann. The Tuatha Dé Danann are the race of supernatural beings who conquered the Fomorians, who inhabited Ireland previously, prior to the coming of the Milesians. The Mórrígan is often described as his wife, his daughter was Brígh[21], and his lover was Boann, after whom the River Boyne is named, though she was married to Elcmar. Prior to the battle with the Fomorians, he coupled with the goddess of war, the Mórrígan, on Samhain in exchange for a plan of battle.[22][23]

Despite his great power and prestige, the Dagda is sometimes depicted as oafish and crude, even comical, wearing a short, rough tunic that barely covers his rump, dragging his great penis on the ground.[22] Such features are thought to be the additions of Christian redactors for comedic purposes. The Middle Irish language Coir Anmann (The Fitness of Names) paints a less clownish picture: "He was a beautiful god of the heathens, for the Tuatha Dé Danann worshipped him: for he was an earth-god to them because of the greatness of his (magical) power."[24]

MythologyEdit

Before the Second Battle of Moytura the Dagda built a fortress for Bres called Dún Brese and was also forced by the Fomorian kings Elatha, Indech, and Tethra to build raths.[25][26] In the lead up to the Second Battle of Moytura, when Lugh asks Dagda what power he will wield over the Fomorian host, he responds that he "[..] will take the side of the men of Erin both in mutual smiting and destruction and wizardry. Their bones under my club will be as many as hailstones under feet of herds of horses.."[27]

The Dagda had an affair with Bóand, wife of Elcmar.[28] In order to hide their affair, Dagda made the sun stand still for nine months; therefore their son, Aengus, was conceived, gestated and born in one day.[29] He, along with Bóand, helped Aengus search for his love.[30]

Whilst Aengus was away the Dagda shared out his land among his children, but Aengus returned to discover that nothing had been saved for him. Aengus later tricked his father out of his home at the Brú na Bóinne (Newgrange). Aengus asked his father if he could live in the Brú for láa ogus oidhche "(a) day and (a) night", which in Irish is ambiguous, and could refer to either "a day and a night", or "day and night", which means for all time, and so Aengus took possession of the Brú permanently. In The Wooing of Étaín, on the other hand, Aengus uses the same ploy to trick Elcmar out of Brú na Bóinne, with the Dagda's connivance.[30]

The Dagda was also the father of Bodb Dearg, Cermait, Midir, Áine, and Brigit. He was the brother of Oghma, who is probably related to the Gaulish god Ogmios[citation needed]; Ogmios, depicted as an old man with a club, is one of the closest Gaulish parallels to the Dagda. Another Gaulish god who may be related to the Dagda is Sucellus, the striker, depicted with a hammer and cup.

He is credited with a seventy or eighty-year reign (depending on source) over the Tuatha Dé Danann, before dying at the Brú na Bóinne, finally succumbing to a wound inflicted by Cethlenn during the second battle of Magh Tuiredh.[31]

In some texts the Dagda's father is Elatha, and his mother is Ethniu.

In a poem about Mag Muirthemne, the Dagda banishes an octopus with his "mace of wrath" using the following words: "Turn thy hollow head! Turn thy ravening body! Turn thy resorbent forehead! Avaunt! Begone!", the sea receded with the creature and the plain of Mag Muirthemne was left behind.[32]

In the Dindsenchas the Dagda is described as swift with a poison draught and a just dealing lord. He is also called a King of Erin with hosts of hostages, a noble, slender prince, and the father of Cermait, Aengus, and Aed.[33]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Koch, John T. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2006. pp.553-554
  2. ^ a b c An Dagda. Mary Jones's Celtic Encyclopedia.
  3. ^ The Irish Version of the Historia Britonum Nennius, "Of the Conquest of Eri as Recorded by Nennius" Historia 8
  4. ^ a b c d e f Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. Myth, Legend & Romance: An encyclopaedia of the Irish folk tradition. Prentice Hall Press, 1991. pp.145-147
  5. ^ a b Monaghan, Patricia. The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing, 2004. pp.113-114
  6. ^ a b Ward, Alan (2011). The Myths of the Gods: Structures in Irish Mythology. pp.9-10
  7. ^ The Metrical Dindsenchas "Odras" Poem 49
  8. ^ The Second Battle of Moytura Sections 74,75
  9. ^ Ó hÓgáin, pp.165-166
  10. ^ MacNeill, Máire. The Festival of Lughnasa: A Study of the Survival of the Celtic Festival of the Beginning of Harvest. Oxford University Press, 1962. p.416
  11. ^ The Names of the Dagda
  12. ^ Ó hÓgáin, p.245
  13. ^ Koch, pp.553, 1632
  14. ^ Maier, Bernhard. Dictionary of Celtic Religion and Culture. Boydell & Brewer, 1997. p.90
  15. ^ Berresford Ellis, Peter. The Druids. W.B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1994. p.123
  16. ^ Smyth, Daragh. A Guide to Irish Mythology. Irish Academic Press, 1996. p.15
  17. ^ Monaghan, p.83
  18. ^ Monaghan, p.144
  19. ^ "Celtic Myths". www.livingmyths.com. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
  20. ^ https://www.thoughtco.com/the-dagda-father-god-of-ireland-2561706
  21. ^ The Second Battle of Moytura Section 124
  22. ^ a b Cath Maige Tuireadh. Trans. Elizabeth A. Gray.
  23. ^ https://www.britannica.com/topic/Dagda
  24. ^ Coir Anmann. [1] Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ The Second Battle of Moytura
  26. ^ The Second Battle of Moytura
  27. ^ The Second Battle of Moytura Section 119
  28. ^ https://thenewpagan.wordpress.com/2013/10/31/the-dagda-father-of-all/
  29. ^ "The Dagda, the Father God of Ireland". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
  30. ^ a b Tochmarc Étaíne. Corpus of Electronic Texts
  31. ^ Lebor Gabála Érenn.
  32. ^ The Metrical Dindshenchas poem on Mag Muirthemne. Corpus of Electronic Texts.
  33. ^ https://celt.ucc.ie//published/T106500D/text022.html The Metrical Dindsenchas poem 22 "Ailech I"

Further readingEdit

Preceded by
Lug
High King of Ireland
AFM 1830–1750 BC
FFE 1407–1337 BC
Succeeded by
Delbáeth