The African Queen (film)
The African Queen is a 1951 British-American adventure film adapted from the 1935 novel of the same name by C. S. Forester. The film was directed by John Huston and produced by Sam Spiegel and John Woolf. The screenplay was adapted by James Agee, John Huston, John Collier and Peter Viertel. It was photographed in Technicolor by Jack Cardiff and had a music score by Allan Gray. The film stars Humphrey Bogart (who won the Academy Award for Best Actor – his only Oscar), and Katharine Hepburn with Robert Morley, Peter Bull, Walter Gotell, Richard Marner and Theodore Bikel.
|The African Queen|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||John Huston|
|Produced by||Sam Spiegel|
John Woolf (uncredited)
|Screenplay by||John Huston|
|Based on||The African Queen (novel)|
by C. S. Forester
|Music by||Allan Gray|
|Edited by||Ralph Kemplen|
|Distributed by||United Artists (US)|
Independent Film Distributors (UK)
The African Queen was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry in 1994, with the Library of Congress deeming it "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant". The film currently holds a 98% "Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 41 reviews.
Samuel Sayer (Robert Morley) and his sister Rose (Katharine Hepburn) are British Methodist missionaries in the village of Kungdu in German East Africa at the beginning of World War I in September 1914. Their mail and supplies are delivered by a small steam launch named the African Queen, helmed by the rough-and-ready Canadian boat captain Charlie Allnut (Humphrey Bogart), whose coarse behavior they tolerate in a rather stiff manner.
When Charlie warns them that war has broken out between Germany and Britain, the Sayers choose to stay on, only to witness the Germans burn down the mission village and herd the villagers away. When Samuel protests, he is beaten by a German soldier. After the Germans leave, Samuel becomes delirious with fever and soon dies. Charlie returns shortly afterward. He helps Rose bury her brother, and they set off in the African Queen.
Charlie mentions to Rose that the Germans have a gunboat, the Königin Luise ("Queen Luise"), which patrols a large lake downriver, effectively blocking any British attacks. This is based on a real boat that is still sailing as the MV Liemba. Rose comes up with a plan to convert the African Queen into a torpedo boat and sink the Königin Luise. Charlie points out that navigating the Ulanga River to get to the lake would be suicidal: to reach the lake they would have to pass a German fort and negotiate several dangerous rapids. But Rose is insistent and eventually persuades him to go along with the plan.
During their journey down the river, Charlie, Rose and the African Queen encounter many obstacles, including the German fort and three sets of rapids. The first set of rapids is rather easy; they get through with minimal flooding in the boat. But when they pass the fortress and the soldiers begin shooting at them, the bullets pierce the top of the boiler and cause one of the steam pressure hoses to disconnect from the boiler. This causes the boat's engine to stop. Luckily, Charlie manages to reattach the hose to the boiler just as they are about to enter the second set of rapids. The boat rolls and pitches crazily as it goes down the rapids, leading to more severe flooding in the boat. However, they make it through.
While celebrating their success, the two find themselves in an embrace. Embarrassed, they break off, but eventually succumb and strike up a relationship. The third set of rapids comes up. This time, there is a loud metallic clattering noise as the boat goes over the falls. They dock on the river bank to check for damage. When Charlie dives under the boat, he finds the propeller shaft hopelessly twisted "like a cork screw" and a blade missing from the propeller. At first defeated, Charlie is finally roused by Rose's technically naive but determined prodding. Rigging up a simple forge on shore, he straightens the shaft while Rose works the makeshift bellows, welds a new blade onto the prop, and they are off again.
All appears lost when Charlie and Rose "lose the channel" and the boat becomes mired in the sprawling delta's islets and mud amid dense reeds near the mouth of the river. First, they try to tow the boat through the muck, only to have Charlie come out of the water covered with leeches. All their efforts to free the African Queen fail. With no supplies left and short of potable water, Rose and a feverish Charlie turn in, convinced they have no hope of survival. Before going to sleep Rose prays that she and Charlie be admitted into Heaven. As they sleep, exhausted and beaten, heavy rains falling upstream raise the river's level and float the African Queen off of the mud and into the lake which, it turns out, is just a short distance from their location. Once on the lake, they narrowly avoid being spotted by the Königin Luise. The Königin Luise departs, but Charlie believes that she will return as she makes her normal rounds of the lake.
Over the next two days, Charlie and Rose convert some oxygen cylinders into torpedoes using gelatin explosives and improvised detonators that use nails as the firing pins for rifle cartridges. They then push the torpedoes through holes cut in the bow of the African Queen as improvised spar torpedoes. The Königin Luise returns as Charlie predicted, and Charlie and Rose steam the African Queen out onto the lake in darkness, intending to set her on a collision course with the Königin Luise before diving overboard and making their way to safety to "Kenya" on the east side of the lake. A strong storm strikes as they head toward the Königin Luise. Unfortunately, the torpedo holes they cut are not sealed, which allows water to pour into the African Queen, causing her to sink lower and lower. Eventually the African Queen capsizes, throwing them both into the water. Charlie loses sight of Rose in the storm.
Charlie is captured and taken aboard the Königin Luise, where he is questioned by the captain. Believing Rose to have drowned, he makes no attempt to defend himself against accusations of spying, and the German captain sentences him to death by hanging. However, Rose is captured and brought to the Königin Luise just after Charlie's sentence is pronounced. Charlie hollers her name in excitement that she is actually alive, but then tries to protect her by pretending not to know her. The captain questions her, and Rose confesses the whole plot proudly, deciding they have nothing to lose anyway. The captain sentences her to be executed as a spy, too. Charlie asks the German captain to marry them before executing them. After a brief marriage ceremony, the Germans prepare to hang them, but there is a sudden explosion and the Königin Luise quickly capsizes and sinks. The Königin Luise has struck the overturned hull of the African Queen and detonated the torpedoes, still attached. Their plan has worked after all, if a little belatedly, and the newly married couple happily swims to safety on the east shore of the lake.
- Humphrey Bogart as Charlie Allnut
- Katharine Hepburn as Rose Sayer
- Robert Morley as Rev. Samuel Sayer
- Peter Bull as the Captain of the Königin Luise
- Theodore Bikel as the First Officer of the Königin Luise
- Walter Gotell as the Second Officer of the Königin Luise
- Peter Swanwick as the First Officer of Fort Shona
- Richard Marner as the Second Officer of Fort Shona
Production censors objected to several aspects of the original script, which included the two characters cohabiting without the formality of marriage (as in the book). Some changes were made before the film was completed. Another change followed the casting of Bogart; his character's lines in the original screenplay were rendered with a thick Cockney dialect but the script had to be completely rewritten because the actor was unable to reproduce it. The rewrite made the character Canadian.
The film was partially financed by John and James Woolf of Romulus Films, a British company. Michael Balcon, Honorary Adviser to the National Film Finance Corporation, advised the NFFC to refuse a loan to John Woolf’s The African Queen (1951) unless it starred John McCallum and Googie Withers, rather than Humphrey Bogart and Katharine Hepburn as Woolf wanted. This was clearly partial as he was favouring his former Ealing Studio actors. It was only because of Woolf’s personal intervention that he persuaded the chairman of the NFFC, Lord Reith to overrule Balcon and the film went ahead. The Woolf brothers provided £250,000 and were so pleased with the completed movie that they talked John Huston into directing their next picture, Moulin Rouge (1952).
Much of the film was shot on location in Uganda and the Congo in Africa. This was rather novel for the time, especially for a Technicolor picture which utilized large unwieldy cameras. The cast and crew endured sickness, and spartan living conditions during their time on location. In one scene, Hepburn was playing an organ but had a bucket nearby because she was often sick between takes. Bogart later bragged that he and Huston were the only ones to escape illness, which he credited to not drinking any water on location, but instead fortifying themselves from the large supply of whiskey they had brought along.
About half of the film was shot in Britain. For instance, the scenes in which Bogart and Hepburn are seen in the water were all shot in studio tanks at Isleworth Studios, Middlesex. These scenes were considered too dangerous to shoot in Africa. All of the foreground plates for the process shots were also done in studio.
A myth has grown that the scenes in the reed-filled riverbank were filmed in Dalyan, Turkey. But Katharine Hepburn's published book (p. 118) on the filming states 'We were about to head... back to Entebbe, but John [Huston] wanted to get shots of Bogie and me in the miles of high reeds before we come out into the lake...". The reeds sequence was thus shot on location in Africa (Uganda and Congo) and London studios.
Most of the action takes place aboard a boat – the African Queen of the title – and scenes on board the boat were filmed using a large raft with a mockup of the boat on top. Sections of the boat set could be removed to make room for the large Technicolor camera. This proved hazardous on one occasion when the boat's boiler – a heavy copper replica – almost fell on Hepburn. It was not bolted down because it also had to be moved to accommodate the camera. The small steam-boat used in the film to depict the African Queen was built in 1912, in Britain, for service in Africa. At one time it was owned by actor Fess Parker. In December 2011, plans were announced to restore the boat. Restoration was completed by the following April and the African Queen is now on display as a tourist attraction at Key Largo, Florida.
Because of the dangers involved with shooting the rapid scenes, a small-scale model was used in the studio tank in London.
The vessel used to portray the German gunboat Königin Luise in the film was the steam tug Buganda, owned and operated on Lake Victoria by the East African Railways and Harbours Corporation. Although fictional, the Königin Luise was inspired by the German First World War vessel Graf Goetzen (also known as Graf von Goetzen), which operated on Lake Tanganyika until she was scuttled in 1916 during the Battle for Lake Tanganyika. The British refloated the Graf Goetzen in 1924 and placed her in service on Lake Tanganyika in 1927 as the passenger ferry MV Liemba, and she remains in active service there as of 2015.
The name 'SS Königin Luise' was taken from a German steam ferry which operated from Hamburg, before being taken over by the Kaiserliche Marine on the outbreak of the First World War. She was used as an auxiliary minelayer off Harwich before being sunk on 5 August 1914 by the cruiser HMS Amphion.
A persistent rumour regarding London's population of feral Ring Necked Parakeets is that they originated from birds escaped or released from the filming of this movie. This claim was initially considered dubious though it was given more credence when a zoologist admitted her grandparents fed them.
The African Queen opened on December 26, 1951 at the Fox Wilshire Theatre in Beverly Hills, in order to qualify for the 1951 Oscars. Its New York City opening was on February 20, 1952 at the Capitol Theatre.
Reception and box officeEdit
Contemporary reviews from critics were mostly positive. Upon the film's premiere, Edwin Schallert of the Los Angeles Times wrote that it "should impress for its novelty both in casting and scenically," and found the ending "rather contrived and even incredible, but melodramatic enough, with almost a western accent, to be popularly effective." Bosley Crowther of The New York Times called the film "a slick job of movie hoodwinking with a thoroughly implausible romance, set in a frame of wild adventure that is as whopping as its tale of off-beat love ... This is not noted with disfavor." Crowther added that "Mr. Huston merits credit for putting this fantastic tale on a level of sly, polite kidding and generally keeping it there, while going about the happy business of engineering excitement and visual thrills."
Variety called it "an engrossing motion picture ... Performance-wise, Bogart has never been seen to better advantage. Nor has he ever had a more knowing, talented film partner than Miss Hepburn." John McCarten of The New Yorker declared that "Katharine Hepburn and Humphrey Bogart come up with a couple of remarkable performances, and it's fortunate that they do, for the movie concentrates on them so single-mindedly that any conspicuous uncertainty in their acting would have left the whole thing high and dry." Richard L. Coe wrote in the March 8, 1952 edition of The Washington Post that "Huston has tried a risky trick and most of the time pulls it off in delicious style. And from both his stars he has drawn performances which have rightly been nominated for those Academy Awards on the [20th]."
Harrison's Reports printed a negative review, writing that the film "has its moments of comedy and excitement, but on the whole the dialogue is childish, the action silly, and the story bereft of human appeal. The characters act as childishly as they talk, and discriminating picture-goers will, no doubt, laugh at them. There is nothing romantic about either Katharine Hepburn or Humphrey Bogart, for both look bedraggled throughout." The Monthly Film Bulletin was also negative, writing: "Huston seems to have been aiming at a measured, quiet, almost digressive tempo, but the material does not support it, and would have benefited by the incisiveness his previous films have shown. In spite of Hepburn's wonderful playing, and some engaging scenes, the film must be accounted a misfire."
Awards and honoursEdit
|Best Actor||Humphrey Bogart||Won|
|Best Actress||Katharine Hepburn||Nominated|
|Best Adapted Screenplay||James Agee|
|Best Director||John Huston|
American Film Institute recognition
- 1998 – AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies – #17
- 2002 – AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions – #14
- 2005 – AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes:
- Charlie Allnut: "A man takes a drop too much once in a while, it's only human nature."
- Rose Sayer: "'Nature,' Mr. Allnut, is what we are put into this world to rise above." – Nominated
- 2006 – AFI's 100 Years...100 Cheers – #48
- 2007 – AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – #65
AFI has also honored both Humphrey Bogart and Katharine Hepburn as the greatest American screen legends.
The film has been released on Region 2 DVD in the United Kingdom, Germany and Scandinavia.
Prior to 2010, the film had been released in the United States on VHS video, laserdisc and as a region 1 DVD. Region 1 and Region All DVDs are available and distributed by The Castaways Pictures, and have English and Chinese subtitles available with no other features. It is not clear if these are authorized or not.
2009 digital restorationEdit
In 2009, Paramount Pictures (the current owner of the US rights) completed restoration work for region 1 and a 4K digitally restored version was issued on DVD and Blu-ray March 23, 2010. The film was restored in its original mono soundtrack from original UK film elements under the sole supervision of Paramount, and had as an extra a documentary on the film's production, Embracing Chaos: The Making of The African Queen. According to Ron Smith, vice president of restoration for Paramount Pictures, the major factor that led to the holdup were difficulties locating the original negative. Romulus Films and international rights holder ITV Global Entertainment were acknowledged in the restoration credits.
ITV released the restoration in Region 2 on June 14, 2010.
Adaptations to other mediaEdit
The African Queen was adapted as a one-hour radio play on the December 15, 1952 broadcast of Lux Radio Theater with Humphrey Bogart reprising his film role and joined by Greer Garson. This broadcast is included as a bonus CD in the Commemorative Box Set version of the Paramount DVD.
The African Queen was part of the inspiration for the Jungle Cruise attraction at Disneyland in California. Imagineer Harper Goff referenced the African Queen frequently in his ideas; even his designs of the ride vehicles were inspired by the steamer used in the film.
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First world showing - Wednesday, December 26
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- Presumably, the boat is named after Königin Luise (Queen Louise) - Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen consort of Prussia - after whom two actual German ships were named (see Königin Luise (disambiguation)
- Strictly, as civilians engaging in military activity without being members of an armed force, the two should have been considered to be francs-tireurs rather than spies. That, too, would have made them liable to execution under the then prevailing legal situation; at the time, the Imperial German Army executed numerous francs-tireurs in Belgium and France.
- "University of Virginia Library Online Exhibits – CENSORED: Wielding the Red Pen". virginia.edu.
- Sue Harper & Vincent Porter, British Cinema of the 1950s: The Decline of Deference, OUP, 2007, p.12
- Tino Balio, United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry, University of Wisconsin Press, 1987 p. 46
- Web Designer Express and Web Design Enterprise. "History of the African Queen". The African Queen.
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- Embracing Chaos: Making ‘The African Queen' a documentary film
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- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-08-08. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- Details on the Königin Luise
- Sarah Knapton (9 June 2018). "Britain's parakeets really did come from set of The African Queen, says zoologist, after admitting her grandparents fed them". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
- Crowther, Bosley (February 21, 1951). "' The African Queen,' Starring Humphrey Bogart, Katharine Hepburn, at the Capitol". The New York Times: 24.
- Schallert, Edwin (December 27, 1951). "Star Duo in Unique Joust with Jungle". Los Angeles Times: B6.
- "The African Queen". Variety: 6. December 26, 1951.
- McCarten, John (February 23, 1952). "The Current Cinema". The New Yorker: 85.
- Coe, Richard L. (March 8, 1952). "Hepburn-Bogart Team Is A Honey". The Washington Post: B5.
- "'The African Queen' with Humphrey Bogart and Katharine Hepburn". Harrison's Reports: 207. December 29, 1951.
- "The African Queen". The Monthly Film Bulletin. 19 (217): 15. February 1952.
- Vincent Porter, 'The Robert Clark Account', Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Vol 20 No 4, 2000 p495
- "COMEDIAN TOPS FILM POLL". The Sunday Herald. Sydney. 28 December 1952. p. 4. Retrieved 9 July 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- 'Top Box-Office Hits of 1952', Variety, 7 January 1953.
- Chaney, Jen (March 26, 2010). "'The African Queen' new on DVD after more than 50 years". The Washington Post.
- Kirby, Walter (December 14, 1952). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 54.
- Imagineers, the. Walt Disney Imagineering- A Behind the Dreams Look at Making the Magic Real. Disney Editions, (c) 1996. pg. 112
- Farwell, Byron. The Great War in Africa, 1914–1918. 2nd ed. New York City: W. W. Norton & Company, 1989.
- Foden, Giles (2005). "Mimi and Toutou Go Forth: The Bizarre Battle of Lake Tanganyika". Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-100984-5
- Hagberg Wright, C.T. German Methods of Development in Africa Journal of the Royal African Society 1.1 (1901): 23–38. Historical. J-Stor. Golden Library, ENMU. 18 April. 2005
- Henderson, William Otto. The German Colonial Empire. Portland: International Specialized Book Services, Inc, 1993.
- Hepburn, Katharine (1987). The Making of the African Queen, or: How I Went to Africa with Bogart, Bacall and Huston and Almost Lost My Mind (Knopf)
- Werner, A, and R Dilthey. "German and British Colonisation in Africa." Journal of the Royal African Society 4.14 (1905): 238–41. Historical. J-Stor. Golden Library, ENMU. 18 April. 2005.
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