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Isotopes of thallium

  (Redirected from Thallium-207)

Thallium (81Tl) has 37 isotopes with atomic masses that range from 176 to 212. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes and 204Tl is the most stable radioisotope with a half-life of 3.78 years. 207Tl, with a half-life of 4.77 minutes, has the longest half-life of naturally occurring radioisotopes.

Main isotopes of thallium (81Tl)
Iso­tope Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
203Tl 29.5% stable
204Tl syn 3.78 y β 204Pb
ε 204Hg
205Tl 70.5% stable
Standard atomic weight Ar, standard(Tl)
  • [204.382, 204.385][1]
  • Conventional: 204.38

Thallium-202 (half-life 12.23 days) can be made in a cyclotron[2] while thallium-204 (half-life 3.78 years) is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium in a nuclear reactor.[3]

In the fully ionized state, the isotope 205Tl becomes beta-radioactive, decaying to 205Pb,[4] but 203Tl remains stable.

List of isotopesEdit

Nuclide[5]
[n 1]
Historic
name
Z N Isotopic mass (u)[6]
[n 2][n 3]
Half-life
[n 4]
Decay
mode

[n 5]
Daughter
isotope

[n 6]
Spin and
parity
[n 7][n 4]
Natural abundance (mole fraction)
Excitation energy[n 4] Normal proportion Range of variation
176Tl 81 95 176.00059(21)# 5.2(+30−14) ms (3−, 4−, 5−)
177Tl 81 96 176.996427(27) 18(5) ms p 176Hg (1/2+)
α (rare) 173Au
177mTl 807(18) keV 230(40) µs p 176Hg (11/2−)
α 173Au
178Tl 81 97 177.99490(12)# 255(10) ms α 174Au
p (rare) 177Hg
179Tl 81 98 178.99109(5) 270(30) ms α 175Au (1/2+)
p (rare) 178Hg
179mTl 860(30)# keV 1.60(16) ms α 175Au (9/2−)
IT (rare) 179Tl
180Tl 81 99 179.98991(13)# 1.5(2) s α (75%) 176Au
β+ (25%) 180Hg
EC, fission (10−4%) 100Ru, 80Kr[7]
181Tl 81 100 180.986257(10) 3.2(3) s α 177Au 1/2+#
β+ 181Hg
181mTl 857(29) keV 1.7(4) ms α 177Au 9/2−#
β+ 181Hg
182Tl 81 101 181.98567(8) 2.0(3) s β+ (96%) 182Hg 2−#
α (4%) 178Au
182m1Tl 100(100)# keV 2.9(5) s α 178Au (7+)
β+ (rare) 182Hg
182m2Tl 600(140)# keV 10−
183Tl 81 102 182.982193(10) 6.9(7) s β+ (98%) 183Hg 1/2+#
α (2%) 179Au
183m1Tl 630(17) keV 53.3(3) ms IT (99.99%) 183Tl 9/2−#
α (.01%) 179Au
183m2Tl 976.8(3) keV 1.48(10) µs (13/2+)
184Tl 81 103 183.98187(5) 9.7(6) s β+ 184Hg 2−#
184m1Tl 100(100)# keV 10# s β+ (97.9%) 184Hg 7+#
α (2.1%) 180Au
184m2Tl 500(140)# keV 47.1 ms IT (99.911%) (10−)
α (.089%) 180Au
185Tl 81 104 184.97879(6) 19.5(5) s α 181Au 1/2+#
β+ 185Hg
185mTl 452.8(20) keV 1.93(8) s IT (99.99%) 185Tl 9/2−#
α (.01%) 181Au
β+ 185Hg
186Tl 81 105 185.97833(20) 40# s β+ 186Hg (2−)
α (.006%) 182Au
186m1Tl 320(180) keV 27.5(10) s β+ 186Hg (7+)
186m2Tl 690(180) keV 2.9(2) s (10−)
187Tl 81 106 186.975906(9) ~51 s β+ 187Hg (1/2+)
α (rare) 183Au
187mTl 335(3) keV 15.60(12) s α 183Au (9/2−)
IT 187Tl
β+ 187Hg
188Tl 81 107 187.97601(4) 71(2) s β+ 188Hg (2−)
188m1Tl 40(30) keV 71(1) s β+ 188Hg (7+)
188m2Tl 310(30) keV 41(4) ms (9−)
189Tl 81 108 188.973588(12) 2.3(2) min β+ 189Hg (1/2+)
189mTl 257.6(13) keV 1.4(1) min β+ (96%) 189Hg (9/2−)
IT (4%) 189Tl
190Tl 81 109 189.97388(5) 2.6(3) min β+ 190Hg 2(−)
190m1Tl 130(90)# keV 3.7(3) min β+ 190Hg 7(+#)
190m2Tl 290(70)# keV 750(40) µs (8−)
190m3Tl 410(70)# keV >1 µs 9−
191Tl 81 110 190.971786(8) 20# min β+ 191Hg (1/2+)
191mTl 297(7) keV 5.22(16) min β+ 191Hg 9/2(−)
192Tl 81 111 191.97223(3) 9.6(4) min β+ 192Hg (2−)
192m1Tl 160(50) keV 10.8(2) min β+ 192Hg (7+)
192m2Tl 407(54) keV 296(5) ns (8−)
193Tl 81 112 192.97067(12) 21.6(8) min β+ 193Hg 1/2(+#)
193mTl 369(4) keV 2.11(15) min IT (75%) 193Tl 9/2−
β+ (25%) 193Hg
194Tl 81 113 193.97120(15) 33.0(5) min β+ 194Hg 2−
α (10−7%) 190Au
194mTl 300(200)# keV 32.8(2) min β+ 194Hg (7+)
195Tl 81 114 194.969774(15) 1.16(5) h β+ 195Hg 1/2+
195mTl 482.63(17) keV 3.6(4) s IT 195Tl 9/2−
196Tl 81 115 195.970481(13) 1.84(3) h β+ 196Hg 2−
196mTl 394.2(5) keV 1.41(2) h β+ (95.5%) 196Hg (7+)
IT (4.5%) 196Tl
197Tl 81 116 196.969575(18) 2.84(4) h β+ 197Hg 1/2+
197mTl 608.22(8) keV 540(10) ms IT 197Tl 9/2−
198Tl 81 117 197.97048(9) 5.3(5) h β+ 198Hg 2−
198m1Tl 543.5(4) keV 1.87(3) h β+ (54%) 198Hg 7+
IT (46%) 198Tl
198m2Tl 687.2(5) keV 150(40) ns (5+)
198m3Tl 742.3(4) keV 32.1(10) ms (10−)#
199Tl 81 118 198.96988(3) 7.42(8) h β+ 199Hg 1/2+
199mTl 749.7(3) keV 28.4(2) ms IT 199Tl 9/2−
200Tl 81 119 199.970963(6) 26.1(1) h β+ 200Hg 2−
200m1Tl 753.6(2) keV 34.3(10) ms IT 200Tl 7+
200m2Tl 762.0(2) keV 0.33(5) µs 5+
201Tl[n 8] 81 120 200.970819(16) 72.912(17) h EC 201Hg 1/2+
201mTl 919.50(9) keV 2.035(7) ms IT 201Tl (9/2−)
202Tl 81 121 201.972106(16) 12.23(2) d β+ 202Hg 2−
202mTl 950.19(10) keV 572(7) µs 7+
203Tl 81 122 202.9723442(14) Stable 1/2+ 0.2952(1) 0.29494–0.29528
203mTl 3400(300) keV 7.7(5) µs (25/2+)
204Tl 81 123 203.9738635(13) 3.78(2) y β (97.1%) 204Pb 2−
EC (2.9%) 204Hg
204m1Tl 1104.0(4) keV 63(2) µs (7)+
204m2Tl 2500(500) keV 2.6(2) µs (12−)
204m3Tl 3500(500) keV 1.6(2) µs (20+)
205Tl[n 9] 81 124 204.9744275(14) Stable 1/2+ 0.7048(1) 0.70472–0.70506
205m1Tl 3290.63(17) keV 2.6(2) µs 25/2+
205m2Tl 4835.6(15) keV 235(10) ns (35/2–)
206Tl Radium E 81 125 205.9761103(15) 4.200(17) min β 206Pb 0− Trace[n 10]
206mTl 2643.11(19) keV 3.74(3) min IT 206Tl (12–)
207Tl Actinium C 81 126 206.977419(6) 4.77(2) min β 207Pb 1/2+ Trace[n 11]
207mTl 1348.1(3) keV 1.33(11) s IT (99.9%) 207Tl 11/2–
β (.1%) 207Pb
208Tl Thorium C" 81 127 207.9820187(21) 3.053(4) min β 208Pb 5+ Trace[n 12]
209Tl 81 128 208.985359(8) 2.161(7) min β 209Pb 1/2+ Trace[n 13]
210Tl Radium C″ 81 129 209.990074(12) 1.30(3) min β (99.991%) 210Pb (5+)# Trace[n 10]
β, n (.009%) 209Pb
211Tl 81 130 210.993480(50) 80(16) s β (97.8%) 211Pb 1/2+
β, n (2.2%) 210Pb
212Tl 81 131 211.998340(220)# 31(8) s β (98.2%) 212Pb (5+)
β, n (1.8%) 211Pb
213Tl 81 132 213.001915(29) 24(4) s β (92.4%) 213Pb 1/2+
β, n (7.6%) 212Pb
214Tl 81 133 214.006940(210)# 11(2) s β (66%) 214Pb 5+#
β, n (34%) 213Pb
215Tl 81 134 215.010640(320)# 10(4) s β (95.4%) 215Pb 1/2+#
β, n (4.6%) 214Pb
216Tl 81 135 216.015800(320)# 6(3) s β 216Pb 5+#
β, n (<11.5%) 215Pb
  1. ^ mTl – Excited nuclear isomer.
  2. ^ ( ) – Uncertainty (1σ) is given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits.
  3. ^ # – Atomic mass marked #: value and uncertainty derived not from purely experimental data, but at least partly from trends from the Mass Surface (TMS).
  4. ^ a b c # – Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from trends of neighboring nuclides (TNN).
  5. ^ Modes of decay:
    EC: Electron capture
    IT: Isomeric transition
    n: Neutron emission
    p: Proton emission
  6. ^ Bold symbol as daughter – Daughter product is stable.
  7. ^ ( ) spin value – Indicates spin with weak assignment arguments.
  8. ^ Main isotope used in scintigraphy
  9. ^ Final decay product of 4n+1 decay chain (the Neptunium series)
  10. ^ a b Intermediate decay product of 238U
  11. ^ Intermediate decay product of 235U
  12. ^ Intermediate decay product of 232Th
  13. ^ Intermediate decay product of 237Np

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. ^ "Thallium Research". doe.gov. Department of Energy. Archived from the original on 2006-12-09. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  3. ^ Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes from the International Atomic Energy Agency
  4. ^ "Bound-state beta decay of highly ionized atoms" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2013. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
  5. ^ Half-life, decay mode, nuclear spin, and isotopic composition is sourced in:
    Audi, Georges; Kondev, Filip G.; Wang, Meng; Huang, Wen Jia; Naimi, Sarah (2017), "The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties" (PDF), Chinese Physics C, 41 (3): 030001–1—030001–138, Bibcode:2017ChPhC..41c0001A, doi:10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030001
  6. ^ Wang, Meng; Audi, Georges; Kondev, Filip G.; Huang, Wen Jian; Naimi, Sarah; Xu, Xing (2017), "The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (II). Tables, graphs, and references" (PDF), Chinese Physics C, 41 (3): 030003–1—030003–442, doi:10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030003
  7. ^ http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=mercury-serves-up-a-nuclear-su