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Total internal reflection
Total internal reflection is the optical phenomenon in which light waves are completely reflected under certain conditions when they arrive at the boundary between one medium and another. This photograph was taken from near the bottom of the shallow end of a swimming pool. The swimmer has disturbed the water surface above her, scrambling the lower half of her reflection, and distorting the reflection of the ladder. Most of the surface is still calm, giving a clear reflection of the tiled bottom of the pool. The air above the water is not visible except at the top of the frame where the angle of incidence of light waves is less than the critical angle and therefore total internal reflection has not occurred.Photograph credit: Jean-Marc Kuffer

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