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Term symbol of the chemical elements
Group → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
↓ Period
1 H
2S12

He
1S0
2 Li
2S12
Be
1S0

B
2P12
C
3P0
N
4S32
O
3P2
F
2P32
Ne
1S0
3 Na
2S12
Mg
1S0

Al
2P12
Si
3P0
P
4S32
S
3P2
Cl
2P32
Ar
1S0
4 K
2S12
Ca
1S0
Sc
2D3/2
Ti
3F2
V
4F3/2
Cr
7S3
Mn
6S5/2
Fe
5D4
Co
4F9/2
Ni
3F4
Cu
2S12
Zn
1S0
Ga
2P12
Ge
3P0
As
4S32
Se
3P2
Br
2P32
Kr
1S0
5 Rb
2S12
Sr
1S0
Y
2D3/2
Zr
3F2
Nb
6D1/2
Mo
7S3
Tc
6S5/2
Ru
5F5
Rh
4F9/2
Pd
1S0
Ag
2S12
Cd
1S0
In
2P12
Sn
3P0
Sb
4S32
Te
3P2
I
2P32
Xe
1S0
6 Cs
2S12
Ba
1S0
La
2D3/2
1 asterisk Hf
3F2
Ta
4F3/2
W
5D0
Re
6S5/2
Os
5D4
Ir
4F9/2
Pt
3D3
Au
2S12
Hg
1S0
Tl
2P12
Pb
3P0
Bi
4S32
Po
3P2
At
2P32
Rn
1S0
7 Fr
2S12
Ra
1S0
Ac
2D3/2
1 asterisk Rf
3F2
Db
4F3/2?
Sg
5D0?
Bh
6S5/2?
Hs
 
Mt
 
Ds
 
Rg
 
Cn
 
Nh
 
Fl
 
Mc
 
Lv
 
Ts
 
Og
 

1 asterisk Ce
1G4
Pr
4I9/2
Nd
5I4
Pm
6H5/2
Sm
7F0
Eu
8S7/2
Gd
9D2
Tb
6H15/2
Dy
5I8
Ho
4I15/2
Er
3H6
Tm
2F7/2
Yb
1S0
Lu
2D3/2
1 asterisk Th
3F2
Pa
4K11/2
U
5L6
Np
6L11/2
Pu
7F0
Am
8S7/2
Cm
9D2
Bk
6H15/2
Cf
5I8
Es
4I15/2
Fm
3H6
Md
2F7/2
No
1S0
Lr
2P1/2?


Chemical elements: electron-configuration and term symbol
Element Group Electron configuration Term symbol note
  1, 2, S, P,
1 H hydrogen 1 1s1 2S12 S2S12
2 He helium 18 1s2 1S0 S1S0
3 Li lithium 1 [He] 2s1 2S12 S2S12
4 Be beryllium 2 [He] 2s2 1S0 S1S0
5 B boron 13 [He] 2s2 2p1 2P12 P2P12
6 C carbon 14 [He] 2s2 2p2 3P0 P3P0
7 N nitrogen 15 [He] 2s2 2p3 4S32 S4S32
8 O oxygen 16 [He] 2s2 2p4 3P2 P3P2
9 F fluorine 17 [He] 2s2 2p5[1] 2P32 P2P32
10 Ne neon 18 [He] 2s2 2p6 1S0 S1S0
11 Na sodium 1 [Ne] 3s1 2S12 S2S12
12 Mg magnesium 2 [Ne] 3s2 1S0 S1S0
13 Al aluminium 13 [Ne] 3s2 3p1 2P12 P2P12
14 Si silicon 14 [Ne] 3s2 3p2 3P0 P3P0
15 P phosphorus 15 [Ne] 3s2 3p3 4S32 S4S32
16 S sulfur 16 [Ne] 3s2 3p4 3P2 P3P2
17 Cl chlorine 17 [Ne] 3s2 3p5 2P32 P2P32
18 Ar argon 18 [Ne] 3s2 3p6 1S0 S1S0
19 K potassium 1 [Ar] 4s1 2S12 S2S12
20 Ca calcium 2 [Ar] 4s2 1S0 S1S0
21 Sc scandium 3 [Ar] 3d1 4s2 2D3/2 D2D3/2
22 Ti titanium 4 [Ar] 3d2 4s2 3F2 F3F2
23 V vanadium 5 [Ar] 3d3 4s2 4F3/2 F4F3/2
24 Cr chromium 6 [Ar] 3d5 4s1 7S3 S7S3
25 Mn manganese 7 [Ar] 3d5 4s2 6S5/2 S6S5/2
26 Fe iron 8 [Ar] 3d6 4s2 5D4 D5D4
27 Co cobalt 9 [Ar] 3d7 4s2 4F9/2 F4F9/2
28 Ni nickel 10 [Ar] 3d8 4s2 or [Ar] 3d9 4s1 3F4 F3F4
29 Cu copper 11 [Ar] 3d10 4s1 2S12 S2S12
30 Zn zinc 12 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 1S0 S1S0
31 Ga gallium 13 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1 2P12 P2P12
32 Ge germanium 14 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2 3P0 P3P0
33 As arsenic 15 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3 4S32 S4S32
34 Se selenium 16 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4 3P2 P3P2
35 Br bromine 17 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5 2P32 P2P32
36 Kr krypton 18 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6 1S0 S1S0
37 Rb rubidium 1 [Kr] 5s1 2S12 S2S12
38 Sr strontium 2 [Kr] 5s2 1S0 S1S0
39 Y yttrium 3 [Kr] 4d1 5s2 2D3/2 D2D3/2
40 Zr zirconium 4 [Kr] 4d2 5s2 3F2 F3F2
41 Nb niobium 5 [Kr] 4d4 5s1 6D1/2 D6D1/2
42 Mo molybdenum 6 [Kr] 4d5 5s1 7S3 S7S3
43 Tc technetium 7 [Kr] 4d5 5s2 6S5/2 S6S5/2
44 Ru ruthenium 8 [Kr] 4d7 5s1 5F5 F5F5
45 Rh rhodium 9 [Kr] 4d8 5s1 4F9/2 F4F9/2
46 Pd palladium 10 [Kr] 4d10 1S0 S1S0
47 Ag silver 11 [Kr] 4d10 5s1 2S12 S2S12
48 Cd cadmium 12 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 1S0 S1S0
49 In indium 13 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1 2P12 P2P12
50 Sn tin 14 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2 3P0 P3P0
51 Sb antimony 15 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3 4S32 S4S32
52 Te tellurium 16 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4 3P2 P3P2
53 I iodine 17 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5 2P32 P2P32
54 Xe xenon 18 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6 1S0 S1S0
55 Cs caesium 1 [Xe] 6s1 2S12 S2S12
56 Ba barium 2 [Xe] 6s2 1S0 S1S0
57 La lanthanum 3 [Xe] 5d1 6s2 2D3/2 D2D3/2
58 Ce cerium n/a [Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2[2] 1G4 G1G4
59 Pr praseodymium n/a [Xe] 4f3 6s2 4I9/2 I4I9/2
60 Nd neodymium n/a [Xe] 4f4 6s2 5I4 I5I4
61 Pm promethium n/a [Xe] 4f5 6s2 6H5/2 H6H5/2
62 Sm samarium n/a [Xe] 4f6 6s2 7F0 F7F0
63 Eu europium n/a [Xe] 4f7 6s2 8S7/2 S8S7/2
64 Gd gadolinium n/a [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2 9D2 D9D2
65 Tb terbium n/a [Xe] 4f9 6s2 6H15/2 H6H15/2
66 Dy dysprosium n/a [Xe] 4f10 6s2 5I8 I5I8
67 Ho holmium n/a [Xe] 4f11 6s2 4I15/2 I4I15/2
68 Er erbium n/a [Xe] 4f12 6s2 3H6 H3H6
69 Tm thulium n/a [Xe] 4f13 6s2 2F7/2 F2F7/2
70 Yb ytterbium n/a [Xe] 4f14 6s2 1S0 S1S0
71 Lu lutetium n/a [Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2 2D3/2 D2D3/2
72 Hf hafnium 4 [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2 3F2 F3F2
73 Ta tantalum 5 [Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2 4F3/2 F4F3/2
74 W tungsten 6 [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2[3] 5D0 D5D0
75 Re rhenium 7 [Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2 6S5/2 S6S5/2
76 Os osmium 8 [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2 5D4 D5D4
77 Ir iridium 9 [Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2 4F9/2 F4F9/2
78 Pt platinum 10 [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1 3D3 D3D3
79 Au gold 11 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1 2S12 S2S12
80 Hg mercury 12 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 1S0 S1S0
81 Tl thallium 13 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1 2P12 P2P12
82 Pb lead 14 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2 3P0 P3P0
83 Bi bismuth 15 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3 4S32 S4S32
84 Po polonium 16 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 3P2 P3P2
85 At astatine 17 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 2P32 P2P32
86 Rn radon 18 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 1S0 S1S0
87 Fr francium 1 [Rn] 7s1 2S12 S2S12
88 Ra radium 2 [Rn] 7s2 1S0 S1S0
89 Ac actinium 3 [Rn] 6d1 7s2 2D3/2 D2D3/2
90 Th thorium n/a [Rn] 6d2 7s2 3F2 F3F2
91 Pa protactinium n/a [Rn] 5f2 6d1 7s2 4K11/2 K4K11/2
92 U uranium n/a [Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2 5L6 L5L6
93 Np neptunium n/a [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 6L11/2 L6L11/2
94 Pu plutonium n/a [Rn] 5f6 7s2 7F0 F7F0
95 Am americium n/a [Rn] 5f7 7s2 8S7/2 S8S7/2
96 Cm curium n/a [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 9D2 D9D2
97 Bk berkelium n/a [Rn] 5f9 7s2 6H15/2 H6H15/2
98 Cf californium n/a [Rn] 5f10 7s2[4] 5I8 I5I8
99 Es einsteinium n/a [Rn] 5f11 7s2 4I15/2 I4I15/2
100 Fm fermium n/a [Rn] 5f12 7s2 3H6 H3H6
101 Md mendelevium n/a [Rn] 5f13 7s2 2F7/2 F2F7/2
102 No nobelium n/a [Rn] 5f14 7s2 1S0 S1S0
103 Lr lawrencium n/a [Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1 2P1/2? P2P1/2?
104 Rf rutherfordium 4 [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2[5][6] 3F2 F3F2
105 Db dubnium 5 [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2[6] 4F3/2? F4F3/2?
106 Sg seaborgium 6 [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2[6] 5D0? D5D0?
107 Bh bohrium 7 [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2[7][6] 6S5/2? S6S5/2?
108 Hs hassium 8 [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2[6]
109 Mt meitnerium 9 [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (predicted)[6][8]
110 Ds darmstadtium 10 [Rn] 5f14 6d8 7s2 (predicted)[6]
111 Rg roentgenium 11 [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s2 (predicted)[9][6]
112 Cn copernicium 12 [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (predicted)[6]
113 Nh nihonium 13 [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (predicted)[6]
114 Fl flerovium 14 [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (predicted)[6]
115 Mc moscovium 15 [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (predicted)[6]
116 Lv livermorium 16 [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (predicted)[6]
117 Ts tennessine 17 [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (predicted)[6]
118 Og oganesson 18 [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (predicted)[10][6]
119 Uue ununennium 1 [Og] 8s1 (predicted)[6]
120 Ubn unbinilium 2 [Og] 8s2 (predicted)[6]
121 Ubu unbiunium 3 [Og] 8s2 8p1 (predicted)[6]
122 Ubb unbibium [Og] 7d1 8s2 8p1 (predicted)[11]
123 Ubt unbitrium
124 Ubq unbiquadium [Og] 6f3 8s2 8p1 (predicted)[11]
125 Ubp unbipentium
126 Ubh unbihexium [Og] 5g2 6f3 8s2 8p1 (predicted)[11]
  1. ^ Jaccaud et al. 2000, p. 381.
  2. ^ Ground levels and ionization energies for the neutral atoms, NIST
  3. ^ Berger, Dan. "Why does Tungsten not 'Kick' up an electron from the s sublevel ?". Bluffton College, USA.
  4. ^ CRC 2006, p. 1.14.
  5. ^ "Rutherfordium". Royal Chemical Society. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean (eds.). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN 978-1-4020-3555-5.
  7. ^ Johnson, E.; Fricke, B.; Jacob, T.; Dong, C. Z.; Fritzsche, S.; Pershina, V. (2002). "Ionization potentials and radii of neutral and ionized species of elements 107 (bohrium) and 108 (hassium) from extended multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock calculations". The Journal of Chemical Physics. 116 (5): 1862–1868. Bibcode:2002JChPh.116.1862J. doi:10.1063/1.1430256.
  8. ^ Thierfelder, C.; Schwerdtfeger, P.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S. (2008). "Dirac-Hartree-Fock studies of X-ray transitions in meitnerium". The European Physical Journal A. 36 (2): 227. Bibcode:2008EPJA...36..227T. doi:10.1140/epja/i2008-10584-7.
  9. ^ Turler, A. (2004). "Gas Phase Chemistry of Superheavy Elements" (PDF). Journal of Nuclear and Radiochemical Sciences. 5 (2): R19–R25. doi:10.14494/jnrs2000.5.R19.
  10. ^ Nash, Clinton S. (2005). "Atomic and Molecular Properties of Elements 112, 114, and 118". Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 109 (15): 3493–3500. Bibcode:2005JPCA..109.3493N. doi:10.1021/jp050736o. PMID 16833687.
  11. ^ a b c Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean (eds.). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4020-3555-5.