The synagogues of Kraków are a collection of monuments of Jewish sacred architecture in Poland. The seven main synagogues of the Jewish District of Kazimierz constitute the largest such complex in Europe next to Prague. These are:
- The Old Synagogue
- Wolf Popper Synagogue
- Remah Synagogue
- High Synagogue
- Izaak Synagogue
- Temple Synagogue
- Kupa Synagogue
(it is worth noting 2 other houses of prayer, both from the 19th century, which could easily be classed as synagogues, both of them on Mieselsa street: the B'nea Emun prayer house and the Hevre Tehillim, psalm brotherhood house of prayer)
It is a unique on the European scale religious complex prescribed on the list of UNESCO world heritage sites along with the entire city district in 1978, as the first ever.
Kraków was an influential centre of Jewish spiritual life before the outbreak of World War II, with all its manifestations of religious observance from Orthodox, to Chasidic and Reform flourishing side by side. There were at least ninety prayer-houses in Kraków active before the Nazi German invasion of Poland, serving its burgeoning Jewish community of 60,000–80,000 (out of the city's total population of 237,000), established since the early 12th century.
Most synagogues of Kraków were ruined during World War II by the Nazis who despoiled them of all ceremonial objects, and used them as storehouses for ammunition, firefighting equipment, and as general storage facilities. The post-Holocaust Jewish population of the city had dwindled to about 5,900 before the end of the 1940s, and by 1978, the number was further reduced in size to a mere 600 by some estimates.
In recent time, thanks to the efforts of the local Jewish and Polish organizations including foreign financial aid from Akiva Kahane, many synagogues and prayer-houses underwent major restorations, while others continue to serve as apartments.
Main synagogues edit
The synagogues of Kraków represent virtually all European architectural styles of the past millennium, including Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Neoclassicism and Modernism. Among the most prominent are: the Old Synagogue, the High Synagogue, Remah Synagogue, Wolf Popper Synagogue, Tempel Synagogue, Kupa Synagogue and the Izaak Jakubowicz Synagogue. At present, only two of them are still active, and only one serves as a house of prayer, the Remuh Synagogue.
The Jewish History Museum edit
The Old Synagogue on Szeroka Street, is the oldest Jewish house of prayer in Poland, built in 1407. Nowadays, the synagogue serves as the Jewish History Museum, a Division of the Historical Museum of Kraków. The exhibits are divided into four sections: synagogue furnishings and paraphernalia, Jewish rituals and festivals, the history of Kazimierz District, and the Holocaust. The museum features numerous items related to religious ceremonies, for example, candle holders, Chanukah and menorot lamps, covers for the Torah, parochot Holy Ark covers, tallit prayer shawls, and kippahs or yarmulkes. The museum holds also a considerable collection of books including 2,500 volumes of Hebrew manuscripts and prints. On the walls, there are original oil paintings on display made by Maurycy Gottlieb, Józef Mehoffer, Tadeusz Popiel, Jerzy Potrzebowski and Jonasz Stern.
The Remah Synagogue edit
The Remah Synagogue (Hebrew: רמ״א) on the west side of Szeroka, currently one of the few functioning synagogues in the city, is perhaps the most interesting of all Kraków's synagogues, built along the old row houses (kamienice). It was founded in 1556 by a royal banker, Izrael (Isserl) son of Joseph, for his own son the great rabbi Moses Isserles also known as Remah, who already in his youth was famed for his erudition. There are also a Remah Cemetery named after him, and the mikvah. Located further down on Szeroka Street is the Synagogue of Wolf Popper, the father of Joachim Edler von Popper. It serves as a bookshop now.
The High Synagogue edit
Equally notable are the High Synagogue on Jozefa Street, built in 1556–1563 in a Romanesque style, and the Kupa Synagogue, founded in 1643 by the Jewish district's kehilla (a municipal self-government) as foundation for the local kahal. The Isaak Jakubowicz Synagogue built in 1644, is located on Kupa Street. Currently it houses Kraków's Chabad Lubavitch community. The Tempel Synagogue on Miodowa Street, was designed in the 1860s, on the pattern of the Leopoldstädter Tempel in Vienna, at a time when Kraków was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Right after World War II a mikvah was built at the side of the Tempel Synagogue, as the Remah Synagogue's mikvah was no longer able to serve. (The mikvah at the Tempel Synagogue is currently serving men only). On Józefa Street, there's the Kowea Itim le-Tora House of Prayer established in 1810 (probably built before this time). It was once owned by the Society for the Study of the Torah hence its name.
Active synagogues edit
Inactive synagogues edit
Tempel Synagogue, interior
Remuh Synagogue, interior
Kupa Synagogue, interior
Zucker Synagogue, Podgórze
Chewra Ner Tamid Synagogue
Bne Emuna Prayerhouse
Chewra Thilim Synagogue
High Synagogue, interior
Chassids from Radom
Talmud Torah Synagogue
Szejrit Bne Emun Synagogue
List of Kraków synagogues by street name edit
For list of Synagogues in alphabetical order, please use table-sort buttons.
# Street Synagogue1 Św. Agnieszki 5 Cypres Hirsch Michael Synagogue (Stowarzyszenia Modłów i Dobroczynności)2 Św. Agnieszki 11 Meisels Izrael Synagogue3 Augustiańska 22/12 Beit Shlomo Synagogue4 Augustiańska 22 Chasids from Radomsko Synagogue5 Augustiańska 25 Tiferes Israel Synagogue6 Bocheńska 4 Szejrit Bne Emun Synagogue7 Bonifraterska 1 Bet Hamidrash Synagogue8 Brzozowa 9 Ansche Chail Synagogue9 Brzozowa 6 Deiches Salomon Synagogue10 Brzozowa 17 Planczner Synagogue11 Celna 5 Rabi Skawiński Synagogue12 Ciemna 15 Chasids from Radomsko Synagogue13 Ciemna 17 Chewra Sandlers Synagogue14 Dębnicki Square
(pl. Dębnicki 6)
Jedność Izraela Synagogue15 Dietla 17 Chasids from Działoszyce Synagogue16 Dietla 58 Chajotim Synagogue17 Dietla 64 Damash Synagogue18 Dietla 64 Chasids from Piaseczno Synagogue19 Dietla 107 Bet Hamidrash Synagogue20 Długa 22 Dorshe Shalom Synagogue21 Długa Grosmann Synagogue22 Estery 6 Chasids from Czortków Synagogue23 Estery 6 Chasids from Dzikowo Synagogue24 Estery 6 Talmud Torah Synagogue25 Estery 6 Chasids from Góra Kalwaria Synagogue26 Estery 12 Bobov Synagogue27 Estery 12 Chaim Halberstam Synagogue28 St Gertrudy 20 Lejw Tojw Synagogue29 Grodzka 28 Tigner Mordechaj Synagogue30 Izaaka 7 Chewra Szijur Synagogue31 Izaaka 7 Dajons Majer Synagogue32 Izaaka 5 Stowarzyszenia Bóżniczego Szir (Szijer) Synagogue33 Jakuba 21 Mosi Hamite Synagogue34 Jakuba ? Ansche Emes Synagogue35 Józefa 8 Aufim Synagogue36 Józefa 22 Ahawat Tora Synagogue37 Józefa 24 Chasids from Stropkowo Synagogue38 Józefa 5 Chewra Kadisza Synagogue39 Józefa 32 Chewra Ner Tamid (High) Synagogue40 Józefa 12 Etz Chaim Synagogue41 Józefa 42 Kowea Itim le-Tora Synagogue42 Józefa 16 Kromol Synagogue (annex)43 Józefa 16 Krymałowska Synagogue44 Józefa 22 Machsike Jesziwa Keter (Kejser) Tora Synagogue45 Józefa 33 Reb Aron Klaus Synagogue46 Józefa 15 Chasids from Radom Synagogue (New) (Stowarzyszenia Modlitwy i Dobroczynności)47 Józefa 26 Chasids from Żarki Synagogue48 Józefa 37 Epsztein Aron Synagogue49 Kalwaryjska 21 Chewra Thilim Synagogue50 Kalwaryjska 21 Nose Hamitah Synagogue51 Kalwaryjska 26 Rabi from Zielin Synagogue52 Kalwaryjska 29 Gmilus Chasudim & Menachem Aweilim Synagogue53 Katarzyny 5 Chasids from Husiatyń Synagogue54 Kościuszki 27 Bet Hamidrash Synagogue55 Krakowska 7 Bojaner Synagogue56 Krakowska 21 Chewra Sandlers Synagogue57 Krakowska 26 Bojaner Synagogue58 Krakowska Gmilus Chasudim Talmud Tora Synagogue59 Krakowska 51 Joller Synagogue60 Krakowska 29 Meisels Berisch Synagogue61 Krakowska 13 Susser Leib Synagogue62 Krakowska 21 Tomchej Orajse Synagogue63 Krakusa 7 Rabinacka Synagogue64 Kupa 16 Ner Tamid Synagogue65 Kupa 16 Mizrahi Synagogue66 Lelewela 5
(later Tatarska 4)
Bnei Jeszurim Synagogue67 Limanowskiego 13 Bikur Cholim Synagogue68 Matejki Square
(pl. Matejki 4)
Bet Hamidrash Synagogue69 Matejki Square 2 Adas Jeszurim Synagogue70 Mazowiecka Bet Hamidrash Synagogue71 Meiselsa 14 Aleksander Synagogue72 Meiselsa 17
(pl. Nowy 5)
Bnej Emun Synagogue73 Meiselsa 18 Chewra Thilim Synagogue74 Meiselsa 14 Chasids from Aleksandrowo Synagogue75 Meiselsa 32 Lykower Synagogue76 Meiselsa 1 Tycziner Synagogue77 Miodowa 11 Assiriri (Machsi Ke-Choklim) Synagogue78 Miodowa 15 Beit (Bet) Israel Synagogue79 Miodowa 13 Chasids from Cieszanowo Synagogue80 Miodowa 12 Temichas Narej Bnej Israel Synagogue81 Mostowa 8 Chana and Abraham Lednitzer Synagogue82 Mostowa 2 Nosei Massu Haszejno Synagogue83 Na Przejściu 2/77
Gewoha Bargiel Synagogue Na Górce84 Nowy Square 1
(pl. Nowy 1)
Chaduzim Synagogue85 Nowy Square 7 Chowewe Tora Synagogue86 Podbrzezie 4 Horowitz Aszer Synagogue87 Podbrzezie 6 Mcyjrim Imizgagim jad Charucium Synagogue88 Podbrzezie 6 Reichenberg Chaim (from Zaleszczyki) Synagogue89 Podbrzezie 6 Rosenbaum Synagogue90 Podgórski Square
(pl. Podgórski 3)
Benzion Halberstam Synagogue91 K. Brodzinskiego 8 Schornstein Synagogue92 Prądnik Czerwony Landesdorfer Synagogue93 Rakowicka 14 Bejt Jehuda Synagogue94 Rękawka 30 Anszei Chail Synagogue95 Skałeczna 3 Bach Synagogue96 Skawińska 2 Synagogue in Jewish Hospital97 Starowiślna 37 Agudas Achim Synagogue98 Stroma 11 Bikur Cholim Synagogue99 Szeroka 16 Ner Tamid Synagogue100 Szeroka 40 Ner Tamid Synagogue101 Szeroka 28 Gmilus Chasidim Debais Hakneses Synagogue (Stara)102 Szeroka 2 Landau Szaul Synagogue103 Szeroka 40 Mekarwin Latora Synagogue104 Szeroka 28 Reichenberg Synagogue105 Szeroka 25 Szezarim Synagogue106 Szeroka 24 Szomrim Laboker Synagogue107 Szeroka 24 Szywe Kryjim Synagogue108 Szewska 1/2 Chasids from Bobowa Synagogue109 Szlak 13 Merkaz Jeszyja Synagogue110 Szpitalna 24 Ahawas Rajim Synagogue
(now Eastern Orthodox church)111
Tatarska 4 Bnei Jeszurim Synagogue112 Trynitarska 18 Bet Hamidrash Synagogue113 Twardowskiego 15 Ansche Emes Synagogue114 Warszauera 8 Ner Tamid Synagogue115 Warszauera 1 Zauwche Zywche Cedek Synagogue116 Św. Wawrzyńca 9 Ahawat Szalom Synagogue117 Węgierska 6 Bnei Emun Synagogue118 Węgierska 6 Bnei Chinim Synagogue119 Węgierska Zucker Synagogue (Podgórze)120 Węgierska 7 Chasids from Góra Kalwaria Synagogue121 Węgierska 7 Benzion Halberstam Synagogue122 Węgłowa 3 Chasids from Bełz Synagogue123 Wolnica Square
(pl. Wolnica 14)
Chasids from Husiatyn Synagogue124 Zwierzyniec 21 Cendeszim Synagogue # StreetAs per Krakow.Jewish.org.pl 
See also edit
Notes and references edit
- "Synagogues of the Kazimierz historic district in Krakow". Synagogues of the Kazimierz historic district in Krakow. krakow-info.com. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- "Welcome to Kazimierz!". Welcome to Kazimierz!. jewishkrakow.net. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- Adam Dylewski, Where the Tailor Was a Poet... website created under the aegis of the Adam Mickiewicz Institute, Warsaw; chief editor: Dr. Piotr M. A. Cywinski. Editorial assistance: Dr. Anna Marta Szczepan-Wojnarska, and Kaja Wieczorek from Jewish Historical Institute, Warsaw
- The Jewish Krakow, Old Synagogue. A guide to Kazimierz. Page stored at Internet Archive
- "Remuh Synagogue, A relic of Kazimierz's golden age". Cracow-Life.com. Retrieved 2006-12-11.
- "The Remuh Synagogue of Krakow, Poland". The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot. Retrieved 2006-12-11.
- Hebrew University of Jerusalem: "Exploring the Synagogues of Poland: Wall Painting and Decoration" from the Internet Archive
- Isaak Synagogue, Krakow, Poland
- JewishKrakow.net, A guide to Tempel Synagogue Archived 2007-10-08 at archive.today as well as the Krakow's old Jewish quarter
- List of synagogues in Kraków between the wars Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine
- List of synagogues and Betei Midrash in Kraków between the wars
- Traces of the Past, Synagogues of Krakow
- Engraving of synagogue interior
- A guide to Kazimierz, Krakow's Jewish Quarter including the Old Synagogue: ul. Szeroka 24
- Who's who in the Jewish World?
- The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot, The Remuh Synagogue of Krakow, Poland
- The Jews of Kraków and its Surrounding Towns, The "Old" (Remuh) Cemetery of Krakow
- Michał Rożek, Żydowskie zabytki krakowskiego Kazimierza, Kraków 1990, ISBN 83-85104-01-1 (in Polish)
- Aneta Kalemba, "Poland: Online presentation"
- Jewish guide and genealogy in Poland - Casimir / Kazimierz