Susan Oliver (born Charlotte Gercke, February 13, 1932 – May 10, 1990) was an American actress, television director and aviator.
February 13, 1932
New York City, U.S.
|Died||May 10, 1990 (aged 58)|
Early life and familyEdit
Susan Oliver was born the daughter of George Gercke, journalist, and Ruth Hale Oliver, an astrology practitioner, in New York City in 1932. Her father was a political reporter and journalist for the New York World. Her parents divorced when she was still a child. In June 1949, Oliver joined her mother in Southern California, where Ruth was in the process of becoming a well known Hollywood astrologer. Oliver made a decision to embark upon a career as an actress and chose the stage name Susan Oliver.
By September 1949 and using her new name, Oliver returned to the East Coast to begin drama studies at Swarthmore College, followed by professional training at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre in New York City. After working in summer stock, regional theater and in unbilled bits in daytime and primetime TV shows and commercials, she made her first major television appearance in a supporting role in the July 31, 1955, episode of the live drama series Goodyear TV Playhouse, and quickly progressed to leading parts in other shows.
Oliver did numerous TV shows in 1957, and appeared on stage. She began the year with an ingenue part, as the daughter of an 18th-century Manhattan family, in her first Broadway play, Small War on Murray Hill, a Robert E. Sherwood comedy. That same year, Oliver replaced Mary Ure as the female lead in the Broadway production of John Osborne's play Look Back in Anger.
The play's short run was immediately followed by larger roles in live TV plays on Kaiser Aluminum Hour, The United States Steel Hour and Matinee Theater. Oliver then went to Hollywood, where she appeared in the November 14, 1957, episode of Climax!, one of the few live drama series based on the West Coast, as well as in a number of filmed shows, including one of the first episodes of NBC's Wagon Train, Father Knows Best, The Americans, and Johnny Staccato.
In July 1957, Oliver was chosen for the title role in her first motion picture, The Green-Eyed Blonde, a low-budget independent melodrama scripted by Dalton Trumbo (under a pseudonym), and released by Warner Bros. in December on the bottom half of a double bill. It is the only motion picture on which Oliver received top billing.
In mid-1958, Oliver began rehearsals for a co-starring role in Patate, her second Broadway play. Its seven performance run was even shorter than that of Small War on Murray Hill, but won Oliver a Theatre World Award for "Outstanding Breakout Performance;" it was her last Broadway appearance.
Television and filmsEdit
On April 6, 1960, the 28-year-old Oliver played a spoiled young runaway, Maggie Hamilton, who gets soundly spanked by scout Flint McCullough (Robert Horton), in "The Maggie Hamilton Story" on NBC's Wagon Train. McCullough searches for her so the wagon train can proceed on schedule, and after rescuing her from some drunken hooligans and an Indian played by Leonard Nimoy he is rewarded by her biting him and pulling his gun on him. On November 9, 1960, she was cast as the lead guest star in "The Cathy Eckhart Story" on Wagon Train, with husband-and-wife actors John Larch and Vivi Janiss as Ben and Sarah Harness.
Oliver was cast in the 1960 episode of The Deputy as the long-lost daughter of star Henry Fonda's late girl friend, and appeared in Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theatre episode "Knife of Hate" as Susan Pittman. In 1961, Oliver played the part of Laurie Evans in the episode "Incident of His Brother's Keeper" on CBS's Rawhide, and in 1963, she played Judy Hall in the episode "Incident at Spider Rock", Also in 1962 Oliver appeared as Jeanie in the television series Laramie in the episode "Shadows in the Dust".
Oliver was cast in episodes of Adventures in Paradise, Twilight Zone, Route 66, Dr. Kildare, The Naked City, The Barbara Stanwyck Show, Burke's Law, The Fugitive, Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C., I Spy, The Virginian, and The Name of the Game. She made one appearance on The Andy Griffith Show and ABC's family western series, The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters. She also made two appearances in "The Invaders" (eps. "Inquisition" and "The Ivy Curtain").
Her most challenging role during this time was as the ambitious wife of doomed country music legend Hank Williams (George Hamilton) in Your Cheatin' Heart (1964). The same year she also starred opposite Jerry Lewis in The Disorderly Orderly, and also appeared in The Man from U.N.C.L.E (1965), and The Love-Ins (1967) with Richard Todd.
Oliver played the female lead character Vina in "The Cage" (1964), which was the first pilot of Gene Roddenberry's new show, Star Trek. Two years later, Oliver's performance was re-used in the first season, two-part episode "The Menagerie" (1966). The framing device was needed because of significant format and cast changes. In particular, Jeffrey Hunter played "Captain Christopher Pike" in the pilot episode, but William Shatner became the new captain of the Starship Enterprise when the series was green-lit in 1966. For the fantasy sequence in the pilot, in which her character appeared as an "Orion slave girl", Oliver was covered in green makeup all over her body, and a dark brunette wig. A still of her with green skin is frequently seen in the end credits of the TV series, and it became an iconic image of Star Trek. Hence the documentary about Susan Oliver's life in 2014 was titled The Green Girl.
From 1975 to 1976, Oliver was a regular cast member of the TV soap opera Days of Our Lives. In 1976, she received her only Emmy Award nomination (for "Outstanding Performance by a Supporting Actress") in the three-hour-long made-for-TV movie Amelia Earhart, broadcast on October 15, 1976 on NBC-TV.
Directing and later yearsEdit
By the late 1970s with acting assignments becoming scarcer, Oliver turned to directing. She was one of the original 19 women admitted to the American Film Institute's Directing Workshop for Women (AFI DWW) "who, upon her early death, left a good chunk of funding for the DWW." In 1977, she wrote and directed Cowboysan, her AFI DWW short film which presents the fantasy scenario of a Japanese actor and actress playing leads in an American western. Oliver directed two TV episodes, the October 25, 1982 installment of M*A*S*H and the December 4, 1983 entry of one of its sequel series, Trapper John, M.D..
In Oliver's last fully active years, she also appeared in the February 21, 1985 episode of Magnum, P.I., two episodes of Murder, She Wrote (March 31 and December 1), the February 12, 1987 episode of Simon & Simon, and the January 10, 1988 episode of the NBC domestic drama Our House. She made her last onscreen appearance in the November 6, 1988 episode of the syndicated horror anthology Freddy's Nightmares. During her career in Hollywood, Oliver appeared in more than one hundred television programs.
Oliver experienced an event in February 1959 that underscored her later aviation accomplishments. She was a passenger aboard Pan Am Flight 115, a Boeing 707 on a transatlantic flight from Paris to New York City when it dropped from 35,000 feet (11,000 m) to 6,000 feet (1,800 m). It was February 3, 1959, the same day Buddy Holly died in an airplane crash. These events caused her to avoid flying for the next year, even turning down job offers (with the exception of auditioning for BUtterfield 8) if they were so short notice she could only travel by air. She eventually underwent hypnosis to overcome her fear of flying.
In July 1964, Hal Fishman introduced her to personal flying when he took her on an evening flight over Los Angeles in a Cessna 172. The experience motivated her to return the next day to the Santa Monica Airport to begin training for a Private Pilot certificate. In 1966, while preparing for her own transatlantic flight, she was a passenger in a Piper J-3 Cub when the pilot ran into wires while "show-boating"; the airplane flipped and crashed. She and the pilot escaped injury.
In 1967, piloting her own Aero Commander 200, she became the fourth woman to fly a single-engine aircraft solo across the Atlantic Ocean and the second to do it from New York City. Although she was attempting to fly to Moscow, her odyssey ended in Denmark after the government of the Soviet Union denied her permission to enter its air space. She wrote about her aviation exploits and philosophy of life in an autobiography published in 1983.
In 1968, she was contacted by Learjet to see if she was interested in getting a type rating in one of their jets with the intent to set record flights for them. She earned the rating and even flew some charters (having by that time acquired a commercial pilot certificate in single and multiengine land airplanes), but did not fly any record flights in their jets.
In 1970, Oliver co-piloted a Piper Comanche to victory in the 2760-mile transcontinental race known as the "Powder Puff Derby", which resulted in her being named Pilot of the Year. The pilot was Margaret Mead (not the famous anthropologist), an experienced pilot who had flown in several derbies with different co-pilots. In 1972, her training for a glider rating was chronicled for an episode of the television series The American Sportsman and the segment aired in March 1973.
According to the FAA Registry, the glider rating was issued to Oliver on July 21, 1972. It was her last rating. The Registry shows her to have earned commercial pilot ratings for airplane single engine land, airplane multiengine land, instrument airplane, and private privileges for glider. Her last aviation medical exam was in May 1976; therefore, she could not legally pilot any aircraft except gliders after May 1978, marking the end of her piloting of powered aircraft.
Selected TV and filmographyEdit
|1957||The Green-Eyed Blonde||Phyllis ("Greeneyes")|
|1957||The Kaiser Aluminum Hour||Kay||Episode: "So Short a Season"|
|1957||Crossroads||Connie Willis||Episode: "9:30 Action"|
|1957||Wagon Train||Judy Rossiter||Episode: "The Emily Rossiter Story" |
|1958||Father Knows Best||Cousin Millie||Episode: "Country Cousin"|
|1958||Kraft Television Theatre||Pamela||Episode: "The Woman at High Hollow"|
|1958||Suspicion||Rosemary Russell||Episode: "The Woman Turned to Salt"|
|1959||Trackdown||Rebecca Ford||Episode: "Blind Alley"|
|1959||Alcoa Theatre||Bernice Davis||Episode: "The Long House on Avenue A"|
|1959||The Gene Krupa Story||Dorissa Dinell|
|1960||Wanted: Dead or alive||Bess||Episode: "The Pariah"|
|1960||The Untouchables||Roxie Plumber||Episode: "The Organization"|
|1960||Bonanza||Leta Malvet||Episode: "The Outcast"|
|1960||Wagon Train||Maggie Hamilton||Episode: "The Maggie Hamilton Story"|
|1960||The Twilight Zone||Teenya||Episode: "People Are Alike All Over"|
|1960||Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theatre||Susan Pittman||Episode: "Knife of Hate"|
|1961||Naked City||as Jessica||Episode: "A memory of Crying"|
|1961||The Aquanauts||Laura West||Episode: "Stormy Weather"|
|1961||Rawhide||Laurie Evans||Episode: "Incident of His Brother's Keeper"|
|1961||The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet||Lori||Episode: "Rick, the Milkman"|
|1961||Route 66||Joan Maslow||Episode: "Welcome to Amity"|
|1961||Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theatre||Hannah Smith||Episode: "Image of a Drawn Sword"|
|1961||Thriller||Edith Landers||Episode: "Choose a Victim"|
|1962||Route 66||Claire/Chris||Episode: "Between Hello and Goodbye"|
|1962||Laramie||Jean Lavelle||Episode: "Shadows in the Dust"|
|1962||Cain's Hundred||Kitty||Episode: "The Cost of Living"|
|1962||The Alfred Hitchcock Hour||Annabel Delaney||Episode: "Annabel"|
|1963||Rawhide||Judy Hall||Episode: "Incident at Spider Rock"|
|1963||Wagon Train||Lily||Episode: "The Lily Legend Story"|
|1963||77 Sunset Strip||Kristine Seaver||Episode: "Your Fortune for a Penny"|
|1963||The Caretakers||Nurse Cathy Clark|
|1963||The Fugitive||Karen||Episode: "Never Wave Goodbye"|
|1963||Route 66||Willow||Episode: "Fifty Miles from Home"|
|1964||Looking For Love||Jan McNair|
|1964||Guns of Diablo||Maria Macklin|
|1964||Your Cheatin' Heart||Audrey Williams|
|1964||The Disorderly Orderly||Susan Andrews|
|1964||Destry||Rebecca Fairhaven||Episode: "One Hundred Bibles"|
|1964||The Andy Griffith Show||Jan McNair||Episode: "Prisoner of Love" Season 4 Episode 18|
|1964||Star Trek||Vina||Pilot Episode: "The Cage"
Episode: "The Menagerie" (Parts 1 & 2) S1: E12 & E13 respectively (1966) (re-used footage from the pilot)
|1965||Seaway||Sue Murray||Episode: "The Sparrows"|
|1965||The Man from U.N.C.L.E.||Ursula Alice Baldwin||Episode: "The Bow-Wow Affair"|
|1966||A Man Called Shenandoah||Virginia Harvey||Episode: "Rope's End"|
|1966||Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C.||Julie Myers||Episode: "A Date with Miss Camp Henderson"|
|1966||My Three Sons||Jerry Harper||Episode: "The Awkward Age"|
|1966||Peyton Place||Ann Howard||48 episodes|
|1967||Tarzan||Peggy Dean||Episode S1E18: "The Day the Earth Trembled"|
|1967||T.H.E. Cat||Lori Neil||Episode: "Twenty One And Out"|
|1967||The Love-Ins||Patricia Cross|
|1967||The Wild Wild West||Triste||Episode: "The Night Dr. Loveless Died"|
|1967||The Invaders||Stacy Cahill||Episode: "The Ivy Curtain"|
|1968||A Man Called Gannon||Matty|
|1968||The Invaders||Joan Seeley||Episode: "Inquisition"|
|1969||Mannix||Linda Jordan||Episode: "The Odds Against Donald Jordan"|
|1969||The Big Valley||Kate Wilson||Episode: "Alias Nellie Handley"|
|1969||Change of Mind||Margaret Rowe|
|1969||The Monitors||Barbara Cole|
|1970||Carter's Army||Anna Renvic||TV movie|
|1971||Company of Killers||Thelma Dwyer||TV movie|
|1971||Do You Take This Stranger?||Mildred Crandall||TV movie|
|1971||Dan August||Leona Serling||Episode: "Prognosis: Homicide"|
|1971||Sarge||Fran||Episode: "An Accident Waiting to Happen"|
|1971||Alias Smith and Jones||Miss Blanche Graham||Episode: "Journey from San Juan"|
|1972||Medical Center||Ruth||Episode: "Vision of Doom"|
|1972||Gunsmoke||Sarah Elkins||Episode: "Eleven Dollars"|
|1973||The American Sportsman||Herself||Segment: "Soaring at El Mirage"|
|1973||Cannon||Jill Thorson||Episode: "Moving Target"|
|1973||Circle of Fear||Ellen Pritchard||Episode: "Spare Parts"|
|1973||Love Story||Virginia Madison||Episode: "The Youngest Lovers"|
|1974||Ginger in the Morning||Sugar|
|1974||Police Story||Rina Prescott||Episode: "World Full of Hurt"|
|1974||Petrocelli||Eleanor Warren||Episode: "Edge of Evil"|
|1976||Amelia Earhart||Netta Snook "Snookie"|
|1977||The Streets of San Francisco||Gracie Boggs||Episode: "Hang Tough"|
|1977||Nido de Viudas||Isabel||US title: Widow's Nest|
|1980||Hardly Working||Claire Trent|
|1982||Tomorrow's Child||Marilyn Hurst||Television movie|
|1982||M*A*S*H||Director, 1 episode|
|1983||Trapper John, M.D.||Director, 1 episode|
|1982||International Airport||Mary Van Leuven||Television movie|
|1985||Magnum, P.I.||Laurie Crane||Episode: "Let Me Hear the Music"|
|1986||Murder, She Wrote||Louise||Episode: "Jessica Behind Bars"|
|1988||Our House||Olga Zelnikova||Episode: "Balance of Power"|
|1988||Freddy's Nightmares||The Maid / Future Judy Miller||Episode: "Judy Miller, Come on Down", (final appearance)|
- Susan Oliver on IMDb
- The play's opening night at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre was on January 3, 1957, and, 12 performances later, closing night was January 12. Leo Genn as General Howe
- The film was scripted by blacklisted writer Dalton Trumbo and credited to "front" Sally Stubblefield.
- The melancholy comedy, written by French playwright Marcel Achard, played to sold-out theaters in Paris upon its premiere in 1957. Adapted for American audiences by Irwin Shaw, Patate (which in French means "spud", but can also mean "chump") paired Oliver with veteran leading man Tom Ewell (in the title role) and Lee Bowman. The play opened at Henry Miller's Theatre on October 28, 1958, and closed on November 1.
- "The Maggie Hamilton Story". Internet Movie Data Base. Retrieved May 20, 2012.
- Asherman, Allan (1983). The Star Trek Compendium. WH Allen, Star Books. p. 28.
- "Star Trek's original Green Girl the subject of Kickstarter documentary". ew.com - Entertainment Weekly. 13 Feb 2013. Retrieved 31 Dec 2015.
- "BUTTERFIELD 8 (1960)". TCM.com. Turner Classic Movies (TCM). Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- WOMEN DIRECTORS IN HOLLYWOOD, The Founding of the Directing Workshop for Women of the American Film Institute, a History, THE DREAM OF THE MARBLE BRIDGE, http://janhaag.com/ESessays.html
- Oliver, Susan (1983). Odyssey: A Daring Transatlantic Journey. Macmillan Publishing Co. ISBN 0-02-592920-8.
- "NTSB No. LAX67D0086".
- Robesonian newspaper archives, March 18, 1973; accessed March 7, 2015.
- Profile, amsrvs.registry.faa.gov; accessed March 7, 2015.
- "Susan Oliver Is Dead; Television Actress". New York Times. 1990-05-15. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- ""Wagon Train" The Emily Rossiter Story (TV Episode 1957)" – via www.imdb.com.
- "The Green Girl". 29 July 2014 – via www.imdb.com.
- Susan Oliver on IMDb
- Susan Oliver at the Internet Broadway Database
- Susan Oliver at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
- Susan Oliver at Memory Alpha (a Star Trek wiki)
- Susan Oliver at Find a Grave
- Listen to Susan Oliver on Zero Hour hosted by Rod Serling Zero Hour Podcast 1973-12-24 (ep51) John Dehner and Susan Oliver – Fourth Of Forever – Part 1, with a new introduction.
- LA Times obituary