Strabane (/strəˈbæn/; from Irish An Srath Bán, meaning 'the white river-holm')[1][2][3] is a town in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland.

Strabane
Town
The Square, town centre of Strabane
Strabane is located in Northern Ireland
Strabane
Strabane
Location within Northern Ireland
Population13,507 (2021 Census)
District
County
CountryNorthern Ireland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townStrabane
Postcode districtBT82
Dialling code028
PoliceNorthern Ireland
FireNorthern Ireland
AmbulanceNorthern Ireland
UK Parliament
NI Assembly
Websitewww.derrystrabane.com
List of places
UK
Northern Ireland
Tyrone
54°50′N 7°28′W / 54.83°N 7.47°W / 54.83; -7.47

Strabane had a population of 13,172 at the 2011 Census.[4] It lies on the east bank of the River Foyle. It is roughly midway from Omagh, Derry and Letterkenny. The River Foyle marks the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. On the other side of the river (across Lifford Bridge) is the smaller town of Lifford, which is the county town of Donegal. The River Mourne flows through the centre of the town and meets the Finn to form the Foyle River. A large hill named Knockavoe, which marks the beginning of the Sperrin Mountains, forms the backdrop to the town.

History

edit

Early history

edit
 
Photograph of Strabane Fair by Herbert F. Cooper, c. 1910 (PRONI)

The locale was home to a group of northern Celts known as the Orighella as far back as the fourth century when the territories of Owen (later Tír Eoghain) and Connail (later Tír Chonaill - mostly modern County Donegal) were established, and Orighella were assimilated into the Cenél Conaill. With the arrival of Saint Patrick, a mission established a church in the area near Castlefin, and having visited the Grianán Aileach for the conversion of Owen, returned along the Foyle river, establishing a further church at Leckpatrick (the name means 'the flagstone of St. Patrick'). A later church was established at Lifford/Clonleigh by a mission headed by St. Colmcille. In AD 586 St. Colgan established a monastery at Camus [from whence the parish of Camus-Juxta-Mourne gets its name]. Other monasteries and religious sites were established at this time at Urney, Ballycolman, Donagheady, and Artigarvan.[5]

The Middle Ages

edit

Vikings arrived at Lifford in AD 832 and maintained a presence on the Foyle until AD 863 when they were expelled by Áed Findliath. The regional seat of power was to be the Grianán Aileach until 1101, when it was destroyed by the O'Briens of Thomond, and was then moved to Urney, three miles outside Strabane. In 1243, the seat of power for all Tyrone and the O'Neill dynasty was moved to Cookstown. It was during this epoch, in AD 1231, that Franciscan friars established a religious foundation on what is now the old graveyard at St. Patrick's Street, Strabane.[5]

Seventeenth century

edit

The town was settled by Scottish families in the 1600s, an action that preceded the Plantation of Ulster. In 1608, during O'Doherty's Rebellion, most of the inhabitants fled to the safety of the fort of Lifford following Sir Cahir O'Doherty's Burning of Derry and Burning of Strabane.[6]

Twentieth century

edit
 
Main Street, Strabane

In 1921, Strabane became a border town following the partition of Ireland.[7] Sitting directly astride the border, Strabane suffered extensive damage during the Troubles from the early 1970s: Strabane Town Hall was destroyed in a bomb attack in 1972.[8] The damage continued throughout much of the 1990s, with bombings and shootings commonplace; Irish Republican paramilitary groups, mainly the Provisional Irish Republican Army, regularly attacked the town's British Army and Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) bases. Strabane was once the most bombed town in Europe in proportion to its size, and was the most bombed town in Northern Ireland.[9]

Many civilians and members of the security forces were killed or injured in the area over the course of the Troubles. Many British Army regiments from England, Scotland and Wales served in Strabane at various times during the Troubles in the barracks at the locally named "Camel's hump" beside Lifford Bridge. As a result of the Good Friday Agreement, there is no longer any British Army presence in the town. Strabane became involved in the Ulster Project International, sending Catholic and Protestant teenagers to the United States for prejudice-reduction work.[10]

At the height of The Troubles, Strabane garnered the dubious distinction of the highest unemployment rate in the industrial world. It is one of the most economically deprived towns in the United Kingdom. Huge economic damage occurred when much of the town centre flooded in 1987.[11]

In August 2005, a Channel 4 television programme presented by property experts Kirstie Allsopp and Phil Spencer named Strabane the eighth-worst place to live in the UK, largely owing to unemployment.[12] Strabane had been moved out of the top 20 in the 2007 edition.[13]

As a result, the Strabane Community Unemployed Group,[14] was founded to find solutions to long-term unemployment and combat the causes for unemployment. Sister Mary Carmel Fanning, a retired Catholic girls school principal who had been awarded the MBE for her services to education in 1997,[15] became a director of the Group later that year.[16]

Transport

edit

Railways

edit
 
The Lifford Bridge, linking Lifford in the Republic and Strabane in the North
 
Abercorn Square, Strabane

The Irish gauge 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) Londonderry and Enniskillen Railway (L&ER) reached Strabane in 1847,[17] Omagh in 1852[18] and Enniskillen in 1854.[18] The Great Northern Railway (Ireland) took over the L&ER in 1883.[19]

The Finn Valley Railway (FV) opened from Strabane to Stranorlar in 1863.[18][20] The FV was originally Irish gauge but in 1892 it merged with the 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge West Donegal Railway (WD) to form the Donegal Railway[21] and was reduced to the same narrow gauge for through running. The Donegal Railway opened its own line to Derry in 1900.[17] In 1906 the GNR and Northern Counties Committee jointly took over the Donegal Railway, making it the County Donegal Railways Joint Committee.[21] The 3 ft (914 mm) gauge Strabane and Letterkenny Railway opened in 1909[17] and was worked by the Joint Committee.[21]

The partition of Ireland in 1922 turned the boundary with County Donegal into an international frontier. This changed trade patterns to the railways' detriment and placed border posts on the Joint Committee's FV and S&L lines and on the GNR line to Derry.[17] Stops for customs inspections greatly delayed trains and disrupted timekeeping. Over the next few years customs agreements between the two states enabled GNR trains between Strabane and Derry to pass through the Free State without inspection unless they were scheduled to serve local stations on the west bank of the Foyle, and for goods on all railways to be carried between different parts of the Free State to pass through Northern Ireland under customs bond. The Joint Committee's Strabane-Derry line was closed in 1954, followed by the remainder of the narrow gauge system in 1960.[22] In 1958 the Ulster Transport Authority took over the remaining GNR lines on the Northern Ireland side of the border. In accordance with The Benson Report submitted to the Northern Ireland Government in 1963, the UTA closed the former GNR line through Strabane to Derry in 1965.[22][23]

Little trace remains of Strabane's railways except for one old railway building that survives in the town. The nearest railway is operated by Northern Ireland Railways and runs from Derry~Londonderry railway station via Coleraine to Belfast Lanyon Place railway station and Belfast Grand Central station. The Belfast-Derry railway line has been upgraded to facilitate more frequent trains.[24]

Demographics

edit
National Identity of Strabane residents (2021)[25][26][27]
Nationality Per cent
Irish
67.4%
Northern Irish
25.1%
British
8.4%

2021 Census

edit

On Census day 2021 there were 13,507 people living in Strabane.[28] Of these:

  • 20.93% were aged under 16, 62.89% were aged between 16-65, and 16.18% were aged 66 and over;[29]
  • 51.83% of the usually resident population were female and 48.17% were male;[30]
  • 91.96% (12,241) belong to or were brought up in the Catholic faith, 5.46% (738) belong to or were brought up in a 'Protestant and Other Christian (including Christian related)' denominations, 0.65% (88) belong to other religions and 1.92% (260) had no religious background.
  • 6.77% only identified as 'British', 63.98% only identified as 'Irish', 21.60% only identified as 'Northern Irish', 0.4% identity as 'both Irish and British', 0.64% identified as 'both British and Northern Irish', 2.39% identified as 'both Irish and Northern Irish', 0.38% identified as 'Irish, British and Northern Irish', and 3.83% identified as 'Other';[31]
  • 19.57% had some knowledge of Irish (Gaeilge), and 2.65% had some knowledge of Ulster-Scots;[32][33]

2011 Census

edit

On Census day (27 March 2011) there were 13,172 people living in Strabane (5,123 households), accounting for 0.73% of the NI total,[4] representing a decline of 2.2% on the Census 2001 population of 13,456.[34] Of these:

  • 23.00% were aged under 16 years and 13.19% were aged 65 and over;
  • 52.32% of the usually resident population were female and 47.68% were male;
  • 91.57% belong to or were brought up in the Catholic Christian faith and 7.22% belong to or were brought up in a 'Protestant and Other Christian (including Christian related)' denominations;
  • 56.03% had an Irish national identity, 33.54% had a Northern Irish national identity and 12.03% had a British national identity (respondents could indicate more than one national identity);
  • 36 years was the average (median) age of the population;
  • 17.43% had some knowledge of Irish (Gaeilge) and 3.49% had some knowledge of Ulster-Scots.

Politics

edit

As of 2015, Strabane and Derry councils joined to form Derry City and Strabane District Council, and have a strong nationalist majority. At the local elections in May 2011, members of Strabane District Council were elected from the following political parties: 8 Sinn Féin, 4 Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), 1 Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), 1 Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) and 2 Independent Nationalist. The council chairperson for 2013-14 was Ruairí McHugh of Sinn Féin.[35]

Since 1997 Strabane has been part of the United Kingdom parliamentary constituency of West Tyrone, held since 2001 by Sinn Féin's Pat Doherty. From 1983 to 1997 it was part of the Foyle constituency, held during that time by the then-SDLP leader John Hume.[36]

Culture

edit

Sport

edit

The local Gaelic football team is Strabane Sigersons.[37]

Strabane Cricket Club and Fox Lodge Cricket Club are members of the North West Senior League.[38]

Strabane Athletic F.C. play in the Northern Ireland Intermediate League.[39]

The town has three golf courses[40] prominent among which is the 18-hole Strabane Golf Course.

Angling has historically been popular in the Strabane area. The town and immediate countryside is served by several good game fishing rivers and lough fishing at Moorlough and Lough Ash.

Geography

Strabane is situated at the confluence of the rivers Mourne and Finn where they meet to form the Foyle. The foothills of the Sperrin Mountains rise immediately behind the town and it is surrounded by hills and uplands. There are many picturesque small glens and wooded valleys immediately adjacent to the town including Strabane Glen , a steep wooded gorge , which is a designated ASSI. [citation needed]

Irish language

edit

Strabane has an Irish-medium nursery, Naíscoil an tSratha Báin, which was founded in 1994,[41] and a Gaelscoil (primary school).[42]

A common greeting in Strabane and the wider North West is "Have ye any bars?" This means "What's the news?" or "What's the latest gossip?"[43] This may derive from Irish, from the phrase "barr nuachta," meaning "titbit," referring to a tasty piece of news.[44]

Music and arts

edit
 
The sculpture known locally as The Tinnies on the outskirts of Strabane, beside the roundabout near the Lifford turn-off

In 2007, the Alley Arts and Conference Centre (designed by architects Glenn Howells and AJA)[45] opened to the general public, offering a 270-seat theatre, art gallery, tourist information centre and cafe-bar. The Alley was Northern Ireland Building of the Year in 2008,[45] and won the Allianz Arts and Business Award 2009[46] and The Green Apple Award 2008. The venue has hosted the All Ireland Confined Drama Finals (2008) and is the current home of the North West Music Festival, The Stage Write Schools Drama Festival, Sounds Like Summer Music Festival, Strabane Drama Festival, and the Johnny Crampsie Music Festival.[47]

Strabane plays host to a Saint Patrick's Day Parade each year. One of Strabane's most notable features are five 20 ft (6.1 m) steel structures on the banks of the river. Designed by Maurice Harron, they consist of two dancers and a fiddle player on the Lifford side, a flute player on the Strabane side and a drummer in the middle.[48][49]

Religion

edit
 
Sacred Heart Roman Catholic church.
 
Christ Church (Church of Ireland) in Strabane

According to the 2011 census, 91.57% of the residents were from a Catholic background and 7.22% were from a Protestant background.[4] There are a number of places of worship for the residents of Strabane and the surrounding district. The three main Catholic churches are the Church of the Immaculate Conception, Barrack Street, Sacred Heart Church, Derry Road and St. Mary's Church, Melmount Road.[50]

The main Church of Ireland church is Christ Church, Bowling Green.[51] The main Presbyterian Church is located on the Derry Road while the main Methodist Church is located on Railway Street.[52]

Education

edit

Education in Strabane is provided by a mixture of infant, primary and secondary schools. The central location of the town allows parents the choice of schools in Derry, Omagh and Donegal.

There are two secondary schools in the town: Holy Cross College and Strabane Academy. Holy Cross College was created in 2003 with the amalgamation of Strabane's three Catholic post-primary schools, the Convent Grammar School, St Colman's High School and Our Lady of Mercy High School. The college had been operating across the three sites until its £29 million state-of-the-art new building opened in September 2009, catering for 1,400 pupils. Holy Cross is a co-ed bilateral college, which means it offers grammar status education within an all-ability school. It is regarded as a blueprint for the future of education in Northern Ireland because it caters for both academic and vocational paths.[53] The other secondary school is Strabane Academy which was formed in 2011 when Strabane Grammar School merged with Strabane High School.[54]

The North West Regional College which has campuses in Derry, Limavady as well as Strabane offers a range of vocational and non-vocational courses for post 16 year olds.[55]

Places of interest

edit

The National Trust owns a Strabane shop in which John Dunlap learnt the printing trade. Dunlap went on to print the United States Declaration of Independence.[56]

Dergalt, the ancestral home of Woodrow Wilson, 28th President of the United States, is near Strabane.[57][58][59] On 8 May 2008 it was severely damaged by a fire.[60]

In 2014, a mural was painted in Townsend Street with the intention of showing support for the people of Palestine following Israeli military action in Gaza.[61]

Other

edit

Strabane transmitting station is a broadcasting and telecommunications facility owned and operated by Arqiva. It includes a 305.5 metre (1,002 ft) high guyed steel lattice mast, which is the tallest structure in Ireland. The transmission antennas surmounting the structure are contained within a fibreglass cylinder. Constructed in 1963, it came into service on 18 February of that year.[62]

Notable people

edit

See also

edit

References

edit
  1. ^ "PlaceNames NI". Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  2. ^ Room, Adrian (2003), Placenames of the world, Jefferson, NC: McFarland, p. 344, ISBN 0-7864-1814-1
  3. ^ "An Srath Ban/Strabane". logainm.ie. Archived from the original on 17 July 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  4. ^ a b c "Census 2011 Population Statistics for Strabane Settlement". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA). Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2019.   This article contains quotations from this source, which is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0. © Crown copyright.
  5. ^ a b The Fair River Valley : Strabane through the ages. OCLC 045721315.
  6. ^ Cox, Michael (2006). Overlooking the River Mourne: Four Centuries of Family Farms in Edymore and Cavanalee in County Tyrone. Ulster Historical Foundation. p. 2. ISBN 978-1903688441.
  7. ^ "The Border Dividing Ireland Has Long Been Invisible. Brexit Threatens to Make It Real". The New York Times. 26 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  8. ^ "A pleasant trip down the Fair River Valley". The Belfast Telegraph. 5 July 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  9. ^ "How one gay bar changed attitudes in rural N Ireland". Channel 4 News. Archived from the original on 8 November 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  10. ^ "Ulster Project International". Ulsterproject.org. Archived from the original on 25 June 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  11. ^ "Flood disaster recalled - 25 years on". Derry Journal. 16 October 2012. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  12. ^ "The Best and Worst Places to Live in Britain". Channel4.com. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  13. ^ "Town shrugs off dismal TV label". BBC News. Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
  14. ^ "NICVA". 11 March 2016. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  15. ^ "Listing". www.thegazette.co.uk. 13 June 1997. Archived from the original on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  16. ^ "Strabane Community Unemployed Group". Companies House. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  17. ^ a b c d Hajducki, S. Maxwell (1974). A Railway Atlas of Ireland. Newton Abbott: David & Charles. map 3. ISBN 0-7153-5167-2.
  18. ^ a b c Hajducki, 1974, map 7
  19. ^ Patterson, Edward M. (1962). The County Donegal Railways. Dawlish: David & Charles. pp. 10–11.
  20. ^ Hajducki, 1974, map 6
  21. ^ a b c Hajducki, 1974, page xi
  22. ^ a b Hajducki, 1974, map 39
  23. ^ Baker, Michael H.C. (1972). Irish Railways since 1916. London, UK: Ian Allan. pp. 153, 207. ISBN 0-7110-0282-7.
  24. ^ "Translink start new hourly train service to Londonderry". BBC News. 3 July 2017.
  25. ^ "National Identity (Irish)". NISRA. Retrieved 21 August 2023.
  26. ^ "National Identity (Northern Irish)". NISRA. Retrieved 21 August 2023.
  27. ^ "National Identity (British)". NISRA. Retrieved 21 August 2023.
  28. ^ "Religion or religion brought up in". NISRA. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  29. ^ "Preview data for your table | NISRA Flexible Table Builder". build.nisra.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  30. ^ "Preview data for Sex (MS-A07) | NISRA Flexible Table Builder". build.nisra.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  31. ^ "Preview data for National identity (person based) - basic detail (classification 1) (MS-B15) | NISRA Flexible Table Builder". build.nisra.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  32. ^ "Preview data for Knowledge of Irish (MS-B05) | NISRA Flexible Table Builder". build.nisra.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  33. ^ "Preview data for Knowledge of Ulster-Scots (MS-B08) | NISRA Flexible Table Builder". build.nisra.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 March 2024.
  34. ^ "Census 2001 Usually Resident Population: KS01 (Settlements) - Table view". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA). p. 6. Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  35. ^ "Sinn Fein Cllr Ruiari McHugh has been appointed as new chair of Strabane District Council". Highland Radio. 6 June 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  36. ^ "'An ordinary man who shaped a better future for us all here'". Strabane Weekly. 8 August 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  37. ^ "Strabane Sigersons GAA - Project". The Community Fund. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  38. ^ "Eglinton to host men's North West senior final". Derry Journal. 26 August 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  39. ^ "Congratulations to Maiden City, who are the 2021/22 Northern Ireland Intermediate League Champions". Causeway Chronicle. 15 May 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  40. ^ "Strabane". www.discoveringireland.com. Archived from the original on 25 July 2018. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  41. ^ "Naíscoil an tSratha Báin". Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  42. ^ "History of Gaelscoil Uí Dhochartaigh". Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  43. ^ Quinn, Andrew (17 May 2017). "30 words and phrases only Derry 'wans' will know". Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  44. ^ "English-Irish Dictionary". 1959. Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  45. ^ a b "Alley Arts & Conference Centre". Glenn Howells. Archived from the original on 25 October 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  46. ^ "Excellence award for Strabane's Alley Theatre". Derry Journal. 19 January 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  47. ^ "Johnny Crampsie". 7 January 2010. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010.
  48. ^ "Maurice Harron-Artist-sculptor". Mauriceharron.com. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
  49. ^ "The Tinneys". Very Derry. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
  50. ^ "Strabane (Camus) Parish". Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  51. ^ "Christ Church, Strabane". Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  52. ^ "Methodist Church - Strabane". Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  53. ^ "Holy Cross College hailed as a beacon". Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
  54. ^ "Strabane Academy". Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  55. ^ "NWRC". Archived from the original on 22 August 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  56. ^ a b "The Irishman who printed the United States Declaration of Independence". The Irish Times. 20 May 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  57. ^ "World Travel Destinations, Culture and History Guide". Geographia. 3 October 2006. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
  58. ^ Walworth, Arthur (1958). Woodrow Wilson: American prophet. Longman's Green.
  59. ^ "Woodrow Wilson: A brief portrait of the 28th President of the United States". BBC News. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  60. ^ "BBC News". 8 May 2008. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  61. ^ "Strabane artists gaining worldwide recognition for Gaza mural". Highland Radio. 16 August 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  62. ^ "TheBigTower Strabane Transmitter". Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  63. ^ "Strabane singer Paul Brady: I regret slating U2". The Belfast Courier. 26 September 2022. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  64. ^ "Famous People – Strabane History Society Website". strabanehistorysociety.org. Archived from the original on 25 July 2018. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  65. ^ "Carleton, Sir Guy". Dictionary of Irish Biography. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  66. ^ "Strabane homecoming for Curry". BBC News. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  67. ^ "Strabane wonderkid Adrian Doherty could have been a star". The Irish News. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  68. ^ "Sit on my lap if you're against war". Independent.ie. 16 February 2003. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
  69. ^ "Strabane singer Ryan Dolan for Eurovision final". BBC News. 15 May 2013. Archived from the original on 11 June 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
  70. ^ "Dooher to stay as Tyrone captain". BBC Sport. 8 January 2008. Archived from the original on 13 January 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  71. ^ "'Everyone loves the best of country music across Ulster - it unites us'". News Letter. 25 January 2022. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  72. ^ "Gault, Andrew Frederick". Canadian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  73. ^ "Gault, Matthew Hamilton". Canadian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  74. ^ Burke, Bernard (1970) [1891]. Burke's Colonial Gentry (2 ed.). Baltimore, Ohio: Genealogical Publishing Company. pp. 201, 202. ISBN 0-8063-0415-4.
  75. ^ "British Academy Game Awards: Strabane woman Niamh Houston nominated". BBC. 5 March 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  76. ^ Fletcher, Lyndsay; Dalla, Silvia (1 October 2016). "A pioneer of solar astronomy Women & The RAS: Annie Maunder". Astronomy & Geophysics. 57 (5): 5.21–5.23. doi:10.1093/astrogeo/atw181. ISSN 1366-8781.
  77. ^ "Jail breaker on police killing charge". BBC News. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  78. ^ "Blue plaque for Strabane's Flann O'Brien". Northern Ireland World. 23 September 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  79. ^ "O'Neill calls time on inter-county career". The Irish Examiner. 24 January 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  80. ^ Patterson, Lindsay (1915). The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. Vol. XXXIX. Philadelphia: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania. p. 80. Retrieved 8 December 2023.
  81. ^ "Four-goal Patterson refuses to take the plaudits as Strabane Athletic make it three from three". Strabane Weekly News. 3 November 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  82. ^ "George Sigerson". Ulster History Circle. 18 April 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  83. ^ North China Herald, 20 October 1923, p179
  84. ^ "Robert John Welch". Ulster History Circle. 18 April 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
edit