A sponge (/ˈspʌn/ SPUNJ) is a cleaning aid made of soft, porous material. Typically used for cleaning impervious surfaces, sponges are especially good at absorbing water and water-based solutions.

Vegetable fiber sponge: wood fiber sponge combined with scouring pad.
Animal fiber sponge: A Greek natural sponge.

Originally made from natural sea sponges, they are most commonly made from synthetic materials today.

Etymology edit

The word comes from the Ancient Greek term σπόγγος (spóngos),[1] which in turn is probably derived from a Mediterranean Pre-Indo European substrate.

History edit

The first reference of sponges used for hygiene dates from Ancient Greece. Competitors of the Olympic Games bathed themselves with sea sponges soaked in olive oil or perfume before competing. In the book Odyssey by the Greek poet Homer, the god Hephaestus cleans his hands, face, and chest with a sea sponge, and the servants in the Odysseus palace used sea sponges to clean the tables after the meals the suitors of Penelope had there. The Greek philosophers Aristotle and Plato mentioned sea sponges in both scientific and historic contexts in their works.[2][3] Ancient Greeks and Romans also used sea sponges tied to sticks for anal hygiene, a tool known as the xylospongium, and washed them with sea water.[4]

Ancient Romans used sea sponges extensively for hygiene, as well as other uses. The belief that sponges had therapeutic properties led to their usage in medicine for cleaning wounds and treating disease.[2]

In the New Testament, a Roman soldier offers Jesus Christ the Holy Sponge soaked in vinegar on the tip of his spear (some versions say staff) for Jesus to drink during his crucifixion.[3][5]

Synthetic sponges were made possible to be manufactured only after the invention of polyester in the 1920s and the commercial production of polyurethane foam in 1952.[6][7]

Material edit

Synthetic sponges can be made of polyester, polyurethane, or vegetable cellulose. Polyurethane is used in polyester sponges for their abrasive side. Polyester sponges are more common for dish washing and are usually soft and yellow.[8][9] Microplastics and nanoplastics can be released from kitchen sponges during use.[10]

Vegetable cellulose sponges made of wood fiber are used more for bathing and skin cleaning, and are usually tougher and more expensive than polyester sponges.[citation needed] They are considered more eco-friendly than polyester sponges as they are biodegradable and made of natural materials.[8][11]

Harboring bacteria edit

Bacteria from a kitchen sponge

A sponge can be a medium for the growth of harmful bacteria or fungi, especially when it is allowed to remain wet between uses.[12]

Cleaning edit

Several methods have been used to clean sponges. A 2009 study showed that the microwave and the dishwasher were both effective ways to clean domestic sponges.[13] Leaving sponges soaking in a dilute solution of dish detergent discourages bacterial growth.

Studies have investigated the use of the microwave to clean non-metallic domestic sponges that have been thoroughly moistened. A 2006 study found that microwaving wet sponges for two minutes (at 1000 watt power) killed 99% of coliforms, E. coli, and MS2 phages, but Bacillus cereus spores required four minutes.[13] After some fires were caused by people trying to replicate the results at home, the study's author urged people to make sure their sponges were wet before treatment.[14]

Economy edit

Countries around the Caribbean and the Mediterranean Sea are the largest sea sponge exporters, whereas the largest importers are developed European and North-American countries. Tunisia is the world's main sea sponge exporter, exporting 90% of its sponge production.[15] France is the main importer, being supplied by Tunisia, but France's sponge demand has fallen in recent years.[16]

Main sponge exporters (in metric tons exported)
Exporters 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986
  Tunisia 74 71 84 81 91 88
  Cuba 36 33 38 33 41 41
  France 25 26 33 31 35 30
  Greece 32 42 36 27 32 22
  Bahamas - 8 21 8 3 14
  Turkey 11 8 7 8 1 1
  Egypt 5 4 4 2 4 8
  Japan - 6 4 1 1 6
  Philippines 9 4 5 6 6 4
  Libya - - - 6 3 -
Total 192 202 232 213 245 225

Gallery edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon".
  2. ^ a b Inc., The Sea Sponge Company. "The History of the Sea Sponge". The Sea Sponge Company Inc. Retrieved 2018-04-14. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  3. ^ a b "Natural Sea Sponges and sponge diving history". www.kalymnos-shop.gr. Retrieved 2018-04-14.
  4. ^ "Como era feita a higiene bucal antes da pasta de dente?". Mundo Estranho (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-04-14.
  5. ^ Matthew 27:48
  6. ^ "Polyurethane Foam Kitchen Sponge. History of Origin — Vortex Power". www.vortex-power.com. Retrieved 2018-04-14.
  7. ^ "History of Polyester | What is Polyester". www.whatispolyester.com. Retrieved 2018-04-14.
  8. ^ a b S.r.l., Corazzi Fibre. "Polyester sponge and Cellulose sponge". www.corazzi.com. Retrieved 2018-04-14.
  9. ^ "Polyurethane Sponge - Dynathane | PAR Group". www.par-group.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-04-14.
  10. ^ Luo, Yunlong; Qi, Fangjie; Gibson, Christopher T.; Lei, Yongjia; Fang, Cheng (June 2022). "Investigating kitchen sponge-derived microplastics and nanoplastics with Raman imaging and multivariate analysis". Science of the Total Environment. 824: 153963. Bibcode:2022ScTEn.824o3963L. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153963. PMID 35183629. S2CID 246994693.
  11. ^ Hickman, Matt (2017-08-21). "What's the difference between cellulose sponges and those other kitchen sponges?". Mother Nature Network. Retrieved 2018-04-14.
  12. ^ "Reducing bacteria in household sponges". Journal of Environmental Health. 62: 18–22.
  13. ^ a b Taché, J.; Carpentier, B. (2014). "Hygiene in the home kitchen: Changes in behaviour and impact of key microbiological hazard control measures". Food Control. 35: 392–400. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.07.026.
  14. ^ "Microwave 'sterilisers' warning". 24 January 2007. BBC News.
  15. ^ "Tunisian fishermen driven to perilous depths by mystery sea sponge blight | Environment | the Guardian".
  16. ^ "SPONGES: WORLD PRODUCTION AND MARKETS". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2018-04-14.