Anal hygiene

Anal hygiene or anal cleansing refers to hygienic practices that are performed on a person's anus, usually shortly after defecation. The anus and inner buttocks may be wiped (typically with toilet paper, wet wipes, or gel wipes) or washed in order to remove remnants of fecal matter.

In some cultures—such as many Western countries—cleaning after defecation is generally done with toilet paper only, although some may use wet wipes, until the person can bathe or shower. In Hindu, Buddhist and Muslim cultures, as well as in Southeast Asia and Southern Europe, water is usually used for anal cleansing, using a jet (bidet) or vessel (lota), and a person's hand (in some places only the left hand is used). Cleaning with water is sometimes followed by drying the anal region and hand with a cloth towel or toilet paper. On the other hand, in some parts of developing countries and during camping trips, materials such as vegetable matter (leaves), mudballs, snow (water), corncobs, and stones are sometimes used for anal cleansing.[1][2]

Having hygienic means for anal cleansing available at the toilet or site of defecation is important for overall public health. The absence of proper materials in households can, under some circumstances, be correlated to the number of diarrhea episodes per household.[3] The history of anal hygiene, from ancient Rome and Greece to China and Japan, involves sponges and sticks as well as water and paper.

Toilet paperEdit

 
A roll of toilet paper

The use of toilet paper for post-defecation cleansing first started in China.[4] It became widespread in Western culture.

In some parts of the world, especially before toilet paper was available or affordable, the use of newspaper, telephone directory pages, or other paper products was common. The widely distributed Sears Roebuck catalog was also a popular choice until it began to be printed on glossy paper (at which point some people wrote to the company to complain).[5][6] With flush toilets, using newspaper as toilet paper is likely to cause blockages.

This practice continues today in parts of Africa; while rolls of toilet paper are readily available, they can be fairly expensive, prompting poorer members of the community to use newspapers.

People suffering from hemorrhoids may find it more difficult to keep the anal area clean using only toilet paper and may prefer washing with water as well.[citation needed]

Although wiping from front to back minimizes the risk of contaminating the urethra, the directionality of wiping varies based on sex, personal preference, and culture.

Some people wipe their anal region standing, others wipe theirs sitting.[7]

WaterEdit

 
Top view of a bidet
 
A bidet shower or "health faucet"

Water with soap cleansing is a reliable and hygienic way of removing fecal remnants.

Muslim societiesEdit

The use of water in Muslim countries is due in part to Islamic toilet etiquette which encourages washing after all instances of defecation.[8] There are flexible provisions for when water is scarce: stones or papers can be used for cleansing after defecation instead.

In Turkey, all Western-style toilets have a small nozzle on the centre rear of the toilet rim aiming at the anus. This nozzle is called taharet musluğu and it is controlled by a small tap placed within hand's reach near the toilet. It is used to wash the anus after wiping and drying with toilet paper. Squat toilets in Turkey do not have this kind of nozzle (a small bucket of water from a hand's reach tap or a bidet shower is used instead).

Another alternative resembles a miniature shower and is known as a "health faucet", bidet shower, or "bum gun". It is commonly found to the right of the toilet where it is easy to reach. These are commonly used in the Muslim world. In the Indian subcontinent, a lota vessel is often used to cleanse with water, though the shower or nozzle is common among new toilets.

Indian subcontinentEdit

In India and the Indian subcontinent, over 95% of the population use water for cleansing the anal area after defecating. Use of toilet paper is rare in this region and is seen only in some urban settings. Toilets commonly also have bidet sprayers. Even when toilet paper is used water-based cleansing is considered essential.[citation needed] The cleaning of hands with soap/ liquid soap after this cleansing process is very important. In places where soap is not available, soil, ash or sand is used to clean the hands.[9] Simpler toilet rooms may not have running water for anal cleansing and hand washing, but buckets, bails, and mugs are used for storage of water and for the purpose of cleaning.

Southeast AsiaEdit

 
A Japanese toilet with integrated bidet spraying water for cleaning. The water jet is used to wash the anus and buttocks after defecation.

In Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand, house bathrooms usually have a medium size wide plastic dipper (called gayung in Indonesia, tabo in the Philippines, ขัน (khan) in Thai) or large cup, which is also used in bathing. In Thailand, the "bum gun" is ubiquitous.[10] Some health faucets are metal sets attached to the bowl of the water closet, with the opening pointed at the anus. Toilets in public establishments mainly provide toilet paper for free or dispensed, though the dipper (often a cut up plastic bottle or small jug) is occasionally encountered in some establishments. Owing to its ethnic diversity, restrooms in Malaysia often feature a combination of anal cleansing methods where most public restrooms in cities offer toilet paper as well as a built in bidet or a small hand-held bidet shower (health faucets) connected to the plumbing in the absence of a built-in bidet.

In Vietnam, people often use a bidet shower.[11][10] It is usually available both at general households and public places.

East AsiaEdit

The first "paperless" toilet seat was invented in Japan in 1980. A spray toilet seat, commonly known by Toto's trademark Washlet, is typically a combination of seat warmer, bidet and drier, controlled by an electronic panel or remote control next to the toilet seat. A nozzle placed at rear of the toilet bowl aims a water jet to the anus and serves the purpose of cleaning. Many models have a separate "bidet" function aimed towards the front for feminine cleansing. The spray toilet seat is common only in Western-style toilets, and is not incorporated in traditional style squat toilets. Some modern Japanese bidet toilets, especially in hotels and public areas, are labeled with pictograms to avoid language problems, and most newer models have a sensor that will refuse to activate the bidet unless someone is sitting on the toilet.

 
A modern bidet of the traditional type, available in many southern European and South American countries[12]

Europe and the AmericasEdit

The bidet is common in predominantly Catholic countries where water is considered essential for anal cleansing,[13] Some people in Europe and the Americas use bidets for anal cleansing with water. Bidets are common bathroom fixtures in many Western and Southern European countries and many South American countries,[14][15][16] while bidet showers are more common in Finland.[17] The availability of bidets varies widely within this group of countries. Furthermore, even where bidets exist, they may have other uses than for anal washing. In Italy, the installation of bidets in every household and hotel became mandatory by law in 1975.[citation needed]

Other materialsEdit

Wet wipes and gel wipesEdit

When cleaning babies' buttocks during diaper changes wet wipes are often used, in combination with water if available. As wet wipes are produced from plastic textiles made of polyester or polypropylene, they are notoriously bad for sewage systems as they do not decompose, although the wet wipe industry maintains they are biodegradable but not "flushable".[18][19][20]

A product of the 21st century, special foams, sprays and gels can be combined with dry toilet paper as an alternatives to wet wipes. A moisturizing gel can be applied to toilet paper for personal hygiene or to reduce skin irritation from diarrhea. This product is called gel wipe.[21]

Cloths and paperEdit

Rags or washcloths are sometimes used.[2]:162 They are then washed similarly to cloth diapers and used again.[citation needed] Newspaper may be used instead of toilet paper.[2]

Natural materialsEdit

In rural areas of developing countries or during camping trips, stones, leaves, corn cobs and similar are also used for anal cleansing.[2]:162 This can be due to the unavailability of toilet paper or water.

Examples by region or countryEdit

  • In East Asian, Western and multicultural societies, the Chinese-style use of toilet paper is widespread. Other paper products were also used before the advent of flush toilets.
  • Some European and South American countries use a bidet for additional cleaning.
  • In modern South Asia and Southeast Asia, handheld bidets or bidet showers are provided for use in toilets.
  • In Ancient Rome, a communal sponge was employed. It was rinsed in a bucket of salt water or vinegar after use.
  • In Ancient Greece, fragments of ceramic were sometimes used.
  • In Japan, flat sticks were used in ancient times ("shit sticks"), being replaced by toilet paper as the country became more Westernized. Toilets in Japan may include built-in bidets for anal cleansing with warm water.
  • In the Indian subcontinent, traditionally cleansing was done by using the left hand and water. Later the hands were washed thoroughly with water and dried, pulverized cow dung (considered antiseptic in Vedic culture) or clay. Today most Indians prefer soap to wash their hands.

HistoryEdit

 
Anal cleansing instruments known as chūgi from the Nara period (710 to 784) in Japan. The modern rolls in the background are for size comparison.

Ancient Greeks were known to use fragments of ceramic known as pessoi to perform anal cleansing.[22]

Roman anal cleansing was done with a sponge on a stick called a tersorium (Greek: xylospongium). The stick would be soaked in a water channel in front of a toilet, and then stuck through the hole in front of the toilet[clarification needed] for anal cleaning.[23][24] The tersorium was shared by people using public latrines. To clean the sponge, they washed it in a bucket with water and salt or vinegar. This became a breeding ground for bacteria, causing the spread of disease in the latrine.

In ancient Japan, a wooden skewer known as chuugi was used for cleaning after defecation.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Eds.; Simpson-Hébert, co-authors: Uno Winblad, Mayling (2004). Ecological sanitation (2nd rev and enlarged ed.). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute. p. 67. ISBN 9188714985.
  2. ^ a b c d Tilley, Elizabeth; Ulrich, Lukas; Lüthi, Christoph; Reymond, Philippe; Zurbrügg, Chris (2014). "Septic tanks". Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (2nd ed.). Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). ISBN 978-3-906484-57-0.
  3. ^ Herbst, S. (2006). Ecology and development series No. 43, 2006 – Water, sanitation, hygiene and diarrheal diseases in the Aral Sea area. PhD thesis, Göttingen: Cuvillier Verlag
  4. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 1, 123.
  5. ^ Adams, Cecil (15 August 1986). "What did people use before toilet paper was invented?". The Straight Dope. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  6. ^ Rodriguez, Linda (8 July 2009). "Why toilet paper belongs to America". CNN. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  7. ^ Baragona, Louis (29 August 2018). "Apparently Butt-Wiping Is a Heated Debate". Men's Health. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  8. ^ Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah: 259 Archived 1 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. accessed 29 June 2008
  9. ^ "Complete Guide to Indian Toilets | Learning India". Learning India. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  10. ^ a b Nguyen-Okwu, Leslie (9 May 2016). "Trade the Toilet Paper for a Bum Gun". Yahoo News. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  11. ^ "Bạn sẽ không nhìn thấy vòi xịt toilet khi đến Mỹ – vì sao vậy?" (in Vietnamese). 15 August 2017.
  12. ^ Roberto Zapperi: Zu viel Moralismus macht den Körper schmutzig., in: FAZ, 24 aprile 2010.
  13. ^ E. Clark, Mary (2006). Contemporary Biology: Concepts and Implications. University of Michigan Press. p. 613. ISBN 9780721625973. Douching is commonly practiced in Catholic countries. The bidet ... is still commonly found in France and other Catholic countries.
  14. ^ (in French) L'historique du papier toilette et du bidet
  15. ^ Decreto ministeriale Sanità, 5 July 1975, art. 7.
  16. ^ Decreto-Lei n.º 650/75 de 18 de Novembro (in Portuguese), 18 November 1975, art. 84
  17. ^ "A hose: Always next to every Finnish toilet – Big in Finland". 8 July 2014.
  18. ^ Pajda, Aleksandra (7 May 2018). "Did You Know Wet Wipes Are Made With Plastic? This Is Why the UK Wants Them Banned". One Green Planet.
  19. ^ "Wet wipes could face wipe-out in plastic clean-up". BBC News. 8 May 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  20. ^ Campbell, Emma (13 November 2018). "No 'flushable' wet wipes tested so far pass water industry tests". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  21. ^ "Toilet Paper Gel Cleans Up No. 2 in More Ways Than One".
  22. ^ Mirsky, Steve. "Toilet Issue: Anthropologists Uncover All the Ways We've Wiped". Scientific American (1 March 2013). doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0313-85.
  23. ^ Smil, Vaclav (2010). Why America is not a new Rome ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. pp. 112, 190–191. ISBN 978-0262195935. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  24. ^ Shuter, Jane (2004). Life in a Roman fort. Oxford: Heinemann Library. p. 18. ISBN 9780431112985. Retrieved 9 September 2014.