Sow-Hsin Chen (Chinese: 陳守信; pinyin: Chén shǒuxìn), is a Hoklo Taiwanese physicist and Professor Emeritus at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He is a recognized pioneer in the research of the dynamic properties of supercooled and interfacial water with the use of neutron scattering techniques. As an educator, he has been recognized for his training of young scientists in the use of those same techniques. Regarding hydrogen storage, his research focuses on the use of activated carbon to allow hydrogen to be stored at room temperature.
|Alma mater||National Taiwan University|
National Tsing Hua University
University of Michigan
|Known for||advancing the understanding of dynamical properties of supercooled and interfacial water using neutron scattering techniques|
|Spouse(s)||Dr. Ching-chih Chen|
|Awards||2008 Academia Sinica Academician|
2008 Neutron Scattering Society of America Clifford G. Shull Prize
2006 National Tsing Hua University Outstanding Alumni Award
2002 MIT Nuclear Science and Engineering Department Career Achievement Award 2002
1987, 1995 Germany's Alexander von Humboldt U.S. Senior Scientist Award
|Fields||Applied Radiation Physics|
|Institutions||Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE)
University of Waterloo
|Doctoral advisor||Nobel Laureate (1994, Physics), Bertram N. Brockhouse|
|Other academic advisors||Nobel Laureate (1981, Physics), Nicolaas Bloembergen|
Professor Chen received his BS in physics from National Taiwan University (1956), and his MS in physics from National Tsing Hua University (1958). He then came to the U.S. with an International Atomic Energy Agency Fellowship, and obtained an MS in nuclear science from the University of Michigan (1962), and his Ph.D. in physics from McMaster University, Canada, (1964) under the Nobel Laureate, Prof. Bertram N. Brockhouse. He received his postdoctoral training at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) in Harwell, U.K. with Professor Peter A. Egelstaff during 1966-1967, and between 1967–1968, he was a Research Fellow at Harvard University with Nobel Laureate, Prof. Nicolaas Bloembergen, before joining the MIT faculty in 1968.
Chen was promoted to Full Professor of Applied Radiation Physics at the Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering of MIT in 1974. During his tenure, he initiated and taught courses including "Applied Nuclear Physics" for engineers, "Quantum Theory of Interaction of Radiation with Matter," "Statistical Thermodynamics of Complex Liquids," and "Photons and Neutrons Scattering Spectroscopy in Condensed Matter Physics."
Research and achievementsEdit
Chen's major research activity has been in the use of neutron, x-ray and laser scattering spectroscopy to investigate materials properties of complex fluids and soft condensed matter. His research work includes photon correlation spectroscopy studies of the critical dynamics of a binary liquid mixture; neutron scattering studies of the thermodynamics and dynamics of confined water in supercooled states near hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces.
Chen has contributed significantly to the development of the technique of the Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). He constructed the first 128-channel digital photon correlator in the U.S. in 1970 and applied it to investigate critical phenomenon in a binary liquid mixture. This type of digital correlator has since become the basic tool for the modern PCS. He has, since 1970, been applying PCS to studies of dynamic critical phenomena in binary liquid mixtures; the coexistence of critical phenomena and percolation transition in three-component microemulsions and copolymer micellar solutions; and ergodic to non-ergodic transitions when crossing the kinetic glass transition line of a copolymer micellar system with a short-range attraction.
Since 2004, Chen et al. have studied liquid state physics with regard to the structure and dynamics of supercooled water. They studied supercooled confined water by a high-resolution Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique, and this has led to the discovery of the likelihood of a second low-temperature critical point in water in 2005. He was reported in Nature as "A physicist ventures into the no-man's land of water to find the source of its unusual properties" Subsequently, one of his peer-reviewed scientific articles received the 2006 PNAS Editorial Board Cozzarelli Award for its outstanding scientific excellence and originality. In 2006, his group discovered a density minimum in deeply supercooled confined water which further demonstrated the plausibility of the existence of the second critical point in supercooled water.
Chen has been active as an organizer of domestic and over 20 international conferences and symposia as well as the NATO Advanced Study Institutes. He served as chairman of a Gordon Conference on Physics and Chemistry of Water in 1986. He has also been active as a consultant to developing countries with regard to their nuclear power development programs. He has served as an advisor to the National Science Council and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research of the Republic of China (ROC), and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) of the Republic of Korea on the matter of nuclear power planning and development in the respective countries since 1972. In 2006 and 2008, Chen was the organizer and U.S. Chairman of the first and second Joint Symposia on Neutron Sciences and Technology in China, jointly sponsored by the US National Science Foundation and the Chinese counterpart agencies.
He has been a member of numerous national advisory or review committees, including the U.S. National Pulsed Neutron Sources, IPNS/LANSCE at Argonne National Laboratory, the Solid State and Chemical Technology Divisions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the U.S. National Science Foundation's Engineering Research Center, the Basic Energy Sciences Division of the Department of Energy, and the Collaborative Instrumentation Block Grant of the National Institutes of Health. Since 2009, he has been a Beamline Advisory Team (BAT) member of National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS)-II of Brookhaven National Laboratory.
Chen met Dr. Ching-chih Chen in 1959 while both were studying at the University of Michigan. They married in 1961 and moved to Canada the following summer where completed his doctorate at McMaster University. Together they raised two daughters.
Chen's publications include over 360 peer-reviewed journal publications and approximately 80 non-journal publications (books, monographs, review articles, and conference proceedings). These coincide with his diversified research interests, which include bulk and confined water, cement hydration kinetics, colloids, critical phenomena, dynamic light scattering, group theory, hydrogen storage materials, neutron and x-ray inelastic scattering, protein dynamics, x-ray and neutron diffraction and reflectivity, and others. He has served as a member of the Editorial Board (Liquid Section) of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (JPCM ) (U.K.) from 1992 to 1998, and he is an active guest editor of special issues of JPCM and PHYSICA A.
Since 1995, special scientific meetings have been organized every five years to bring together over 100 colleagues, former and current students, and friends to honor Sow-Hsin Chen for his continuing contributions to the field of soft-matter physics. The scientific presentations from these meetings have been published in peer-reviewed special journal issues in his honor (1995, Puerto Rico; 2000, Messina, Italy; 2005, Florence, Italy; and 2010, Florence, Italy)
Honors and awardsEdit
Chen is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1985), the American Physical Society, and the Neutron Scattering Society of America.
- 2008 - Elected as Academician of Academia Sinica, and Recipient of the 2008 Clifford G. Shull Prize in Neutron Science from the Neutron Scattering Society of America.
- 2006 - Outstanding Alumni Award from National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan. In the same year, Chen and his co-authors received the 2006 PNAS Editorial Board Cozzarelli Prize for the paper "The violation of Stokes-Einstein relation in supercooled water", [S.-H. Chen, F. Mallamace, C.-Y. Mou, M. Broccio, C. Corsaro, A. Faraone, and L. Liu, "The violation of Stokes-Einstein relation in supercooled water," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103,12974-12978 (2006)] for its outstanding scientific excellence and originality.
- 2002 - MIT Nuclear Science and Engineering Department Career Achievement Award for his contribution and achievement.
- 1995 - As a Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, he spent a month in Kyoto University in addition to conducting a lecture tour to many Japanese universities and research institutes.
- 1987-88 - The Alexander von Humboldt Senior Distinguished U.S. Scientist Award, in recognition of scientific achievement in research and teaching, from Germany and the "revisit" award in the summer of 1995.
- Press Release: Prof. Sow-Hsin Chen is the recipient of the 2008 Clifford G. Shull Prize of the Neutron Scattering Society of America The Neutron Scattering Society of America Press Release, February 4, 2008, accessed October 28, 2011.
- "Sow-Hsin Chen, Mathematics and Physical Sciences". Directory of Academicians. Council of Academia Sinica. June 29, 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-01.
- Svensson, E. C.; Rowe, J. M. (April 29, 2011). "Brockhouse and the Nobel Prize - part 3". NRC Canadian Neutron Beam Centre. National Research Council of Canada. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
- Chen, Sow-Hsin. 22.101 Applied Nuclear Physics, Fall 2003. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare), http://ocw.mit.edu (Accessed 01 Jul, 2012). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
- Chen, Sow-Hsin. 22.51 Interaction of Radiation with Matter, Spring 2003. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare), http://ocw.mit.edu (Accessed 01 Jul, 2012). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
- Chen, Sow-Hsin. 22.52J Statistical Thermodynamics of Complex Liquids, Spring 2004. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare), http://ocw.mit.edu (Accessed 01 Jul, 2012). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
- "Chen_Sow_Hsin". APS Journals search results. American Physical Society. Retrieved 2012-07-01.
- Chu, Benjamin. "Laser Light Scattering." New York, NY: Academic Press. 1974. 327pp.
- Chen, Sow-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Ren; Mallamace, Francesco (April 25, 2003). "The Glass-to-Glass Transition and Its End Point in a Copolymer Micellar System (abstract)". Science. Washington D. C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science. 300 (5619): 619–622. doi:10.1126/science.1082364. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 12714739. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- Chen, S H; Zhang, Y; Lagi, M; Chong, S H; Baglioni, P; Mallamace, F (December 2009). "Evidence of dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids:experiments, MD simulations and theory" (PDF). Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. Bristol, UK: IOP Publishing. 21 (50): 11. Bibcode:2009JPCM...21X4102C. doi:10.1088/0953-8984/21/50/504102. PMID 21836213. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- "A physicist ventures into the no-man's land of water to find the source of its unusual properties," H. Eugene Stanley, Research Highlights, Nature 438: 715 (December 8, 2005).
- 2006 PNAS Cozzarelli Prize Recipients
-  "How liquids behave: Researchers identify a fundamental property of how water and other liquids move at different temperatures," David L. Chandler, MIT News, January 14, 2011.
- "Revealing water's secrets: Experiments support controversial theory about how water behaves in confined spaces, providing insights for biology and manufacturing," David L. Chandler, MIT Web Spotlight August 1, 2011.
- "Findings could lead to better hydrogen storage: MIT-led research demonstrates method that could allow inexpensive carbon materials to store the volatile gas at room temperature," David L. Chandler, MIT News, September 19, 2011.
- Loong, Chun and Dongfeng Chen, "The First U.S.-China Workshop on Neutron Science and Technology," Neutron News, 19 (1): 4-5 (2008)
- Loong, Chun, "Neutrons and Grand Challenges: An International Meeting Held in Xian, China," Neutron News, 19 (1): 5-6 (2008).
- Loong, Chun and Dongfeng Chen, "The Second U.S.-China Workshop on Scientific and Industrial Applications Using Neutrons, Muons and Protons," Neutron News, 20 (2): 8-9 (2009).
- "Beamline Advisory Team (BAT) in "NSLS-II Project: Conceptual Design Report for the Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS) Beamline, page 9" (PDF). Brookhaven National Laboratory. September 2009. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
- Carter, Joan (20 August 1966). "Mrs. Chen's Life: An Open Book". Kitchener-Waterloo Record (Clipping)
- PHYSICA A: Statistical and Theoretical Physics, "Colloid and Interface Science: Trends and Applications: In honor of Professor Sow-Hsin Chen on the occasion of his 60th birthday," 231 (1-3), September 15, 1996, pp. 1-366.
- PHYSICA A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, "Scattering Studies of Mesoscopic Scale Structure and Dynamics in Soft Matter: In honor of Professor Sow-Hsin Chen on the occasion of his 65th birthday," 304 (1-2), February 1, 2002, pp. 1-326.
- Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, "Topics in the application of scattering methods to investigate the structure and dynamics of soft condensed matter," 18 (36), September 13, 2006, pp. s2239-2526. The Preface states that "...the meeting was to celebrate Sow-Hsin Chen's life-long scientific activities on the occasion of his 70th birthday."
- Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, "Special issue on Dynamic Crossover Phenomena in Water and Other Glass Forming Liquids", November, 2011," The Preface states that "...the meeting was to celebrate Sow-Hsin Chen's life-long scientific activities on the occasion of his 75th birthday."
- Neutron Scattering Society of America Fellows (2008)
- Adademia Sinica, Academicians by Residence, accessed October 28, 2011.
- "Academician Sow-Hsin Chen Receives NSSA 2008 Clifford G. Shull Prize". Academia Sinica E-News No. 54. February 21, 2008. Retrieved 2012-06-29.
- Chandler, David L. (January 14, 2011). "How liquids behave". MIT News. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2012-06-28.
- Chandler, David L. (August 1, 2011). "Water secrets revealed". R&D News. R&D Magazine. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero (February 15, 2012). "Dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids (abstract)". Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. IOP Publishing. 24 (6): online. doi:10.1088/0953-8984/24/6/060301. PMID 22278993.
- Topre, Ishan (August 2, 2011). "MIT Scientists Tackle Water Controversy (includes video demonstration)". Crazy Engineers. Retrieved 2012-06-28.
- Topre, Ishan (September 20, 2011). "Storing Hydrogen In An Easier Way, Spillover Effect Explained". Crazy Engineers, uniting engineers across the world. Retrieved 2012-06-28.
- "MIT NSE: Faculty: Sow-Hsin Chen". MIT NSE: Nuclear Science & Engineering at MIT. September 11, 2006. Retrieved 2011-08-31.