Solar power in Australia
Solar power in Australia is a growing industry. As of April 2017, Australia had over 5,920 megawatts (MW) of installed photovoltaic (PV) solar power, of which 771 MW were installed in the preceding 12 months. In addition, 22 solar PV projects with a combined installed capacity of 1,922 MW are either under construction, constructed or will start construction in 2017 having reached financial closure.
PV contributed to 2.4% of the country's electrical energy for 2014-2015.
The installed PV capacity in Australia has increased 10-fold between 2009 and 2011, and quadrupled between 2011 and 2016. Feed-in tariffs and mandatory renewable energy targets designed to assist renewable energy commercialisation in Australia have largely been responsible for the rapid increase. In South Australia, a solar feed-in tariff was introduced for households and an educational program that involved installing PVs on the roofs of major public buildings such as the Adelaide Airport, State Parliament, Museum, Art Gallery and several hundred public schools. In 2008 Premier Mike Rann announced funding for $8 million worth of solar panels on the roof of the new Goyder Pavilion at the Royal Adelaide Showgrounds, the largest rooftop solar installation in Australia, qualifying it for official "power station" status. South Australia has the highest per capita take up of household solar power in Australia.
The first commercial-scale PV power plant, the 1 MW Uterne Solar Power Station, was opened in 2011. The second opened in 2012 at Greenough River Solar Farm with a capacity of 10 MW. The price of photovoltaics has been decreasing, and in January 2013, was less than half the cost of using grid electricity in Australia.
The combination of Australia's dry climate and latitude give it high benefits and potential for solar energy production. Most of the Australian continent receives in excess of 4 kWh per square metre per day of insolation during winter months, with a region in the north exceeding 6 kWh/day.
Australia's insolation greatly exceeds the average values in Europe, Russia, and most of North America. Comparable levels are found in desert areas of northern and southern Africa, south western United States and adjacent area of Mexico, and regions on the Pacific coast of South America. However, the areas of highest insolation are distant to Australia's population centres.
With an installed photovoltaic capacity of 5,440 megawatts by the end of 2016, Australia ranks among the world's top ten solar countries.
The Australian Government provided a rebate program that offered up to A$8,000 rebates for installing solar panels on homes and community use buildings (other than schools), through the Solar Homes and Communities Plan. However, on 8 June 2009, this program was phased out, to be replaced by the Solar Credits Program, where an installation of a solar system would receive 5 times as many Renewable Energy Certificates for the first 1.5 kilowatts of capacity under the Renewable Energy Target (see below)
Schools were eligible to apply for grants of up to A$50,000 to install 2 kW solar panels and other measures through the National Solar Schools Program beginning 1 July 2008, which replaced the Green Vouchers for Schools program. Applications for the program ended 21 November 2012. A total of 2,870 schools have installed solar panels. The output of each array can be viewed, and compared with that of up to four other schools.
A number of states have set up schemes to encourage the uptake of solar PV power generation involving households installing solar panels and selling excess electricity to electricity retailers to put into the electricity grid, widely called "feed-in". Each scheme involves the setting of feed in tariffs, which can be classified by a number of factors including the price paid, whether it is on a net or gross export basis, the length of time payments are guaranteed, the maximum size of installation allowed and the type of customer allowed to participate. Many Australian state feed-in tariffs were net export tariffs, whereas conservation groups argued for gross feed-in tariffs. In March 2009, the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) started a solar gross feed-in tariff. For systems up to 10 kW the payment was 50.05 cents per kWh. For systems from 10 kW to 30 kW the payment was 40.04 cents per kWh. The payment was revised downward once before an overall capacity cap was reached and the scheme closed. Payments are made quarterly based on energy generated and the payment rate is guaranteed for 20 years. In Germany, a guaranteed PV tariff means that Germany now has the highest PV capacity per capita – at 10 W for every person in Germany compared to Australia at 2.6 W per capita.
Mandatory renewable energy targetEdit
In 2001, the Australian government introduced a mandatory renewable energy target (MRET) designed to ensure renewable energy obtains a 20% share of electricity supply in Australia by 2020. The MRET will increase from 9,500 gigawatt-hours to 45,000 gigawatt-hours by 2020. The scheme lasts until 2030.
The MRET requires wholesale purchasers of electricity (such as electricity retailers or industrial operations) to purchase renewable energy certificates (RECs), created through the generation of electricity from renewable sources. These sources include wind, hydro, landfill gas and geothermal, as well as solar PV and solar thermal, providing a stimulus and additional revenue for these technologies.
The Solar Flagships program sets aside $1.6 billion for solar power over a period of six years. The government funding is for 4 new solar plants that produce coal plant scale power (in total up to 1000 MW - coal plants typically produce 500 to 2,000 MW). This subsidy would need additional funding from the plant builders and/or operators. As a comparison Abengoa Solar, a company currently constructing solar thermal plants, put the cost of a 300 MW plant at 1.2 billion euros in 2007. In 2009, the Arizona state government announced a 200 MW plant for 1 billion US dollars.
Status by stateEdit
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The list of solar power projects below is not complete as there are many more sites that have solar power or hybrid solar/wind systems to generate their own power needs. Projects with a power rating less than 1 MW are not listed.
|QLD||Aramara Solar Farm||140||2017 - Construction planned to commence 2017||Woocoo||Eco Energy World||Photovoltaic, single axis tracking. |
|QLD||Ross River Solar Farm||19.412520°S
|135||2017 - Construction planned to commence 2017||Townsville||ESCO Pacific / Palisade||Photovoltaic, single axis tracking. |
|QLD||Sun Metals Refinery Expansion||19.334383°S 146.879413°E||116||2017 - Construction planned to commence April 2017||Townsville||Sun Metals||CdTe thin film technology. Capacity: 116MWAC (140MWDC) |
|QLD||Susan River Solar Farm||125||2017 - Construction planned to commence 2018
2016 - Development approved.
|Fraser Coast Regional Council||ESCO Pacific||Photovoltaic. |
|QLD||Rollingstone Solar Farm||110||2017 - Construction planned to commence 2018
2016 - Development approved.
|Townsville||ESCO Pacific||Photovoltaic. |
|NSW||Nyngan Solar Plant||102||2015 - Fully commissioned in June. Commissioned in stages.||Bogan Shire||AGL Energy||CdTe thin-film technology. Is the largest solar PV plant in the Southern Hemisphere. Capacity: 102 MWAC.|
|QLD||Clare Solar Farm||19.840836°S 147.212082°E||100||2017 - Construction planned to commence 2017||Ayr||Fotowatio Renewable Ventures (FRV)||Photovoltaic, single axis tracking. Capacity: 100MWAC (125MWDC) |
|QLD||Lilyvale Solar Farm||100||2017 - PPA signed, construction planned 2017-2018||Emerald||Fotowatio Renewable Ventures (FRV)||Photovoltaic, single axis tracking. Capacity: 100MWAC (125MWDC) |
|NSW||Moree Solar Farm||56||Full power achieved March 2016.||Moree Plains Shire||Fotowatio Renewable Ventures (FRV)||Photovoltaic, single axis tracking.|
|NSW||Broken Hill Solar Plant||53||2014 - Commissioned July. Full power output achieved on 14 October 2015.||Broken Hill||AGL Energy||CdTe thin-film technology. Capacity given in AC (53 MWAC).|
|ACT||Royalla solar farm||20||2014 - Commissioned September||Canberra||Fotowatio Renewable Ventures (FRV)||Photovoltaic|
|QLD||Valdora Solar Farm||15||2015 - Council DA Approval required early 2015. Tender due in first quarter 2015.||Sunshine Coast||(Tender)||Photovoltaic |
|ACT||Mugga Lane Solar Park||13||Awarded feed-in tariff via ACT reverse auction. Expected completion 2016.||Canberra||Maoneng Group||Photovoltaic|
|WA||Greenough River Solar Farm||10||2012 - Commissioned October||City of Greater Geraldton||Verve Energy and GE Financial Services||Photovoltaic|
|NSW||Liddell Power Station||9||Complete, but idled||Solar Heat and Power / Macquarie Generation||Solar thermal|
|NT||Darwin International Airport||12.415746°S 130.891191°E||5.5||2017 - Stage 2 (1.5MW) under construction
2016 - Stage 1 (4MW) commissioned August 
|City of Darwin||CAT Projects / Coronium||The installation is the largest airside PV solar system in the world.
Q-CELL photovoltaic panels. 
|NT||Uterne Solar Power Station, Alice Springs||4.1||2011 - Commissioned 2011 (1000)
2015 - added 3100
|SunPower Corporation / Power and Water Corporation / Epuron||Photovoltaic|
|SA||Jamestown Wastewater Treatment Plant||33°12'17.82"S
|3.5||2015 - Commissioned April||Northern Areas||Infratech Industries||Floating, tracking photovolatic|
|SA||Tonsley||3||2014 - Announced||Zen Energy||Photovoltaic|
|NSW||Lake Cargelligo Solar Thermal Power Station||3||2011||Lachlan Shire||Graphite Energy / Solastor||Concentrating solar thermal, graphite block technology |
|QLD||Weipa bauxite mine||12°38'51.92"S
|1.7||2015 - Commissioned (1.7 MW), opportunity to expand to 6.7 WM with storage||Rio Tinto Group, First Solar||Photovoltaic|
|1.5||2016 - Commissioned||Port Augusta||Sundrop Farms||Concentrated solar thermal (35 MW Thermal)|
|SA||Yalumba Winery||1.4||2017 - Under construction||Barossa Council||Photovoltaic|
|NSW||ING Real Estate||Various Sites||1.3||2010 - Completed||Todae Solar||Photovoltaic|
|1.25||2015 - Practical completion||City of Darwin||GPT Group||Photovoltaic|
|NSW||Stockland, Shellharbour Shopping Centre||34°33'50.7"S
|1.22||2015 - Completed||Todae Solar||Photovoltaic|
|QLD||University of Queensland St Lucia campus||1.22||2011 - Completed July||Ingenero, Trina Solar, RedFlow||Photovoltaic|
|SA||Adelaide airport||1.17||2016 - Completed||Photovoltaic|
|SA||Adelaide Showgrounds||1||2009 - Completed||Built Environs and Solar Shop Australia||Photovoltaic|
Australian Capital TerritoryEdit
A new 20 MWp solar power plant has been built on 50 hectares of land in Royalla, a rural part of the Australian Capital Territory south of Canberra. It is powered by 83,000 solar panels, and can power for 4,400 homes. It was officially opened on 3 September 2014. It is the first solar plant facility in the Australian capital, and at the time of building the largest such plant in Australia. The facility was built by a Spanish company, Fotowatio Renewable Ventures (FRV).
The solar power stations at these three remote indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory are constructed using Solar Systems' CS500 concentrator dish systems. The project cost A$7M, offset by a grant from the Australian and Northern Territory Governments under their Renewable Remote Power Generation Program.
The project won a prestigious Engineering Excellence award in 2005.
The Federal Government has funded over 120 innovative small-scale standalone solar systems in remote indigenous communities, designed by Bushlight, incorporating sophisticated demand side management systems with user-friendly interfaces.
The largest rooftop solar PV array in South Australia is located at Adelaide airport, with a generating capacity of 1.17 MW. Sundrop Farms concentrating solar power plant has a generating capacity of 40 MW, and is the first of its kind to be commissioned in the state. Both projects were completed in 2016. Adelaide Airport's solar PV array is expected to be surpassed by a 1.4 MW system installed at Yalumba Winery at three separate sites in early 2017. A floating array of solar PV panels is in place at Jamestown wastewater treatment plant, with a generating capacity of 3.5 MW.
The 100 MW PV Mildura Solar Concentrator Power Station, formerly expected to be completed in 2017, is now cancelled. It was expected to be the biggest and most efficient solar photovoltaic power station in the world. The power station was expected to concentrate the sun by 500 times onto the solar cells for ultra high power output. The Victorian power station would have generated electricity directly from the sun to meet the annual needs of over 45,000 homes with on-going zero greenhouse gas emissions.
Western Australia's largest solar power farm, the Greenough River Solar farm, is at Walkaway, 70 km SE of Geraldton. It was opened in October 2012. The 10MW field has 150,000 solar panels.
Solar cities programEdit
Solar Cities is a demonstration program designed to promote solar power, smart meters, and energy conservation in urban locations throughout Australia. One such location is Townsville, Queensland.
Renewable Energy Master Plan 2030Edit
The Council of Sydney is attempting to make the city run 100% on renewable energy by 2030. This plan was announced earlier in 2014 with the blueprints made public on their website. This ambitious plan was recently awarded the 2014 Eurosolar prize in the category of "Towns/municipalities, council districts and public utilities".
- Renewable energy in Australia
- Wind power in Australia
- Geothermal power in Australia
- Biofuel in Australia
- Andrew Blakers
- Building-integrated photovoltaics
- Centre for Appropriate Technology (Australia)
- List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources
- Martin Green
- Photovoltaic and renewable energy engineering in Australia
- Renewable energy by country
- "Australian PV market since April 2001". apvi.org.au.
- "2017: Biggest year for Australia's Renewable Energy Industry"
- "2016 Australian energy statistics update" (PDF).
- Centre for National Policy, What States Can Do: Climate Change Policy, April 4, 2012
- http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/ June 2, 2008. "Adelaide Showgrounds to have nations biggest solar power project"
- "Account Suspended". alicesolarcity.com.au. Archived from the original on 25 January 2012.
- Australia's Greenough River Solar Farm Opens Amid Renewable Target Debate, Reuters, Rebekah Kebede, 9 October 2012
- "Solar Electricity Now Under Half The Cost Of Grid Power For Australian Households". CleanTechnica.
- Sunniest places in the world, Current Results.com
- "Is Australia falling out of love with solar power?". BBC News. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- "In Australia, businesses are getting hit with a $500 fee designed to kill solar power". ThinkProgress. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- "US solar giant quits Australia". Renew Economy. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- Byrnes, L.; Brown, C.; Foster, J.; Wagner, L. (December 2013). "Australian renewable energy policy: Barriers and challenges". Renewable Energy. 60: 711–721. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2013.06.024.
- "Australian PV market since April 2001". Australian PV Institute. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- Solar Homes and Communities Plan
- Office of the Renewable Energy Regulator
- The National Solar Schools Program is on the way
- "National Solar Schools Program". climatechange.gov.au. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- "solarschools.net :: Data Monitoring". solarschools.net.
- ACT Govt. Feed In Tariff factsheet
- Matthew Bulat. "Solar Power Calculator". matthewb.id.au.
- Supply side options for WA stationary energy: An assessment of alternative technologies and development support mechanisms in the Final report to WA Greenhouse and Energy Taskforce by Next Energy on 26 September 2006
- Australian Government: Office of the Renewable Energy Regulator Archived 26 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Budget 2009 10: Climate change and energy". Parliament of Australia. 2010.
- "GreenMode Sustainability Developments: Big Solar for Oz". greenmodesustainabilitydevelopments.blogspot.com.
- "404". azcommerce.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2009.
- McInerney, Matthew. "$280m solar farm to produce enough power for Coast". Fraser Coast Chronicle. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "Australia’s Largest Solar Project Secures Equity Partner; Signs 13 Year PPA With Major Energy Supplier – Ross River Solar Farm". rossriversolarfarm.com.au. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
- "Sun Metals Presentation - "Sun metals wants to invest further in Townsville" December 2016" (PDF). State Development Department of Queensland. 1 December 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2017.
- "Sun Metals goes for bigger solar plant to hedge against energy costs". Renew Economy. 2017-02-09. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
- "Project Details – Susan River Solar Farm". susanriversolarfarm.com.au. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
- "Project Details – Rollingstone Solar Farm". rollingstonesolarfarm.com.au. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
- "AGL - Nyngan Solar Plant". agl.com.au.
- "AGL's solar plant at Nyngan in western NSW will have over 1.3 million panels". ABC Rural.
- Peter Hannam. "False dawn for solar giant?". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- "The Southern Hemisphere's Largest Solar Plant - AGL solar". AGL - Energy in Action. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- "Clare Solar Farm Project in Queensland Gets Funding Go Ahead : FRV". frv.com. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
- "FRV’s Lilyvale Solar Farm Project Secures Power Purchase Agreement with Ergon Energy : FRV". frv.com. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
- "FRV - Moree Solar Farm".
- Jacqueline Breen (4 Sep 2014). "Broken Hill Solar Farm pushes through initial site works, community funding on table". Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC). Retrieved 6 Feb 2015.
- 'Australia's largest' solar farm opens at Royalla south of Canberra, Jonathon Gul and Kathleen Dyett, ABC News Online, 3 September 2014
- "Sunshine Coast Council to build Valdora solar farm". Energy Business News. 5 Nov 2014. Retrieved 23 Feb 2015.
- "From sugar to solar: Qld council to build 10MW solar farm". Renew Economy.
- "Mugga Lane Solar Park".
- "About The Project". greenoughsolarfarm.com.au.
- ABC: Solar Future, 27 July 2006
- CS Energy pulls plug on world’s largest “solar booster” project, Renew Economy, Giles Parkinson, 21 March 2016
- "Darwin Airport completes 4MW large scale solar power facility - Palisade Investment Partners". Palisade Investment Partners. 2016-08-15. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
- "Media release - DARWIN AIRPORT GOES SOLAR" (PDF). www.michelswarrenmunday.com.au. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
- Edis, Tristan (20 August 2015). "Big solar project in Alice Springs goes live". The Australian. Archived from the original on 22 August 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- Vorrath, Sophie (2015-03-05). "Floating solar plant set to be built in Australian first". RenewEconomy. Retrieved 2015-04-29.
- "Origin Energy to build Australia’s biggest rooftop solar array". Renew Economy. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
- "Engineers Australia".
- "NREL Concentrating Solar Power Projects".
- "Solastor, Lake Cargelligo".
- "Rio Tinto switches on largest solar plant at Australian mine". Renew Economy. Retrieved 2015-12-20.
- "Sundrop Farm Solar Thermal Plant - Solar Thermal - POWER PLANTS". www.aussierenewables.com. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- "SA wine industry embraces solar energy - InDaily". InDaily. 2016-11-23. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- "ING Real Estate - 1.3MW Multi-site Solar Installation". Todae Solar. Retrieved 2015-09-19.
- "Australia’s largest rooftop solar system up and running in Darwin". GPT Blog. Retrieved 2015-12-21.
- "NSW’s Largest Rooftop Solar Installation". Todae Solar. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "Stockland builds 1.2MW rooftop solar array on shopping centre". Renew Economy. Retrieved 2015-09-06.
- "UQ leading the way in solar generation". UQ News.
- "Latest News — EcoGeneration — The magazine for Australia's clean energy industry". solarmagazine.com.au.
- "Adelaide airport completes 1.17MW rooftop solar install – South Australia's largest". One Step Off The Grid. 2016-07-14. Retrieved 2016-07-14.
- "Solarshop Group Pty Ltd.". solarshop.com.au.
- Australia's largest solar power system opens
- Adelaide Showgrounds Solar Photovoltaic Project
- "Big Solar Power a Big Deal in the ACT and Beyond - The Green Power Company". The Green Power Company - Solar Power Systems.
- Solar Systems projects
- Hermannsburg, Yuendumu and Lajamanu solar power stations
- "SA wine industry embraces solar energy - InDaily". InDaily. 2016-11-23. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- Tom Arup: "Sunraysia's huge solar farm up and running", in The Age, 17 July 2013
- 154MW Victorian Project
- "Solar Cities". climatechange.gov.au.
- "TOWNSVILLE SET TO BECOME A SOLAR CITY". statements.qld.gov.au. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- "CONTRACT SIGNING A KEY MILESTONE IN SOLAR CITY PROJECT". statements.qld.gov.au. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- "Renewable Energy Master Plan". Sydney City Council.
- "Winners of Eurosolar Prize 2014". EUROSOLAR.