2011 Singaporean general election

Singapore's general election to form its 12th Parliament was held on 7 May 2011. The Parliament of Singapore's maximum term is five years, within which it must be dissolved by the President of Singapore and elections held within three months, as stated in the Constitution of Singapore.[1] Voting is mandatory in Singapore and is based on the first-past-the-post system. Elections are conducted by the Elections Department, which is under the jurisdiction of the Prime Minister’s Office. On 19 April 2011, President S.R. Nathan dissolved parliament. Nomination day was held on 27 April 2011, and for the second election in a row, the PAP did not officially return to power on nomination day, but it did return to power on the polling day. This election also marked the first and the only three-cornered fight since 2001 in Punggol East SMC before it increased to four-cornered fight on a by-election held two years later.

2011 Singapore general election

← 2006 7 May 2011 (2011-05-07) 2015 →

87 seats (82 contested) to the Parliament of Singapore 3 NCMP seats offered to opposition
44 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Lee Hsien Loong - 20101112.jpg Low Thia Khiang at a Workers' Party general election rally, Sengkang, Singapore - 20110503 (cropped).jpg ChiamSeeTong-SDARally-20060502.jpg
Leader Lee Hsien Loong Low Thia Khiang Chiam See Tong
Leader since 2004 2001 1997
Leader's seat Ang Mo Kio GRC Aljunied GRC Bishan-Toa Payoh GRC
Last election 82 seats, 66.6% 1 elected + 1 NCMP, 16.3% 1 seat, part of SDA
Seats after 81 6 elected + 2 NCMP 1 NCMP
Seat change Decrease1 Increase5 Decrease1
Popular vote 1,212,154 258,510 62,639
Percentage 60.1% 12.8% 3.1%
Swing Decrease6.5% Decrease3.5% Decrease9.9% (SDA result)

Map of the results of the Singaporean general election 2011.svg
Results by constituency:
  People's Action Party
  Workers' Party of Singapore

Prime Minister before election

Lee Hsien Loong

Elected Prime Minister

Lee Hsien Loong

The election was described as a "watershed election" in various forms by various parties. The ruling PAP reminded voters that the election will determine "Singapore's next generation of leaders".[2] The Workers' Party called it a "watershed election" both for Singapore and the opposition, as it marked the first time in two decades that the only two incumbent opposition MPs moved out of their respective strongholds and contested in Group Representation Constituencies (GRCs), risking a situation where there would be "no elected opposition MPs".[3] This was despite the elections having the highest proportion of contested seats since independence, with 82 of 87 seats contested (or 94.3%).[4] 2011 was the year that saw the highest number of seats contested since post-independence; with the second being in 1972 when 87.7% of seats were contested (or 57 out of 65 seats),[5] It marked the first electoral contests in Bishan-Toa Payoh (since 1991) and Holland-Bukit Timah, and also marked Tanjong Pagar as the only constituency to remain uncontested since its formation in 1991.

The final results saw a 6.46% swing against the PAP from the 2006 elections to 60.14%, its lowest since independence.[6] While the PAP met most expectations to sweep into power and claim over two-thirds of parliamentary seats, it won 81 out of 87 seats, and lost Aljunied Group Representation Constituency to the Workers' Party of Singapore, the first time a GRC was won by an opposition party. Including the Hougang Single Member Constituency, the Workers' Party ended up with six seats in Parliament, the best opposition parliamentary result since independence.[7][8]

As six Members of Parliament from the opposition were elected, just three Non-Constituency Member of Parliament seats were offered, one to the Singapore People's Party's Lina Chiam; another to the WP's Yee Jenn Jong; and a third to Gerald Giam of the WP's East Coast Group Representation Constituency team. These offers were all accepted, resulting in a total of nine opposition MPs after the election.[9][10]


The 2011 General Election was the 16th General Election in Singapore and the 11th since independence. The governing People's Action Party (PAP) sought to secure their 13th consecutive term in office since 1959. This was the second election since Lee Hsien Loong became its Secretary-General.

Parliamentary reform

On 11 March 2010, the Government tabled three bills in the parliament to amend the Constitution, the Presidential Elections Act and the Parliamentary Elections Act.[11] These amendments reduced the number of Group representation constituencies (GRC), increased the number of Non-Constituency Members of Parliament (NCMPs) to a maximum of nine (inclusive of the number of elected opposition members of Parliament), and the number of Nominated Members of Parliament (NMPs) permanent also to nine.[11] A one-day "cooling-off" day was implemented, during which campaigning was forbidden, with only party political broadcasts allowed. Internet campaigning was also formally legalised as a legitimate means of political campaigning.[11] On 26 April 2010, the amendments to the Constitution were passed by a vote of 74–1 after a three-hour debate on the bill.[12]

Political parties

The governing People's Action Party (PAP) has been in power since Singapore's independence in 1965, and is currently led by the Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. Besides the ruling PAP, the other major political parties that may contest the upcoming elections are the Workers' Party of Singapore (WP) led by Low Thia Khiang, the Singapore People's Party led by Chiam See Tong which left the Singapore Democratic Alliance (SDA) in 2011, the Singapore Democratic Party (SDP) led by Chee Soon Juan,[note 1][13] the National Solidarity Party (NSP) led by Goh Meng Seng which left the SDA in 2007, the Reform Party (Singapore) led by Kenneth Jeyaretnam, and the Singapore Democratic Alliance (SDA) led by Desmond Lim, which is composed of the Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura (Singapore Malay National Organization) (PKMS) and the Singapore Justice Party (SJP). The Reform Party is the newest party and was created on 18 June 2008 and was then led by former Member of Parliament J.B. Jeyaretnam. He could have stood for election after he was discharged from bankruptcy and reinstated to the bar,[14] however, Jeyaretnam died of heart failure on 30 September 2008 at the age of 82.[15] His eldest son, Kenneth Jeyaretnam has since taken up leadership of the party and is now its secretary-general.[16]

Electoral divisions

The Electoral Boundaries Review Committee normally publishes an updated list of electoral divisions just before elections are called. Prior to the latest amendments, there were fourteen GRCs, each with five or six seats, and nine Single Member Constituencies (SMC). There were a total of 84 seats being contested in the general election of 2006.

The new electoral map for 2011 was announced on 24 February 2011.[17][18]

Singapore electoral boundaries, released in February 2011
2006 2011
Electoral divisions
Group representation constituencies
Four-Member GRCs 0 2
Five-Member GRCs 9 11
Six-Member GRCs 5 2
Single member constituencies
Voters (overseas votes inclusive)

The changes made in the electoral divisions are as follows:

Constituency Changes
Aljunied GRC Absorbed portions of Kaki Bukit division from Marine Parade GRC, and a minor portion of Hougang SMC
Carved out portions of Aljunied-Hougang division to Ang Mo Kio GRC, and a minor portion of Aljunied-Hougang and Bedok Reservoir-Punggol divisions to Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC
Ang Mo Kio GRC Absorbed Aljunied-Hougang division (renamed to Ang Mo Kio-Hougang) from Aljunied GRC and Yio Chu Kang SMC
Carved out Nee Soon South division into Nee Soon GRC, and Sengkang West division into SMC
Bishan-Toa Payoh GRC No Change in Boundaries
Chua Chu Kang GRC New Constituency
Formed from a majority of Hong Kah GRC (except for Hong Kah North division, which carved into SMC), and Chua Chu Kang SMC
East Coast GRC Carved a portion of Kampong-Chai Chee to Marine Parade GRC
Holland-Bukit Timah GRC Ward downsized to four members
Carved out Buona Vista division into Tanjong Pagar GRC, a minor portion of Bukit Timah to West Coast GRC, and portions of Toh Guan to Jurong GRC
Jurong GRC Carved out Yuhua division into SMC
Portions of Jurong Central and Taman Jurong divisions, West Coast GRC and Hong Kah GRC were formed into Jurong Spring division
Marine Parade GRC Ward downsized to five members
Absorbed MacPherson SMC and a minor portion of Joo Chiat SMC
Portions of Kaki Bukit and the entire Kampong Ubi-Kembangan divisions, and Kampong Chai Chee division from East Coast GRC were formed into Kembangan-Chai Chee division
Carved out a portion of Kaki Bukit division to Aljunied GRC, and Mountbatten division into SMC
Moulmein-Kallang GRC New Constituency
Formed from Jalan Besar GRC (except for Kreta Ayer-Kim Seng division (excluding northern Hong Lim portions) which was absorbed into Tanjong Pagar GRC, and Whampoa division as a SMC), and Moulmein division from Tanjong Pagar GRC
Nee Soon GRC New Constituency
Formed from Nee Soon Central SMC, Nee Soon East SMC, Nee Soon South divisions from Ang Mo Kio GRC (excluding the Lentor area south of Seletar Expressway), and Canberra and Chong Pang divisions from Sembawang GRC[19]
Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC Carved out Punggol East division into SMC, and a minor portion of Punggol South division to Ang Mo Kio GRC
Portions of Punggol Central and North divisions were formed into Punggol West division
Sembawang GRC Ward downsized to five members
Carved out Canberra and Chong Pang to Nee Soon GRC
Portions of Sembawang and Woodlands were formed into Woodgrove division.
Tampines GRC No Change in Boundaries
Tanjong Pagar GRC Ward downsized to five members
Absorbed Buona Vista and Kreta Ayer-Kim Seng divisions from Holland-Bukit Timah GRC and Jalan Besar GRC, respectively
Carved out Moulmein division into Moulmein-Kallang GRC, and Radin Mas division into SMC
Merged Tanjong Pagar and Tiong Bahru divisions to form Tanjong Pagar-Tiong Bahru division
West Coast GRC Carved out portions of Pioneer division into SMC, while Jurong Industrial, Jurong Island, Gul Circle, Tuas and Joo Koon were transferred to Ayer Rajah division
Ayer Rajah-West Coast division were split into Ayer Rajah and West Coast divisions.


New candidates

Singapore Democratic Party

  • Dr Ang Yong Guan, 56-year-old Consultant Psychiatrist at Paragon Medical, President of the Singapore Psychiatric Association from 1997 to 1998 and Chairman of the Chapter of Psychiatrists, Academy of Medicine from 2001 to 2003.
  • Alec Tok, 46-year-old Artistic Director at One Kind Theatre LLC.
  • Mohd Isa Abdul Aziz, 53-year-old Business Development Manager for an Australian Oil and Gas company and a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Singapore Democratic Party.
  • Sadasivam Veriyah, 58-year-old ex-teacher and a unionist, former member of the People's Action Party.
  • Tan Jee Say, 57-year-old investment adviser and former Principal Private Secretary to then-DPM Goh Chok Tong.
  • Dr. Vincent Wijeysingha, 41-year-old Executive Director of Transient Workers Count Too (TWC2), a non-government organisation advocating the rights of low-waged migrant workers.

People's Action Party

Workers' Party

Retiring politicians

All politicians who were retiring or stepping down from their seats were from the PAP.

Staking claims

Soon after the announcement of the new electoral boundaries, various opposition parties indicated their intent to contest, subject to negotiations between political parties to avoid three-cornered fights. The parties declaring an interest to contest each constituency and their nomination status is reflected below.

Nominations by various opposition parties as on nomination day on 27 April 2011. Banded shading indicates constituencies with three-party contests. There was no contest in Tanjong Pagar after the opposition team intending to submit a nomination were disqualified.

General election campaign

Party manifestos

Televised forum

In the first pre-election forum of this nature in Singapore since the 1988 General Election, Channel NewsAsia invited the main parties to record an hour-long programme. The programme, in English entitled, “A political forum on Singapore’s future” brought together the ruling People’s Action Party (PAP) and four opposition parties to discuss long and short-term challenges for the country. [30] The forum included:

The new media

The Worker's Party utilised social media to circumvent obstacles placed in front of them by Singapore's government-controlled media.[31]

Political rallies

The Singapore Police Force announced 41 political rally sites on 27 April which could be booked by political parties on a first-come-first-served basis. Rallies were allowed to be conducted from 28 April to 5 May, from 7am to 10pm. The 41st site is for lunch time rallies at Boat Quay near to the UOB Plaza.[32]


Online video

During the 2011 elections campaigning, Vivian Balakrishnan said the SDP was "suppressing a certain YouTube video, which raises some very awkward questions about the agenda and motivations of the SDP and its candidates".[34] He issued the following statement:

I am not sure what [the SDP] strategy is...I can’t help feeling that part of the reason for their reticence is they have elements of their agenda they are not prepared to disclose and subject to scrutiny. Eventually, they will have to come out of the closet. (The Straits Times, 20 April 2011)

Vincent Wijeysingha rejected his comments stating, "We've been a very open party and we're very clear."[35]

This incident was cited in an article published in The Economist criticising the ruling party's election strategy[36] The New Paper released a story next day, with the headline: Is Singapore ready for a GAY MP?"[37] Kenneth Jeyaretnam of the Reform Party called Balakrishnan's campaign a "low attack." [34]

Balakrishnan received widespread controversy and criticism online for his remark,.[38] On 28 April, he told the press: "there is "no need" to further discuss [the] video". He said that his question was a "legitimate".[39]

Cooling-off day controversies

Nicole Seah, a team member contesting Marine Parade GRC under the NSP team, filed a complaint to the Elections Department on 6 May stating PAP-team member Tin Pei Ling had violated the state-mandated cooling-off period 24 hours before polls by posting a Facebook comment "in response to a video [in the state press] that showed Seah crying after being told about a Macpherson female resident who could not get a refund of her son's $80 tuition fees".[40]

The NSP team was advised by the Elections Department to lodge a police report before the Elections Department could investigate.[41]

The day after the election, Seah told reporters that her party had not received any response after making the complaint, and said no decision had been taken on whether or not to pursue the issue. She added that the NSP knew "it is an uphill battle to get any results out of this. I would rather devote my time and resources to the residents".[42]

A similar complaint was lodged against Seah alleging that material had been published on her Facebook page during Cooling-Off Day. On 10 August, the Singapore Police Force announced that it had concluded its investigations into the two incidents, and that aside from a "stern warning" to Tin's friend, neither action was taken against either Tin or Seah.[43]

Separately, the NSP also complained that the PAP had been distributing election material to residents in Tampines GRC in violation of cooling-off regulations.[41]

Election results

After polls closed at 8pm, vote counting began. Results were announced by Yam Ah Mee, chief executive director of the People's Association, who acted as the Returning Officer for the election.[44] The first result was declared at 11.58pm on 7 May 2011, where PAP candidate Lim Biow Chuan won the Mountbatten Single Member Constituency with a majority of 3,529.

At 1.31 am on 8 May 2011, the PAP team for Ang Mo Kio Group Representation Constituency was declared to have won the division, putting the PAP's seat tally at 44 seats, and thus formed the government. The final result to be declared was for the Potong Pasir Single Member Constituency at 2.51am on 8 May, where the PAP gained the seat from the SPP on a razor-thin margin of 114 votes.

The political status quo was kept as the People's Action Party won a 13th consecutive term in office since 1959. However, the PAP saw its vote majorities reduced island-wide for a second election in a row. The PAP won 81 seats out of 87 despite losing Aljunied Group Representation Constituency to the WP, which also won in Hougang Single Member Constituency. None of the other five opposition parties won contests, including the SPP which lost Potong Pasir that it held prior to the election. WP marked the first opposition GRC victory since GRCs were introduced in 1988,[45] which resulted in the electoral defeat of Foreign Minister George Yeo[46][47] and a second Cabinet minister Lim Hwee Hua; both ministers were the first two highest-ranking PAP cabinet ministers to be unseated in the election in post-independence Singapore, with the last time being 1963 (minister Kenneth Michael Byrne lost his seat of Crawford)[48] The PAP also set its lowest national vote share since independence (beating 1991's share of 61.0%), which was just little over 60 per cent, a vote swing of almost negative 7 per cent from 2006.[8]

Excluding electorates from Tanjong Pagar Group Representation Constituency, voter turnout for the election was 93.18%, with 2,060,373 votes cast.[49]

Results summary

Popular vote

  PAP (60.14%)
  WP (12.83%)
  NSP (12.04%)
  SDP (4.83%)
  RP (4.28%)
  SPP (3.11%)
  SDA (2.78%)


  81 seats (PAP) (93.10%)
  6 seats (WP) (6.89%)
Results as announced on polling day on 7 May 2011.
e • d Summary of the 7 May 2011 Parliament of Singapore election results[50]
Parties and alliances Leader Contested seats Seats won Popular vote % of valid votes +/- % of valid votes in contested wards +/-
  People's Action Party Lee Hsien Loong 87 81 1,212,154 60.14
  6.46 60.14
  Workers' Party Low Thia Khiang 23 6 258,510 12.82
  3.51 46.58
  National Solidarity Party Goh Meng Seng 24 0 242,682 12.04
  0.95* 39.25
  Singapore Democratic Party Chee Soon Juan 11 0 97,369 4.83
  0.76 36.76
  Reform Party Kenneth Jeyaretnam 11 0 86,294 4.28
New party 31.78
New party
  Singapore People's Party Chiam See Tong 7 0 62,639 3.11
  9.88* 41.42
  Singapore Democratic Alliance Desmond Lim 7 0 55,988 2.78
  10.21 30.06
Valid votes 87 2,015,636 97.83% of total votes cast
Invalid (e.g. blank or spoilt) votes 44,737 2.17% of total votes cast
Total votes cast 2,060,373 Voter turnout: 93.18% of eligible voters
Did not vote 150,729
Eligible voters (excluding walkover voters) 2,211,102
Walkover voters (all from Tanjong Pagar GRC) 139,771
Electorate 2,350,873
Includes uncontested victories.
* Formerly a constituent party of Singapore Democratic Alliance. Swings reflected are from the SDA's 2006 vote share.

Full results

Results of 2011 Singapore general election[51]
Division Seats Voters Party Candidate(s) Votes Votes %
Aljunied GRC 5 143,148   People's Action Party George Yeo
Lim Hwee Hua
Zainul Abidin bin Mohamed Rasheed
Cynthia Phua
Ong Ye Kung
45.28 / 100
  Workers' Party Low Thia Khiang
Sylvia Lim
Chen Show Mao
Pritam Singh
Muhamad Faisal bin Abdul Manap
54.72 / 100
Ang Mo Kio GRC 6 179,071   People's Action Party Lee Hsien Loong
Yeo Guat Kwang
Inderjit Singh
Seng Han Thong
Ang Hin Kee
Intan Azura Mokhtar
69.33 / 100
  Reform Party Alex Tan Zhixiang
Arthero Lim Tung Hee
Vignes Ramachandran
Lim Zi Rui
Mansor Rahman
Osman Sulaiman
30.67 / 100
Bishan-Toa Payoh GRC 5 122,492   People's Action Party Wong Kan Seng
Ng Eng Hen
Josephine Teo Li Min
Hri Kumar
Zainudin Nordin
56.93 / 100
  Singapore People's Party Chiam See Tong
Benjamin Pwee
Wilfred Leung
Jimmy Lee
Mohamad Hamim Aliyas
43.07 / 100
Chua Chu Kang GRC 5 158,648   National Solidarity Party Teo Kway Huang Sebastian
Tan Lay Thiam Tony
Poa Koon Koon Hazel
Nor Lella Mardiiiah Mohamed
Jeisilan Sivalingam
38.80 / 100
  People's Action Party Gan Kim Yong
Alvin Yeo
Zaqy Mohamad
Alex Yam
Low Yen Ling
61.20 / 100
East Coast GRC 5 120,324   People's Action Party Lim Swee Say
Maliki Osman
Lee Yi Shyan
Jessica Tan
Raymond Lim
54.83 / 100
  Workers' Party Eric Tan Heng Chong
Png Eng Huat
Glenda Han
Gerald Giam
Mohamed Fazli Bin Talip
45.17 / 100
Holland-Bukit Timah GRC 4 91,607   People's Action Party Vivian Balakrishnan
Christopher de Souza
Liang Eng Hwa
Sim Ann
60.08 / 100
  Singapore Democratic Party Tan Jee Say
Ang Yong Guan
Vincent Wijeysingha
Michelle Lee
39.92 / 100
Jurong GRC 5 125,276   National Solidarity Party Neo Ting Wei Christopher
Abdul Rasheed
Ong Beng Soon Elvin
Ong Hock Siong
Noraini Yunus
33.04 / 100
  People's Action Party Tharman Shanmugaratnam
Halimah Bte Yacob
Ang Wei Neng
Desmond Lee Ti-Seng (Li Zhisheng)
David Ong
66.96 / 100
Marine Parade GRC 5 154,451   National Solidarity Party Cheo Chai Chen
Ivan Yeo Tiong Boon
Abdul Salim Harun
Spencer Ng Chung Hon
Seah Xue Ling, Nicole Rebecca
43.36 / 100
  People's Action Party Goh Chok Tong
Tan Chuan Jin
Fatimah Lateef
Seah Kian Peng
Tin Pei Ling
56.64 / 100
Moulmein-Kallang GRC 4 87,595   People's Action Party Lui Tuck Yew
Yaacob Ibrahim
Denise Phua Lay Peng
Edwin Tong
58.55 / 100
  Workers' Party Mohd Rahizan
Toh Hong Boon
L Somasundram
Frieda Chan
41.45 / 100
Nee Soon GRC 5 148,290   People's Action Party K. Shanmugam
Muhammad Faishal Ibrahim
Lee Bee Wah
Lim Wee Kiak
Patrick Tay Teck Guan
58.40 / 100
  Workers' Party John Yam Poh Nam
Angela Faye Oon
Sajeev K. R. Kamalasanan
Chong Cham Weng, Winston
Poh Lee Guan
41.60 / 100
Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC 6 168,971   People's Action Party Teo Chee Hean
Teo Ser Luck
Penny Low
Janil Puthucheary
Gan Thiam Poh
Zainal Bin Sapari
64.79 / 100
  Singapore Democratic Alliance Harminder Pal Singh
Sidney Soon
Jeffrey Lim
Noraine Anabi
Tony Tan
Mohammad Shafni Ahmad
35.21 / 100
Sembawang GRC 5 142,459   People's Action Party Khaw Boon Wan
Ellen Lee
Hawazi Daipi
Ong Teng Koon
Vikram Nair
63.9 / 100
  Singapore Democratic Party James Gomez
John Tan
Jarrod Luo Jie
Mohd Isa Abdul Aziz
Sadasivam Veriyah
36.1 / 100
Tampines GRC 5 137,532   National Solidarity Party Goh Meng Seng
Reno Fong Chin Leong
Syafarin Sarif
Raymond Lim Peng Ann
Gilbert Goh Keow Wah
42.78 / 100
  People's Action Party Mah Bow Tan
Ng Phek Hoong Irene
Masagos Zulkifli Bin Masagos Mohamad
Baey Yam Keng
Heng Swee Keat
57.22 / 100
Tanjong Pagar GRC 5 139,771   People's Action Party Lee Kuan Yew
Lily Neo
Indranee Thurai Rajah
Chan Chun Sing
Chia Shi-Lu
West Coast GRC 5 121,045   People's Action Party Lim Hng Kiang
Fong Jen Arthur
S Iswaran
Foo Mee Har
Lawrence Wong Shyun Tsai
66.57 / 100
  Reform Party Kenneth Jeyaretnam
Frankie Low
Andy Zhu
Kumar Appavoo
Haren Hu
33.43 / 100
Bukit Panjang SMC 1 33,053   People's Action Party Teo Ho Pin 20,375
66.27 / 100
  Singapore Democratic Party Alec Tok 10,372
33.73 / 100
Hong Kah North SMC 1 27,701   People's Action Party Amy Khor Lean Suan 18,156
70.61 / 100
  Singapore People's Party Sin Kek Tong 7,556
29.39 / 100
Hougang SMC 1 24,560   People's Action Party Choo Pey Ching Desmond 8065
35.2 / 100
  Workers' Party Yaw Shin Leong 14,850
64.8 / 100
Joo Chiat SMC 1 22,069   People's Action Party Chong You Fook Charles 9,666
51.02 / 100
  Workers' Party Yee Jenn Jong 9,278
48.98 / 100
Mountbatten SMC 1 23,731   National Solidarity Party Jeannette Chong-Aruldoss 8,461
41.38 / 100
  People's Action Party Lim Biow Chuan 11,985
58.62 / 100
Pioneer SMC 1 25,745   National Solidarity Party Steve Chia Kiah Hong 9,437
39.27 / 100
  People's Action Party Cedric Foo 14,593
60.73 / 100
Potong Pasir SMC 1 17,327   People's Action Party Sitoh Yih Pin 7,992
50.36 / 100
  Singapore People's Party Lina Chiam 7,878
49.64 / 100
Punggol East SMC 1 33,281   People's Action Party Michael Palmer 16,994
54.54 / 100
  Singapore Democratic Alliance Desmond Lim (Loses deposit) 1,387
4.45 / 100
  Workers' Party Lee Li Lian 12,777
41.01 / 100
Radin Mas SMC 1 31,014   National Solidarity Party Yip Yew Weng 9,123
32.90 / 100
  People's Action Party Sam Tan Chin Siong 18,609
67.10 / 100
Sengkang West SMC 1 26,882   People's Action Party Lam Pin Min 14,689
58.11 / 100
  Workers' Party Koh Choong Yong 10,591
41.89 / 100
Whampoa SMC 1 21,622   People's Action Party Heng Chee How 13,028
66.10 / 100
  National Solidarity Party Ken Sun 6,680
33.90 / 100
Yuhua SMC 1 23,195   People's Action Party Grace Fu 14,093
66.86 / 100
  Singapore Democratic Party Teo Soh Lung 6,986
33.14 / 100


Top 10 best PAP performers

  • Constituencies with no comparison to 2006 were either due to them being new constituencies or the constituencies experiencing walkovers in the last election.
# Constituency   PAP Opposition
Votes % Swing Votes % Swing
1 Hong Kah North SMC 18,156 70.61 New   7,556 29.39 New
2 Ang Mo Kio GRC 112,677 69.33   3.19   49,851 30.67   3.19
3 Radin Mas SMC 18,609 67.10 New   9,123 32.90 New
4 Jurong GRC 76,595 66.96 Walkover   37,786 33.04 Walkover
5 Yuhua SMC 14,093 66.86 New   6,986 33.14 New
6 West Coast GRC 72,563 66.57 Walkover   36,443 33.43 Walkover
7 Bukit Panjang SMC 20,375 66.27   10.91   10,372 33.73   10.91
8 Whampoa SMC 13,028 66.10 New   6,683 33.90 New
9 Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC 100,493 64.79   3.91   54,601 35.21   3.91
10 Sembawang GRC 84,252 63.9   12.8   47,605 36.1   12.8

Top 16 best opposition performers

  • Constituencies with no comparison to 2006 were either due to them being new constituencies or the constituencies experiencing walkovers in the last election.
  • Punggol East SMC is excluded from the table as there were two opposition parties which competed against the incumbent. If the WP's 12,765 votes (41.02%) and the SDA's 1,386 votes (4.45%) were summed up, the opposition won 14,151 votes (45.47%), which would place it fifth in the table below.
# Constituency Opposition   PAP
Votes % Swing Votes % Swing
1 Hougang SMC   14,850 64.8   2.1 8,065 35.2   2.1
2 Aljunied GRC   72,289 54.72   10.81 59,829 45.28   10.81
3 Potong Pasir SMC   7,878 49.64   6.18 7,992 50.36   6.18
4 Joo Chiat SMC   9,278 48.98   13.99 9,666 51.02   13.99
5 East Coast GRC   49,429 45.17   9.03 59,992 54.83   9.03
6 Marine Parade GRC   59,926 43.36 Walkover 78,286 56.64 Walkover
7 Bishan-Toa Payoh GRC   47,205 43.07 Walkover 62,385 56.93 Walkover
8 Tampines GRC   54,381 42.78   11.29 72,728 57.22   11.29
9 Sengkang West SMC   10,591 41.89 New 14,689 58.11 New
10 Nee Soon GRC   57,523 41.60 New 80,740 58.40 New
11 Moulmein-Kallang GRC   31,773 41.45 New 44,886 58.55 New
12 Mountbatten SMC   8,461 41.38 New 11,985 58.62 New
13 Punggol East SMC   12,777 41.01 New 16,994 54.54 New
  1,387 4.45
14 Holland-Bukit Timah GRC   32,406 39.92 Walkover 48,773 60.08 Walkover
15 Pioneer SMC   9,437 39.27 New 14,593 60.73 New
16 Chua Chu Kang GRC   56,885 38.80 New 89,710 61.20 New

Vote Swings

  • Only the following constituencies may be compared with 2006 results as they existed in both elections, although most had changes in their electoral boundaries.
# Constituency   PAP Opposition
Votes % Swing Votes % Swing
1 Joo Chiat SMC 9,278 48.98   13.99   9,666 51.02   13.99
2 Sembawang GRC 84,252 63.9   12.8   47,605 36.1   12.8
3 Tampines GRC 72,728 57.22   11.29   54,381 42.78   11.29
4 Bukit Panjang SMC 20,375 66.27   10.91   10,372 33.73   10.91
5 Aljunied GRC 59,829 45.28   10.81   72,289 54.72   10.81
6 East Coast GRC 59,992 54.83   9.03   49,429 45.17   9.03
7 Potong Pasir SMC 7,992 50.36   6.18   7,878 49.64   6.18
8 Pasir Ris-Punggol GRC 100,493 64.79   3.91   54,601 35.21   3.91
9 Ang Mo Kio GRC 112,677 69.33   3.19   49,851 30.67   3.19
10 Hougang SMC 8,065 35.2   2.1   14,850 64.8   2.1

Interpretive maps

Vote share won by the ruling People's Action Party by constituency. There was no contest in Tanjong Pagar Group Representation Constituency as there was a walkover.

Post-election events

Ruling party's immediate reactions

The People's Action Party's secretary-general, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, described the results as delivering his party a "clear mandate to form the next government".[52] In his post-election press conference, Lee said the polls had "heightened (voters') political consciousness and awareness", and admitted that "many of them desire to see more opposition voices in Parliament to check the PAP government".[53] He described the PAP's loss of Aljunied GRC, which resulted in George Yeo being voted out of Parliament and losing his position as foreign minister, as a "heavy loss to my Cabinet and my team of MPs", but said that the party would "accept and respect the voters' decision".[54] The country's Senior Minister, Goh Chok Tong, also admitted that "there is a sea change in the political landscape" after his team won Marine Parade Group Representation Constituency with just 56.6 percent of the vote.[55]

Opposition parties' immediate reactions

The Workers Party's secretary-general Low Thia Khiang said his team's win in Aljunied meant that voters had "accepted the WP as a rational, responsible and respected party".[56] In his victory speech, Low declared his win as a "political landmark in modern Singapore".[57][58] He added that it meant the electorate wanted to tell the PAP to be "a more responsive, inclusive, transparent and accountable government”.[6]

In a statement on its website, the Singapore Democratic Party thanked its supporters for their support, saying that it was for them that the party "(continues) to labour on in this undemocratic system with all the odds stacked against us."[59] Its assistant treasurer Vincent Wijeysingha, who stood in Holland-Bukit Timah Group Representation Constituency, said that the party's positive vote swing in its contested wards of almost 13 percent from the last elections was an "indicator that things are beginning to move up for our party."[60] In a second statement on its website, the SDP described its results as "disappointing", but promised to "build on the foundation that we have laid" for the next elections.[61] The party's secretary-general Chee Soon Juan, barred from standing in the election, went on to write an opinion piece for the Guardian, in which he said it "would have been a miracle" had the SDP won any seats, and accused the media in Singapore of suppressing news of the SDP's campaigning.[62]

Other than the PAP and WP, the only other opposition seat pre-election had been held by the Singapore People's Party, which lost it in the polls by just 114 votes. Chiam See Tong, the SPP's secretary-general, said his party would fight to win back Potong Pasir Single Member Constituency, and said that despite being defeated in Bishan-Toa Payoh Group Representation Constituency, he would continue in politics, health permitting.[63] He also questioned the margin of votes in Potong Pasir, contested by his wife, saying there was "funny business" happening. A petition calling for a by-election in the constituency was started by SPP supporters and Potong Pasir residents.[64]

The National Solidarity Party, which contested the most seats of all opposition parties, admitted it may have taken on too much, with its leader Goh Meng Seng telling reporters that he would be "personally responsible" for the party's failure to win a single seat.[60] Its star candidate, Nicole Seah, said Singaporeans now had to unite as a country.[65] Seah, who contested in Marine Parade, also said there was "so much that needs to be done", and that she would continue her work in the area despite her team's defeat.[66]

The leader of the newest opposition party contesting the elections, the Reform Party's Kenneth Jeyaretnam, described his party as having "learnt a lot" and said they had "done very well", as the first new party in over 20 years. He added that the party was "very happy" at its result in West Coast Group Representation Constituency,[60] and that its second team had done "creditably" in Ang Mo Kio Group Representation Constituency. Jeyaretnam also said the team being able to win the votes it did despite being a new party meant that its "core values resonate with the voters".[67]

The worst-performing party at the polls was the Singapore Democratic Alliance, whose secretary-general Desmond Lim polled under 5 percent of votes in Punggol East Single Member Constituency—the only three-way contest of the election—and lost a S$16,000 election deposit. He said voters had voted based on brand name, as the other opposition candidate in the ward was from the WP. The SDA also contested Pasir Ris-Punggol Group Representation Constituency, and Lim said the party was "very happy" at its positive vote swing from 2006 of over 4 percent. However, the SDA's anchorman in the constituency Harminder Pal Singh described the loss as a "time for painful reflection" and said the party would work harder to win more votes.[68]

Foreign reactions

At an ASEAN heads-of-state meeting in Jakarta, Indonesia, leaders of ASEAN nations reportedly told S Jayakumar, Singapore's representative at the event, that they were "saddened, disappointed and surprised" at the news that foreign minister Yeo had been defeated, according to the state-run Straits Times,[69] while at the same meeting the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Najib Tun Razak, said the PAP's win would mean a continuity in understanding between the Malaysian and Singaporean governments on bilateral issues.[70]

Non-Constituency Member of Parliament offers

Three Non-Constituency Members of Parliament (NCMP) seats were offered after the election to the top three losing opposition candidates. The Singapore People's Party accepted the seat for Lina Chiam, ensuring that the Chiam family retained representation in Parliament. While Chiam See Tong has said he is opposed to the scheme, the SPP reasoned that it was "critical" to ensure an "alternative voice in Parliament", to allow the party to "remain engaged in national issues", and to be publicly visible until the next election due by 2016. Mrs Chiam also pointed out that she was "influenced by the wishes of Potong Pasir residents" and she accepted the post as her losing margin was too small.[71]

The Workers' Party was offered the final two NCMP seats for having the second and third best performing losing candidates, which it accepted despite Mr Low also disputing the scheme. Yee Jenn Jong was thus appointed for his performance in Joo Chiat SMC, but as it had to choose one member from the East Coast GRC team, the younger Gerald Giam was chosen over team leader and party treasurer Eric Tan as part of its leadership renewal process. Eric Tan resigned from the party, citing his disagreement with the appointment.[72]

On 16 May 2011, the three proposed NCMPs were formally appointed.[73]


Use of social media

The election saw a heavier use of social and online media compared to 2006 Singapore general election, especially to evade censorship in Singapore. It is widely perceived by the populace that the major state-run newspapers and broadcasters "align[ed] itself with the party's ideals and decisions" and that the electoral system was tilted against the Opposition.[36] It had been difficult to create alternative media until the rise of sites such as The Online Citizen and such internet tools such as Facebook, Twitter and blogs, which saw increased significance in the 2006 elections but became especially prominent in the 2011 elections. [74] According to The Economist, the PAP's aggressive modernisation of Singapore created "one of the world's most wired societies," leading to new media that "transformed" the electoral scene in Singapore. Characterising the state-run mainstream press as "docile", the Economist also argued that this also forced significantly more news coverage of the Opposition than in previous elections, since the mainstream media feared their readership deserting them.[36] One blogger from CNN wrote, "Thanks to social media, it doesn’t matter that the country’s largely state-run media leans towards reporting the actions of the PAP, no one’s reading anyway.".[74] The Economist however was more cynical in its analysis of the election: "in Singapore, winning 7% of parliamentary seats is tantamount to an opposition triumph".[36]

The first election in which a GRC was won by the Opposition

Traditionally regarded as a PAP "fortress", a GRC fell to the opposition for the first time in Singapore's political history. In previous elections, the Opposition had never won a GRC, which ostensibly ensure minority representation in parliament but also shut out smaller opposition parties with less resources. GRCs comprise over 86% of the seats, but the Opposition in previous elections would contest "less than half the seats". The election saw the most extensive use of co-ordination to avoid "three-cornered fights" and was also notable for seeing "two veteran MPs" making immense risks by choosing to contest in GRCs rather than their historical SMC strongholds.[36]

Signals to the ruling party

The election results were widely used in national and international discussions that the population was trying to send a message to a ruling party that "can also come across as smug, arrogant and high-handed" despite a win margin of over 20%, which usually counts as a landslide victory for most democratic nations but has been one of the narrowest margins since 1965.[36] The last election with a similarly narrow victory occurred in the 1963 Singapore general election, when the PAP's major opponent was the Barisan Sosialis—which in itself was a splinter group formed from the leftist wing of the PAP, where it had comprised 80% of the PAP grassroots membership, 35 out of the PAP's 51 branch committees and 19 of its 23 organising secretaries. According to the Economist, Singaporeans would prefer not to have an alternative government but a humbler one, as well as a "stronger opposition".

On 14 May, exactly a week after the election, Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong and Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew announced in a joint statement that they would be quitting the country's Cabinet, saying it was time for a "team of younger ministers" to "engage with this young generation in shaping the future of Singapore."[75] In a similar analysis by Bloomberg, the resignations and the ensuing cabinet reshuffle were the actions of a ruling party "seeking to overhaul its image with voters" whose "narrowest election victory on record signaled a shortfall in support among younger voters".[76] Lee Kuan Yew was also quoted as saying that a younger generation was required to "carry Singapore forward in a more difficult and complex situation" while Lee Hsien Loong declared the party "would change the way it governs" and do some "soul-searching". A Singapore Management University professor said "[The PAP] will have to demonstrate that it remains a mass movement, and not [Lee Kuan Yew]’s alter ego," noting that younger Singaporeans do not see Lee Kuan Yew with the same godlike perception as older Singaporeans born before 1980.

Further retirements

Both losing ministers in Aljunied GRC, George Yeo and Minister in the Prime Minister's Office Lim Hwee Hua, announced their retirements from politics in separate news conferences given in the days after the election.[77][78] George Yeo, who remained popular online and continued to have "a flood of support" after the election and had been repeatedly urged to contest the next election, or even contest the 2011 Singaporean presidential election turned his supporters down, declaring, "I'm a free spirit, and I don't think I'm temperamentally suited for such a job." [79]

See also


  1. ^ After the ruling government sued him into bankruptcy, Chee Soon Juan is barred from standing in elections. The SDP was thus led by its assistant secretary-general, John Tan, contesting in Sembawang GRC.


  1. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Singapore". Attorney-General's Chambers of Singapore website. Retrieved 17 December 2008.
  2. ^ Good to have strong contest: PM Lee. Straitstimes.com (28 April 2011). Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  3. ^ Stakes and risk very high for opposition: WP chief. Straitstimes.com (28 April 2011). Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  4. ^ GE 82 of 87 seats contested. Channel NewsAsia (27 April 2011). Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  5. ^ Singapore Parliamentary General Election 1972 Archived 2 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Singapore-elections.com. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  6. ^ a b Brown, Kevin (8 May 2011). "Singapore opposition makes historic gains". Financial Times. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  7. ^ "81 out of 87 seats for PAP". Straits Times. 8 May 2011. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  8. ^ a b Mydans, Seth (8 May 2011). "Singapore Loosens Grip on the Internet". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  9. ^ Kor, Kian Beng (13 May 2011). "SPP accepts NCMP offer for Mrs Chiam". Straits Times. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  10. ^ Hussain, Zakir (13 May 2011). "WP's Yee Jenn Jong, Gerald Giam, to take up NCMP seats". Straits Times. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  11. ^ a b c Channel News Asia. "3 bills tabled to amend Constitution, Presidential & Parliamentary elections". Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
  12. ^ The Straits Times. "Singapore's constitutional amendments passed". Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  13. ^ "SDP's Chee Soon Juan declared bankrupt, cannot stand for elections till 2011". Channel NewsAsia. 10 February 2006. By Farah Abdul Rahim.
  14. ^ "Jeyaretnam reinstated as an attorney after appeal is accepted". TODAY website. Retrieved 17 December 2008.
  15. ^ The Straits Times. "JBJ dies of heart attack". Retrieved 17 December 2008.
  16. ^ "Central Executive Committee". Reform Party website. Reform Party. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  17. ^ "Electoral Boundaries Review Committee report accepted". Channel NewsAsia. 24 February 2011. By S Ramesh.
  18. ^ "GE: GE: 11 new constituencies drawn up". cna. 24 February 2011.
  19. ^ "GE: How many voters does each GRC get?". cna. 24 February 2011.
  20. ^ a b c "General Election 2011 – Retired MPs". ge.sg. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  21. ^ "General Election 2011 – Retired MPs". ge.sg. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  22. ^ "General Election 2011 – Retired MPs". ge.sg. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  23. ^ "General Election 2011 – Retired MPs". ge.sg. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  24. ^ a b "General Election 2011 – Retired MPs". ge.sg. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  25. ^ a b "General Election 2011 – Retired MPs". ge.sg. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  26. ^ a b c "General Election 2011 – Retired MPs". ge.sg. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  27. ^ a b "General Election 2011 – Retired MPs". ge.sg. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  28. ^ "General Election 2011 – Retired MPs". ge.sg. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  29. ^ a b "General Election 2011 – Retired MPs". ge.sg. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  30. ^ "MediaCorp presents a political forum on Singapore's future". Mediacorp website. Archived from the original on 6 April 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
  31. ^ Loudon, Bruce (9 May 2011). "Singapore's ruling party chastened in poll". The Australian. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  32. ^ Singapore Police Force – Media Information Centre Archived 1 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Spf.gov.sg. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  33. ^ "GE: Live streaming of Thursday's rallies". ge.sg. 5 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  34. ^ a b Xuanwei, Teo (25 April 2011). "Netizens attempt to identify video SDP accused of 'suppressing'". Today Online. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  35. ^ Mokhtar, Faris (24 April 2011). "SDP, PAP clash over mystery videoe". Yahoo News. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
  36. ^ a b c d e f "Low expectations". The Economist. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  37. ^ Sim Bryna, Melvin Singh (16 May 2011). "Is Singapore ready for a GAY MP?". The New Paper. Archived from the original on 28 April 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  38. ^ Paulo, Derrick (7 May 2011). "Drama over video, YOG and economic policies". Today Online. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  39. ^ Mokhtar, Faris (28 April 2011). "Vivian Balakrishnan: Let's not talk about the video anymore". Yahoo News. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
  40. ^ "RazorTV interview with Nicole Seah in MacPherson". Straits Times RazorTV. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  41. ^ a b "NSP advised to make police report". Straits Times. 7 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  42. ^ "Tin Pei Ling's Cooling-off Day 'comment' pursue or not?". Channel NewsAsia. 8 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  43. ^ "Update On Four Police Cases Related To Possible Offences Committed During The General Election 2011" (Press release). Singapore Police Force. 10 August 2011. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  44. ^ Wong, Tessa (10 May 2011). "Yam Ah Mee: GE's new Internet star". Straits Times. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
  45. ^ "GE: Singapore's PAP returns to power". Channel NewsAsia. 8 May 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  46. ^ "GE: "We hear all your voices", says PM Lee". Channel NewsAsia. 8 May 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  47. ^ "Singapore opposition make 'landmark' election gains". BBC News Online. 7 May 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  48. ^ "A Singaporean minister again in a hot seat". Straits Times. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
  49. ^ "93.18% of registered electors voted in GE 2011". Straits Times. 12 May 2011. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  50. ^ Singapore Parliamentary General Election 2011
  51. ^ "2011 Parliamentary General Election results". Singapore Elections Department. 7 May 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
  52. ^ Ibrahim, Zuraidah (8 May 2011). "81-6: Workers' Party wins Aljunied GRC; PAP vote share dips to 60.1%". Sunday Times. p. 1.
  53. ^ "Pledge to serve responsibly and humbly". Sunday Times. 8 May 2011.
  54. ^ Rajaram, Chitra (8 May 2011). "GE "We hear all your voices", says PM Lee – General Election 2011". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  55. ^ Chow, Jermyn (9 May 2011). "SM Goh: The tide was very strong". Straits Times. p. A6.
  56. ^ Kor, Kian Beng; Chong, Zi Liang (9 May 2011). "Voters back WP's style of politics, says Low". Straits Times. p. 1.
  57. ^ Ibrahim, Zuraidah (8 May 2011). "Victory for Low, defeat for Chiam". Sunday Times. p. 4.
  58. ^ "GE: Aljunied win a political landmark, says WP's Low". Channel NewsAsia. 8 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  59. ^ "Thank you". Singapore Democratic Party. 8 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  60. ^ a b c Saad, Imelda (8 May 2011). "Opposition parties reflect on post-election results". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  61. ^ "Democrats start preparation for next GE". Singapore Democratic Party. 9 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  62. ^ Chee, Soon Juan (10 May 2011). "Singapore is taking the first steps to true democracy". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  63. ^ Choo, Evelyn (8 May 2011). "GE: We'll win Potong Pasir back". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  64. ^ Ng, Jing Ying (9 May 2011). "I think there is some funny business going on, says Chiam". TODAYonline. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  65. ^ "GE: Nicole Seah urges Singaporeans to come together as one country". Channel NewsAsia. 8 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  66. ^ Kelly, Rachel (8 May 2011). "GE: NSP's Nicole Seah continues her visits in Marine Parade GRC". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  67. ^ "Reform Party thanks its supporters". Channel NewsAsia. 9 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  68. ^ Abdul Khamid, Hetty Musfirah (8 May 2011). "GE: We'll be back, says SDA's Desmond Lim". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  69. ^ Nazeer, Zubaidah (9 May 2011). "Asean leaders saddened by George Yeo's exit: Jaya". Straits Times. p. A5.
  70. ^ Yahya, Ahmad Fuad (8 May 2011). "BERNAMA – PAP's Victory Favourable To Malaysia-Singapore Ties". Bernama. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
  71. ^ Moktar, Faris (12 May 2011). "Lina Chiam takes up NCMP seat". Yahoo!. SingaporeScene – Yahoo! News. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  72. ^ Fong, Tanya (13 May 2011). "Workers' Party's Eric Tan quits because... – General Election 2011". Today. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  73. ^ Kor, Kian Beng (16 May 2011). "Three NCMPs formally announced". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
  74. ^ a b Fang, Charlene (7 May 2011). "Why this Singapore General Election is important". CNNGo. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  75. ^ Chang, Rachel (14 May 2011). "MM Lee, SM Goh to retire from Cabinet". Straits Times. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
  76. ^ Adam, Shamim (15 May 2011). "Lee Kuan Yew Ends Five-Decade Role in Singapore Cabinet After Poll Setback". Bloomberg. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  77. ^ Li, Xueying (11 May 2011). "George Yeo exiting politics, will not run for Presidency". Straits Times. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  78. ^ "Lim Hwee Hua will not contest next election". Straits Times. 11 May 2011. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  79. ^ Ong, Dai Lin (11 May 2011). "I'm disappointed, but this is politics, says George Yeo". Today (Singapore newspaper). Archived from the original on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.

External links

Other official information