Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge

Sidney Sussex College (referred to informally as "Sidney") is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge[5] in England. The College was founded in 1596 under the terms of the will of Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex (1531–1589), wife of Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex, and named after its foundress. In her will, Lady Sidney left the sum of £5,000 together with some plate to found a new College at Cambridge University "to be called the Lady Frances Sidney Sussex College".[6] Her executors Sir John Harington and Henry Grey, 6th Earl of Kent, supervised by Archbishop John Whitgift, founded the Protestant College seven years after her death.[7]

Sidney Sussex College
University of Cambridge
Cloister Court, Sidney Sussex College
Arms of Sidney Sussex College, being the arms of the foundress Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex, namely Radclyffe (Argent, a bend engrailed sable) impaling Sidney (Or, a pheon point down azure)[1]
Scarf colours: two equal halves of dark-red and navy Sidney Sussex College scarf
LocationSidney Street (map)
Full nameThe College of the Lady Frances Sidney Sussex
AbbreviationSID[2]
MottoDieu me garde de calomnie (Middle French)
Motto in EnglishGod preserve me from calumny
FounderFrances Sidney, Countess of Sussex
Established1596; 428 years ago (1596)
Sister collegeSt John's College, Oxford
MasterMartin Burton
Undergraduates396 (2022-23)
Postgraduates240 (2022-23)
Fellows80
Endowment£29m (2022)[3]
Visitor Viscounts De L'Isle ex officio[4]
Websitewww.sid.cam.ac.uk
Sidney Sussex College Students' Union (SSCSU)sscsu.org.uk
MCRwww.srcf.ucam.org/sidneymcr/
Map
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge is located in Central Cambridge
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
Location in Central Cambridge
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge is located in Cambridge
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
Location in Cambridge

History edit

Foundation edit

 
Frances Sydney, Countess of Sussex, Founder of the College

Before Sidney's founding as a Protestant seminary, the site was home to the Grey Friars, or Franciscans, for nearly three centuries. In the 1950s, excavations revealed remnants of the complex, a lay graveyard with reburied skeletons, shattered stained glass, and a large Saxon jar. The medieval cellars beneath Hall Court, where Sidney's wine is stored, are remnants of this era.[8]

The college was founded in 1596 under the terms of the will of Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex (1531–1589), wife of Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex, and named after its foundress. It was from its inception an avowedly Protestant foundation;[7] "some good and godlie moniment for the mainteynance of good learninge". In her will, Lady Frances Sidney left the sum of £5,000 together with some plate to found a new college at Cambridge University "to be called the Lady Frances Sidney Sussex College".[9] Her executors Sir John Harington and Henry Grey, 6th Earl of Kent, supervised by Archbishop John Whitgift, founded the college seven years after her death.[7]

Expansion edit

While the college's geographic size has changed little since 1596, an additional range was added to the original E-shaped buildings in the early 17th century and the appearance of the whole college was changed significantly in the 1820s and 1830s, under the leadership of the master at the time, William Chafy. By the early 19th century, the buildings' original red brick was unfashionable and the hall range was suffering serious structural problems.

 

The opening up of coal mines on estates left to the college in the 18th century provided extra funds, which were to be devoted to providing a new mathematical library and accommodation for mathematical exhibitioners. Also with those funds, the exterior brick was covered with a layer of cement, the existing buildings were heightened slightly, and the architectural effect was also heightened, under the supervision of Sir Jeffry Wyatville.[10]

 
Sidney Sussex College (1690)

In the late nineteenth century, the college's finances received a further boost from the development of the resort of Cleethorpes on college land on the Lincolnshire coast. This land had been purchased in 1616, following a bequest for the benefit of scholars and fellows by Peter Blundell, a merchant from Tiverton, Devon.[11][12] A new wing (Cloister Court), added in 1891 to the designs of John Loughborough Pearson, is stylistically richer than the original buildings and has stone staircases, whereas the stairs in the older buildings are made of timber.[13]

In the early twentieth century, a High Church group among the fellows was instrumental in the rebuilding and enlargement of the chapel, which was provided with a richly carved interior in late seventeenth-century style, designed by T. H. Lyon, and somewhat at odds with the college's original Puritan ethos.[14]

 
Heraldic emblem of Sidney Sussex College, a porcupine (statant) azure quills collar and chain or, being the crest of the Sidney family[15][16]

Sidney Sussex is one of the smaller Cambridge colleges. The student body consists of roughly 355 undergraduate students, 275 postgraduates and 80 fellows.

Buildings and grounds edit

Sidney's buildings blend old and new, with the latest addition, the Old Kitchen (new dining space), completed in 2021. Sidney is the only college with a student-run bar. Student rooms have kitchen access, but also have catered options.[17]

Sidney sits on the site of Cambridge's Franciscan friary, built in the middle of the 13th century and dissolved in the 1530s. Artefacts of the site's past lie beneath the foundations of the college buildings.[18]

Sidney Sussex has two courtyards surrounded by Grade I listed buildings dating from 1596.[19]

 
Chapel Court, Sidney Sussex College

Chapel Court edit

This court incorporates a number of buildings that house offices, the Junior Common Room (JCR) and a wood panelled chapel.

The Chapel, for which this court is named, has gone through many forms over the years. The current building was rebuilt in the 18th century, and has been extended a number of times in subsequent centuries. The exterior was entirely remodelled in 1833 to match the Gothic style of the rest of the buildings.

The carved interior of the Chapel was installed in the early 20th century to suit the High Church tastes of a group of college fellows.

The Chapel is open throughout the day as a space for the college community, regardless of faith or background.[20]

Hall Court edit

 
Hall Court, Sidney Sussex College

Hall Court is enclosed by a range of Gothic buildings incorporating the Master's Lodge, Buttery and the new Kitchen buildings, but the Court's name comes from Sidney's Dining Hall.[21]

The dining hall was redesigned by Sir James Burrough in 1752.[22] The hall had been in poor repair, and the 'elegant Rococo room' that emerged from the remodelling was seen as a way to attract students and Fellows. Sidney's Dining Hall features decorated plasterwork, pillars, and an elaborate rococo ceiling with a centrepiece of scrolls and acanthus foliage.[23]

A portrait of the college's founder, Lady Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex, is mounted over the high table.[24]

The Hall is used for a whole range of functions for undergraduates, postgraduates, alumni and fellows, it is used to meet and socialise.

 
Cloister Court, Sidney Sussex College

Cloister Court edit

Added in 1891 and designed in the Gothic revival style, these buildings recall the Franciscan roots of the site.[25]

The buildings house a number of student rooms, gardens and lawn, where a number of medieval graves were uncovered.

Chapel and music edit

 
Sidney Sussex College Chapel

The old chapel, built by James Essex in the 1770s, was very small at 20 by 30 feet. The old bell, bought from Pembroke Hall in 1707 and recast in 1739, was retained until 1930 when it was replaced with a new one. The work to the new chapel was completed in 1923. The antechapel now contains wall memorials to the dead of the two world wars and to three masters, Parris, Elliston and Chafy. The presence of Oliver Cromwell's head, buried somewhere nearby, is marked by a tablet installed in 1960.

The Choir of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge is made up of six to eight sopranos, six altos (male and female), six tenors, three baritones, and three basses. During term-time the choir has a regular commitment in the chapel to Choral Evensong on Fridays and Sundays and Latin Choral Vespers on Wednesdays.

A number of choral scholarships are available for members of the Sidney Choir. In addition to singing Evensong in the chapel, the Choir has made some recordings and tours regularly in the UK and overseas.

The Choir was nominated for a 2013 Gramophone Award in recognition of their disc of the music of Thomas Weelkes.[26]

The Sidney Sussex College Music Society organises concerts and recitals, and the college runs a number of instrumental and vocal ensembles.

The Sidney Chapel includes a Steinway grand piano, a harpsichord, a chamber organ and a Flentrop organ.

Student life edit

Student societies edit

Sidney has a range on offer including many sports clubs and a variety of subject-based societies. Students can set up a new club or society at any time.[27]

SSCSU (Sidney Sussex College Students' Union) represents undergraduates at Sidney, whether through socials or broader student politics. The Middle Common Room (MCR) is Sidney's postgraduate community, and consists of all the PhD, MPhil, Part III, and LLM students.

Boat Club edit

 
Sidney Sussex College Boathouse

Founded in 1837, the club has spent most of its time in the 2nd division of the Lent and May Bumps, with brief times spent in the 1st division. Being a small College, the club has never had the consistency to rise to take a headship of either event, and has been as high as 6th in the Lent Bumps in 1913, and 11th in the May Bumps in 1923.

A women's crew was first formed in 1978 and has spent most of its time in the lower half of the 1st division in both the Lent and May Bumps, but recently has fallen to the middle of the 2nd division of both the Lent and May Bumps.

In Lent Bumps 2020, Sidney Sussex were the winners of the Marconi Cup,[28] making them the highest performing of any boat club overall. The Women's second boat were winners of blades, bumping a total of five times.

Confraternitas Historica edit

 
A view of the College from Sidney Street

The Confraternitas Historica, or Confraternitas Historica Dominae Franciscae Comitis Sussexiae, is the history society of Sidney Sussex College and is reputed to be the longest-running student history society in Europe, having existed since 1910. In fact, no meetings were held from 1914 to 1919 but since, during the First World War, "the University itself almost ceased to function ... the hiatus of 1914–19 is not counted as a break in the continuity of the society".

The Latin name of the society reflects the tastes of Jack Reynolds, the fellow who presided over its creation, who also "endowed the Society with an elaborate Latin initiation ceremony".[29] Similarly, rather than being led by a President, the student in charge of the society is instead 'Princeps'. Other society roles include the 'Magister,' 'Tribune,' 'Pontifex Maximus,' and 'Comes'. During society meetings all attendees are referred to in an egalitarian, though still Latinate, manner. Regardless of academic standing or title, all attendees are given the title of 'soror' (sister) or 'frater' (brother).

Sidney Sussex Cricket Club edit

During Lent term, Sidney holds indoor cricket training sessions, while outdoor training and matches, including the renowned inter-collegiate 'Cuppers' competition, occur in Easter term. Additionally, the college organises social events throughout the academic year.

University Challenge edit

In the television show University Challenge, Sidney Sussex had a winning team in 1971 and 1978–79. The 1978 team, comprising John Gilmore, John Adams, David Lidington, and Nick Graham, went on to win the "Champion of Champions" University Challenge reunion competition in 2002. The college last appeared on the television show in 2018.

May Ball edit

Sidney's first May Ball was in 1894 during Charles Smith's Mastership. In 2010, the Venice-themed May Ball garnered national press attention for its unique punting setup. Recent themes have included 'Light' (2014) and 'Beyond' (2016). In 2022, an 'Arcade' theme featured Pacman, the Ghost Gang, and a neon maze in Hall Court, with the Knox-Shaw Room transformed into a retro arcade.[30]

As with many of the smaller colleges, Sidney Sussex does not run a May Ball every year, instead running a biennial May Ball, on even-numbered years. On odd-numbered years, the college previously hosted an arts festival, which welcomed anyone in Cambridge to attend. Notable guest speakers at the Sidney Arts Festival have included Stephen Fry, in 2015.[31]

A Song of Sidney Sussex edit

At the beginning of the 20th century, E.H. Griffiths wrote a ten verse song dedicated to Sidney Sussex. Each verse systematically identifies, then dismisses other Cambridge colleges for their faults, before settling on Sidney as the best college of all. The chorus exhorts the audience:[32]

'Go travel round the town, my friend, whichever way you please,
From Downing up to Trinity, from Peterhouse to Caius:
Then seek a little College just beside a busy street,
Its name is Sidney Sussex, and you'll find it Bad to Beat.'

People associated with Sidney edit

 
David Owen, former leader of the Social Democratic Party, now a member of the House of Lords
 
Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth

Former members of the college include the political and military leader Oliver Cromwell, who was among the first students, although he never graduated, dropping out after his father became ill. Oliver Cromwell's head was interred in 1960 in a secret location near the antechapel.[33]

Other former College members include early historian Thomas Fuller; historical writer Thomas Rymer; the 17th-century poet and dramatist Thomas May; and Dean of Sidney Sussex College and later Bishop Robert Machray.

Another famous alumnus was the theologian and moral philosopher William Wollaston who wrote The Religion of Nature Delineated (1724). Notable legal alumni include Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade (judge on the International Court of Justice from 2009 until his death in 2022).

Politicians edit

Notable politicians to have attended the college include the civil servant Sir Basil Engholm; and the former Foreign Secretary and leader of the Social Democratic Party Lord Owen. Former students also include Chris Grayling; David Lidington; Rebecca Evans, and the late Brian Lenihan, former Minister of Finance in the Republic of Ireland.

Scientists edit

The college's strong tradition in the sciences is seen by the association of the Nobel Prize–winning physicists Cecil Frank Powell and C. T. R. Wilson, 1997 Nobel Prize in Chemistry recipient John E. Walker and the 2002 Nobel prize in Chemistry recipient Alan MacDiarmid. Sir Benjamin Lockspeiser, the first president of CERN was also an undergraduate at the college, along with psychiatrist W. Ross Ashby. Robert McCance Professor of Experimental Medicine, played a leading part in wartime rationing and 1940s government nutrition efforts. Professor Dame Ann Dowling has been a Fellow since 1977 and is the President of the Royal Academy of Engineering.[34] The inaugural recipient of the Rosalind Franklin award Professor Sue Gibson was an undergraduate at the college.[35] The "father of radio astronomy in Australia"[36][37] Joe Pawsey obtained his PhD at Sidney Sussex in 1935.

Bletchley Park codebreakers edit

Eleven members of the college worked at Bletchley Park during World War Two. They were Gordon Welchman, a Sidney Research Fellow in Mathematics who recruited many of them, John Herivel, Asa Briggs, Paul Coales, Malcolm Chamberlain, Edward Dudley Smith, John Manisty, Jim Passant, David Rees, Howard Smith (later head of MI5) and Leslie Yoxall (famous for his work in Hut 8 on breaking the German naval officers' code).[citation needed]

Artists and popular figures edit

More recent alumni include author, broadcaster and Associate Editor of The Observer newspaper Andrew Rawnsley; former technical director of the Mercedes-Benz Formula One team Paddy Lowe; television host known primarily for her role on the game show Countdown Carol Vorderman and the comedian Alex Horne. Also, the Hollywood director John Madden known for the Academy Award-winning Shakespeare in Love, and professor and writer John Fraser. Musical alumni include Al Doyle (1998) and Felix Martin (1999) of the electronic band Hot Chip.[38] In 2010, American composer Eric Whitacre was named Visiting Fellow and Composer-in-Residence.

Sherlock Holmes edit

Author Dorothy L. Sayers suggested that, given details in two of the stories, the fictional character Sherlock Holmes must have been at Cambridge rather than Oxford and that "of all the Cambridge Colleges, Sidney Sussex (College) perhaps offered the greatest number of advantages to a man in Holmes's position and, in default of more exact information, we may tentatively place him there".[39]

List of alumni edit

Name Birth Death Career
Sir Thomas Adams, 1st Baronet 1586 1667/8 Lord Mayor of London
Andrew Braddock 1971 Dean of Norwich Cathedral
William Ross Ashby 1903 1972 Cybernetics pioneer
Tony Badger 1947 Paul Mellon Professor of American History at Cambridge, Master of Clare College, Cambridge
Karan Bilimoria, Baron Bilimoria 1961 Businessman, Chairman of Cobra Beer, Chancellor of the University of Birmingham
Lawrence Booth 1975 Editor of Wisden Cricketers' Almanack
Ronald N. Bracewell 1921 2007 Physicist
John Bramhall 1594 1663 Archbishop, theologian, philosopher
Asa Briggs 1921 2016 Historian
Ann Copestake 1959 Professor of Computational Linguistics, University of Cambridge
Stuart Corbridge 1957 Vice-Chancellor of Durham University
Oliver Cromwell 1599 1658 Lord Protector
William Du Gard 1602 1662 Printer
Rebecca Evans 1976 Politician
Thomas Fuller 1608 1661 Author, churchman, historian
John Gay 1699 1745 Philosopher
Sue Gibson 1960 Research chemist, Chair in Chemistry and Director of the Graduate School, Imperial College London
Chris Grayling 1962 Secretary of State for Transport
Chaim (Harvey) Hames 1966 Professor of history and Rector at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Dick Heckstall-Smith 1934 2004 Musician
John Herivel 1918 2011 Bletchley Park cryptanalyst, science historian
Ronald Holmes 1913 1981 Colonial government official
Alex Horne 1978 Comedian
Rachel Horne 1979 BBC presenter
Alan Huggins 1921 2009 Judge
Norman Crowther Hunt 1920 1987 Minister of State under Harold Wilson
Nick Laird 1975 Poet, husband of Zadie Smith
Ian Lang, Baron Lang 1940 Secretary of State for Trade and Industry
Brian Lenihan Jnr 1959 2011 Irish Minister for Finance
Daniel Levy 1962 Chairman of Tottenham Hotspur
David Lidington 1956 Minister of State
Ben Lockspeiser 1891 1990 President of CERN
Paddy Lowe 1962 Executive Director, Mercedes Grand Prix
Alan MacDiarmid 1927 2007 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry
John Madden 1949 Director
Joanna Marsh 1970 Composer
Joanne Martin 1960 Distinguished pathologist. President, Royal College of Pathology, 2017–2020
Ann Mather 1960 Executive. Has served on boards of Google and Pixar (Finance Director)
Thomas May c. 1595 1650 Renaissance dramatist
John Ashworth Nelder 1924 2010 Statistician
Gordon Newton 1907 1998 Editor, Financial Times
David Owen 1938 Politician who served as Foreign Secretary
Francis Sawyer Parris 1707 1760 Editor, King James Bible
Steven Pimlott 1953 2007 Opera and theatre director
Michael Pitman 1933 2000 Chief Scientist of Australia
Cecil Frank Powell 1903 1969 Nobel Laureate in Physics
Henry Probert 1926 2007 Director of Education, Royal Air Force, 1976–1978
Andrew Rawnsley 1962 Author, broadcaster and journalist
Gillian Rose 1962 Professor of Cultural Geography at The Open University
A. D. Roy 1920 2003 Economics
Diane Samuels 1960 Playwright
Ingrid Simler 1963 Judge
Charles Thurstan Shaw 1914 2013 Archaeologist
Carol Vorderman 1960 Media personality
Conrad Hal Waddington 1905 1975 Biologist
John E. Walker 1941 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry
John Wheelwright 1592 1679 New World Puritan clergyman
C.T.R. Wilson 1869 1959 Nobel Laureate in Physics
William Wollaston 1659 1724 Philosopher
F. L. Woodward 1871 1952 Educationist, Pali scholar, author and theosophist
Thomas Woolston 1668 1733 Theologian, deist
Jonathan Reynaga 1980 Emmy award-winning[40] writer and producer

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Usually shown in a lozenge-shaped shield as appropriate for female armigers
  2. ^ University of Cambridge (6 March 2019). "Notice by the Editor". Cambridge University Reporter. 149 (Special No 5): 1. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Annual report and Financial Statements for the year ended 30 June 2022" (PDF). Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. Retrieved 8 July 2023.
  4. ^ Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge (2018). "Sidney Sussex College Statutes 2018" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 May 2022. Retrieved 19 October 2022.
  5. ^ Walker, Timea (2 February 2022). "Sidney Sussex College". www.undergraduate.study.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  6. ^ Hearn, Karen, ed. Dynasties: Painting in Tudor and Jacobean England 1530–1630, p. 95
  7. ^ a b c Sidney Sussex College website; history Archived 21 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "College history". www.sid.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  9. ^ Hearn, Karen, ed. Dynasties: Painting in Tudor and Jacobean England 1530–1630, p. 95
  10. ^ Peter Salt, 'Wyatville's remodelling and refurbishment of Sidney Sussex College, 1820–1837', Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 81 (1992), 115–55
  11. ^ R.W. Ambler and Alan Dowling, 'The growth of Cleethorpes and the prosperity of Sidney, 1616–1968', in Sidney Sussex College Cambridge: historical essays in commemoration of the quatercentenary, ed. D.E.D. Beales and H.B. Nisbet (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1996), pp. 183–8.
  12. ^ Gerald Maclean Edwards. Sidney Sussex college. 1899. Page 51
  13. ^ Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England, Cambridgeshire (2nd edn., Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970), p.160
  14. ^ C. S. B. Pyke, 'The new chapel of Sidney Sussex College Cambridge', in Sidney Sussex College; Historical essays, pp. 235–47; Pevsner, Buildings of England, Cambridgeshire, p. 160.
  15. ^ Montague-Smith, P.W. (ed.), Debrett's Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage and Companionage, Kelly's Directories Ltd, Kingston-upon-Thames, 1968, p. 336, Viscount de L'Isle; for a history of this crest, said to have been copied from the heraldic emblem of King Louis XII by Sir William Sidney, see [1]
  16. ^ "Sidney Sussex College Cambridge: Prospectus" (PDF). Sidney Sussex College Cambridge. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  17. ^ "Why Sidney". www.sid.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  18. ^ "Before Sidney: The Grey Friars of Cambridge". www.sid.cam.ac.uk. 7 September 2022. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  19. ^ "Stay at Sidney". www.sid.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  20. ^ "Chapel". www.sid.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  21. ^ "Eating here". www.sid.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  22. ^ "MNF618 - Norfolk Heritage Explorer". www.heritage.norfolk.gov.uk. Retrieved 2 September 2023.
  23. ^ "College history". www.sid.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2 September 2023.
  24. ^ "Eating here". www.sid.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  25. ^ "The colleges and halls: Sidney Sussex | British History Online". www.british-history.ac.uk. Retrieved 2 September 2023.
  26. ^ I Fagiolini, Podger, Skinner and Sidney Sussex shortlisted for 2013 Gramophone Awards 29 July 2013
  27. ^ "Clubs and societies". www.sid.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  28. ^ "Sidney's super blade and fighting spirit". www.sid.cam.ac.uk. 30 October 2020. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  29. ^ Derek Beales, '100 not out: the centenary of the Confrat', Sidney Sussex College Annual (2010), pp.22–4
  30. ^ "Sidney shall go to the ball!". www.sid.cam.ac.uk. 2 September 2022. Retrieved 1 September 2023.
  31. ^ "Sidney Sussex Arts Festival". Varsity Online. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  32. ^ "Secret Sidney – A Brief Historical Sketch". Sidney Sussex College. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  33. ^ Fitzgibbons, Jonathan (2008). Cromwell's Head. Kew: The National Archives. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-905615-38-4.
  34. ^ "Dame Ann Dowling". raeng.org.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  35. ^ "Professor Sue Gibson OBE CChem FRSC". www.rsc.org. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  36. ^ Moyal, Ann (1994). Portraits in science. Canberra: National Library of Australia. p. 43. ISBN 0642106169.
  37. ^ Bhathal, Ragbir (1996). Australian astronomers: achievements at the frontiers of astronomy. Canberra: National Library of Australia. p. 72. ISBN 0642106665.
  38. ^ Paul Smith (15 January 2010). "Chip off the old block". Varsity. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  39. ^ Dorothy L. Sayers, "Holmes's College Career", for the Baker Street Studies, edited by H.W. Bell, 1934
  40. ^ Nordyke, Sharareh Drury,Lexy Perez,Kimberly; Drury, Sharareh; Perez, Lexy; Nordyke, Kimberly (18 July 2021). "Daytime Emmys: Zac Efron, 'Jeopardy!: The Greatest of All Time' Among Winners". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 19 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

External links edit

52°12′26″N 0°07′15″E / 52.2073°N 0.1208°E / 52.2073; 0.1208