Sibyl de Neufmarché

Sibyl de Neufmarché, Countess of Hereford, suo jure Lady of Brecknock (c. 1100 – after 1143), was a Cambro-Norman noblewoman, heiress to one of the most substantial fiefs in the Welsh Marches. The great-granddaughter of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, king of Wales, Sibyl was also connected to the nobility of England and Normandy. Sibyl inherited the titles and lands of her father, Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon, after her mother, Nest ferch Osbern, had declared her brother Mahel to have been illegitimate. Most of these estates passed to Sibyl's husband, Miles de Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford, as her dowry. Their marriage had been arranged personally by King Henry I of England in the spring of 1121. Sibyl, with her extensive lands, was central to the King's plans of consolidating Anglo-Norman power in south-east Wales by the merging of her estates with those of Miles, his loyal subject on whom he relied to implement Crown policy.

Sibyl de Neufmarché
Countess of Hereford
suo jure Lady of Brecknock
Bornc.1100
Brecon Castle, Brecon, Wales
Diedafter 1143
Llanthony Secunda Priory, Gloucester, England
BuriedLlanthony Secunda Priory
Noble familyNeufmarché
Spouse(s)Miles de Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford
IssueMargaret of Hereford
Roger Fitzmiles, 2nd Earl of Hereford
Walter de Hereford
Henry Fitzmiles
Mahel de Hereford
William de Hereford
Bertha of Hereford
Lucy of Hereford
FatherBernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon
MotherNest ferch Osbern

As an adult, Sibyl lived through King Stephen's turbulent reign, known to history as the Anarchy, in which her husband played a pivotal role. Following Miles' accidental death in 1143, Sibyl entered a religious life at Llanthony Secunda Priory, Gloucestershire, England, which she had endowed up to six years previously. Sibyl is buried at the priory, founded by Miles in 1136.

FamilyEdit

AncestryEdit

 
Ruins of Brecon castle
Sibyl's birthplace and a part of her vast inheritance

Sibyl was born in about 1100 in Brecon Castle, Brecon, Wales, the only daughter of Marcher Lord Bernard de Neufmarché, Lord of Brecon, and Nest ferch Osbern.[1][2] Nest was the daughter of Osbern FitzRichard and Nest ferch Gruffydd and granddaughter of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, king of Wales, and Ealdgyth of Mercia.[3]

Sibyl's father, Bernard, was born at the castle of Le Neuf-Marché-en-Lions, on the frontier between Normandy and Beauvais.[4] Bernard was a knight who had fought under English kings William I, William Rufus and Henry I.[5] According to historian Lynn H Nelson, Bernard de Neufmarché was "the first of the original conquerors of Wales".[6] He led the Norman army at the Battle of Brecon in 1093, during which Rhys ap Tewdwr was killed.[5][7] Kingship in Wales ended with Rhys' death, and allowed Bernard to confirm his hold on Brycheiniog, becoming the first ruler of the Lordship of Brecknock.[7] The title and lands would remain in his family's possession until 1521.[8] The name Neufmarché, Novo Mercato in Latin, is anglicised into 'Newmarket' or 'Newmarch'.[9][a][10]

InheritanceEdit

Sibyl had two brothers, Philip, who most likely died young, and Mahel. Nest had Mahel disinherited by swearing to King Henry I of England that Mahel had been fathered by another man. According to Giraldus Cambrensis, this was done out of vengeance when Mahel had mutilated Nest's lover, a knight whose identity is not disclosed.[9] In the 19th century, Bernard Bolingbroke Woodward proposed that, after Bernard's death, Nest "disgraced herself with an intrigue" with one of his soldiers. Mahel, who had by this time inherited Bernard's estates, disapproved of the liaison to such an extent that he killed Nest's lover. Nest's revenge was to have Mahel disinherited by claiming that Bernard was not Mahel's father.[11] The maritagium (marriage charter) arranged by King Henry I in 1121 for the marriage between Sibyl and her future husband Miles, however, makes it clear that Bernard was still alive when it was written; showing Bernard Bolingbroke Woodward's version of the story to diverge from the known facts.[12] Author Jennifer C. Ward suggests that, although the marriage charter recorded that King Henry was acting at the request of Bernard, Nest, and the barons, it was probable he had put considerable pressure on the Neufmarchés to disinherit Mahel in favour of Sibyl and, thereby, Miles.[13] Nevertheless, whatever the timing or reason, the outcome of Nest's declaration was that Sibyl (whom Nest acknowledged as Bernard's child) became the sole lawful heiress to the vast Lordship of Brecon, one of the most important and substantial fiefs in the Welsh Marches.[14] Henry's maritagium referred specifically to Sibyl's parents' lands as "comprising Talgarth, the forest of Ystradwy, the castle of Hay, the whole land of Brecknock, up to the boundaries of the land of Richard Fitz Pons, namely up to Brecon and Much Cowarne, a vill in England";[15] the fees and services of several named individuals were also granted as part of the dowry.[15] This made her suo jure Lady of Brecknock on her father's death, and one of the wealthiest heiresses in south Wales.[16][17]

MarriageEdit

 
King Henry I of England
who granted Sibyl in marriage to Miles de Gloucester

Sometime in April or May 1121, Sibyl married Miles (or Milo) FitzWalter de Gloucester, who on his father's death in 1129, became sheriff of Gloucester,[18] and Constable of England.[19][20] The marriage was personally arranged by King Henry I, to whom Miles was a trusted royal official.[12][21] A charter written in Latin (the maritagium), which dates to 10 April/29 May 1121, records the arrangements for the marriage of Sibyl and Miles.[12][22] Historian C. Warren Hollister found the charter's wording telling, noting that "the king gave the daughter as if he were making a grant of land": "Know that I [King Henry I] have given and firmly granted to Miles of Gloucester Sibyl, daughter of Bernard de Neufmarché, together with all the lands of Bernard her father and of her mother after their deaths ... ".[12][23] Her parents' lands would be conveyed to Miles after their deaths or earlier during "their life if they so wish".[12] Henry also commanded that the fief's tenants were to pay Miles liege homage as their lord.[12]

By arranging a series of matrimonial alliances, similar to that between Sibyl and Miles, King Henry I of England transformed "the map of territorial power in south-east Wales". Such arrangements were mutually advantageous. Hollister describes Miles' marriage to Sibyl as having been a "crucial breakthrough in his career". The new lords, in similar positions to Miles, were the King's own loyal vassals, on whom he could rely to implement royal policy.[23][24] Sibyl's father died sometime before 1128 (most probably in 1125), and Miles came into possession of her entire inheritance, which when merged with his own estates, formed one honour.[5][25]

ChildrenEdit

Together Sibyl and Miles had eight children:[original research?]

The AnarchyEdit

 
Stephen of Blois
whose chaotic reign in England became known as the Anarchy

After Henry I's death in 1135, the throne of England was seized by Stephen of Blois, a grandson of William I of England. Henry's daughter, Empress Matilda (Maud), also claimed the throne, and had the support of the Marcher Lords. On the death of her husband, the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V, in 1125, Matilda had returned to England for the first time in 16 years. At the insistence of her father, the barons (including Stephen) swore to uphold Matilda's rights as his heir. Matilda married Geoffrey of Anjou in 1128. They lived together in France, having three sons; the eldest of whom was to become King Henry II of England.[28] Initially, Miles supported Stephen.[29] In about 1136, Stephen granted Sibyl's husband the entire honour of Gloucester and Brecknock, and appointed him Constable of Gloucester Castle, whereby Miles became known as one of Stephen's "henchmen".[29]

Llanthony Priory had been established near Crucorney, in the Vale of Ewyas, in 1118; Wales' earliest Augustine monastery. Miles' father, Walter de Gloucester, had retired there by 1126.[21] The unrest that had been simmering in Wales during the last years of Henry's reign, boiled over in 1135 on his death. The area around the priory returned to Welsh rule, coming under such “hostile molestation” from the Welsh that the non-Welsh canons decided to leave.[17][30][31][32] Miles established a new Priory for them in Gloucester, England, which they called Llanthony Secunda, in 1136.[33] Sometime after 1137, Sibyl, together with her husband, made a further endowment to Llanthony Secunda.

 
Empress Matilda
whom Sibyl supported
in opposition to King Stephen

Miles transferred his allegiance to Empress Matilda, on her return to England in 1139.[34] According to Professor Edmund King, Miles' decision to support Matilda was guided by expediancy rather than principle, and the necessity of joining forces with Matilda's illegitimate half-brother, the powerful Robert, Earl of Gloucester, who was the overlord of some of Miles' fiefs.[16] Stephen stripped Miles of the title 'Constable of England' in punishment for having deserted him. On 25 July 1141, in gratitude for his support and military assistance and, according to historian R.H.C. Davis, possibly to compensate Miles for having appeared to have lost the constableship, Matilda invested him as 1st Earl of Hereford.[35] He also received St. Briavels Castle and the Forest of Dean. At the time Matilda was the de facto ruler of England, Stephen having been imprisoned at Bristol following his capture the previous February after the Battle of Lincoln. Sibyl was styled Countess of Hereford, until Miles' unexpected death over two years later. In 1141, Miles received the honour of Abergavenny from Brien FitzCount, the (likely illegitimate) son of Duke Alan IV of Brittany. This was in appreciation of the skilled military tactics Miles had deployed which had spared Brien's castle of Wallingford during King Stephen's besiegement in 1139/1140. Matilda gave her permission for the transfer.[36]

During the Anarchy, which the period of Stephen's reign as King of England was to become known, life was greatly disrupted in her husband's lands. Sibyl would have doubtless suffered as a result, especially after Miles' decision to support Matilda's claim to the throne and to oppose Stephen.[29] When Matilda was defeated at Winchester in late 1141, Miles was compelled to return to Gloucester in disgrace: "weary, half-naked and alone".[37] In November of that same year, Stephen was released from prison and restored to the English throne.[17]

Sibyl's distress would have been heightened in 1143 after the Bishop of Hereford, Robert de Bethune placed an interdict upon Hereford, blocked all the cathedral's entrances with thorns, and excommunicated Miles. In order to raise money to pay his troops and to assist Matilda financially, Miles had imposed a levy on all the churches in his earldom, an act which the bishop had regarded as unlawful.[21][38] When the bishop protested and threatened Miles with excommunication, Miles in response, sent his men to plunder the diocese of its resources.[21] In retaliation against Miles' earlier attacks on the royalist city of Worcester and the castles of Hereford and Wallingford, King Stephen bestowed the title "Earl of Hereford" on Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester; Miles, however, never surrendered the earldom nor the title to Robert de Beaumont.[38]

Widowhood and deathEdit

While on a deer-hunting expedition in his own Forest of Dean, Sibyl's husband was accidentally shot in the chest by an arrow which killed him on 24 December 1143.[37][39] He had been involved in legal proceedings against the bishop's jurisdiction when he died.[38] Their eldest son, Roger succeeded him in the earldom.[20] In protest against his father's excommunication, Roger remained an outspoken enemy of the Church until close to the end of his life when he entered a Gloucester monastery as a monk.[39][40] After her husband's death, Sibyl entered a religious life at Llanthony Secunda Priory, Gloucester,[33] which she had previously endowed. Sibyl was buried in the same priory,[41] the dates of death and burial unrecorded.[citation needed]

Sibyl's legacyEdit

Upon the childless death of Roger in 1155, the Earldom of Hereford fell into abeyance until 1199 when King John bestowed the title on Henry de Bohun, Sibyl's grandson through her eldest daughter, Margaret. As her sons all died without legitimate offspring, Sibyl's three daughters became co-heirs to the Brecon honour, with Bertha, the second daughter, passing Sibyl's inheritance on (through marriage) to the de Braoses, thereby making them one of the most powerful families in the Welsh Marches.[42][43]

The Brecknock lordship would eventually go to the de Bohuns, by way of Eleanor de Braose. Eleanor, a descendant of Sibyl's through Bertha of Hereford, married Humphrey de Bohun, son of the 2nd Earl of Hereford. Eleanor and Humphrey's son, Humphrey de Bohun, succeeded his grandfather to the titles in 1275.[44]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ According to Gerald of Wales, when Bernard witnessed a charter issued by William I in 1086-87, he signed his name in Latin as Bernardus de Novo Mercato (Gerald of Wales, p.88)
  1. ^ Starr, Brian (2008). The Life of Saint Brychan: King of Brycheiniog and Family. USA: BookSurge Publishing. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-4392-0361-3. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  2. ^ Cokayne, George E (1910). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant. Vol. I (new, 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959 ed.). London: The St. Catherine's Press. p. 20.
  3. ^ Davies, 1993, p. 100
  4. ^ Nelson, Lynn H (1966). The Normans in South Wales, 1071-1171. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 83–84. ISBN 9780292781054. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  5. ^ a b c Davies, John Reuben (1999). "The Book of Llandaf: A Twelfth Century Perspective". In Harper-Bill, Christopher (ed.). Anglo-Norman Studies 21: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1998. London: Boydell & Brewer. pp. 42–43. ISBN 0-85115-745-9. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  6. ^ Nelson, Lynn H (1966). The Normans in South Wales, 1071-1171. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 123. ISBN 9780292781054. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
  7. ^ a b Davies, 1993, p. 103
  8. ^ Davies, John; Jenkins, Nigel; Baines, Menna; Lynch, Peredur, eds. (2008). The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6. {{cite encyclopedia}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ a b de Bari, Gerrald (Giraldus Cambrensis) (1191) [1194]. Originally: Itinerarium Cambriae ("Journey through Wales", 1191), Descriptio Cambriae ("Description of Wales", 1194), This edition: The itinerary through Wales, Description of Wales. Everyman's Library (5th (1935) ed.). London: J.M. Dent & Sons. pp. 26–27. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  10. ^ Evans, Christopher J (1912). Breconshire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 80–81. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  11. ^ Woodward, Bernard Bolingbroke (1859). History of Wales. London: James S. Virtue, City Road. p. 250. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Ward 1995, pp. 26–27 quotes a translation from the Latin of the grant by Henry I which includes Sibyl's maritagium (Public Records Office, London, DL10/6).
  13. ^ Ward 2006, p. 25.
  14. ^ Foliot 1965, p. 37.
  15. ^ a b Ward 1995, p. 26.
  16. ^ a b Keats-Rohan 1992, p. 86 (PDF 14).
  17. ^ a b c d Matthew 2002, pp. 72, 73, 104.
  18. ^ Morris 1968, p. 50 footnote 62; "The power of these families ... was further increased ... in each case the custody of a castle was held together with the shrievalty" (Morris 1968, p. 50 footnote 62).
  19. ^ Cokayne 1982, vol. VI p. 452 footnote b.
  20. ^ a b Cobbett, William (1832). A geographical dictionary of England and Wales: etc. London: William Cobbett. p. 146. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  21. ^ a b c d Walker, David (1958). "From the Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society" (PDF). 77, pp. 66-84, Miles of Gloucester, Earl of Hereford. Cheltenham: Bristol and Gloucestershire Archeological Society: 67, 68 and 75. Retrieved 2 November 2010. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  22. ^ Note:The charter is located in the Public Record Office, London, DL10/6; in Latin
  23. ^ a b Hollister, Charles Warren (1997). Anglo-Norman political culture and the twelfth-century renaissance: proceedings of the Borchard Conference on Anglo-Norman History, 1995, Volume 1995. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. pp. 69–70. ISBN 0-85115-691-6. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
  24. ^ Davies, R. R. (1985). "Henry I and Wales". In Davis, R H C; Mayr-Harting, Henry; Moore, Robert Ian (eds.). Studies in medieval history presented to R.H.C. Davis. London: The Hambledon Press. pp. 145–146. ISBN 0-907628-68-0. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
  25. ^ Sanders, I. J. (1960). English Baronies: A Study of Their Origin and Descent 1086–1327. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. pp. 6–7. OCLC 931660. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
  26. ^ Ward 1995, pp. 106–107.
  27. ^ Keats-Rohan 2002, p. 512
  28. ^ Matthew 2002, pp. 1–2.
  29. ^ a b c Matthew 2002, p. 96.
  30. ^ Wade, George Wöosung; Wade, Joseph Henry (1930). Monmouthshire. Little Guides (2nd ed.). London: Cambridge University Press. p. 101. Retrieved 30 October 2010. ... during the disturbances of Stephen's reign they suffered so much from the raids of the Welshmen, that under the patronage of Milo of Gloucester, Constable of England, and in 1140 Earl of Hereford, they migrated to Gloucester where a new Llanthony was founded for them in 1136.
  31. ^ de Bari, Gerrald (Giraldus Cambrensis) (1191) [1194]. Originally: Itinerarium Cambriae ("Journey through Wales", 1191), Descriptio Cambriae ("Description of Wales", 1194), This edition: The itinerary through Wales, Description of Wales. Everyman's Library (5th (1935) ed.). London: J.M. Dent & Sons. p. 36. Retrieved 30 October 2010. William of Wycumb, the fourth prior of Llanthoni, succeeded to Robert de Braci, who was obliged to quit the monastery on account of the hostile molestation it received from the Welsh.
  32. ^ Davies, John; Jenkins, Nigel; Baines, Menna; Lynch, Peredur, eds. (2008). The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6.
  33. ^ a b Ward 1995, p. 107.
  34. ^ Matthew 2002, pp. 95, 96
  35. ^ Davis, H W C (2009). Johnson, Charles; cronne, H A (eds.). Regesta Regum Anglo-Noermanorum. Vol. regesta henricui primi 1100-1135. Oxford: BiblioBazaar LLC. p. xvi. ISBN 978-1-115-38708-8. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
  36. ^ Round 1888, Part I, 26, p. 43
  37. ^ a b Arnold-Baker, Charles (2001). The companion to British history (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. p. 581. ISBN 0-415-18583-1. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  38. ^ a b c Dalton, Paul; White, Graeme J (2008). King Stephen's reign (1135-1154). Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-1-84383-361-1. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  39. ^ a b Fils, Paul Barrier (1908). The Age of Owain Gwynedd: An Attempt at a Connected Account of the History of Wales from December, 1135 to November, 1170. To which are added several Appendices of the Chronology, &C., of the period. London: David Nutt, Long Acre. pp. 24–25. Retrieved 28 October 2010. He was still engaged in legal proceedings with the latter [Bishop Robert], when, hunting deer on Christmas eve, he was struck by an arrow in the breast ; and the superstition of the time saw in his fall the just judgment of God" "but he [Roger] never forgot his father's excommunication, and was a vigorous enemy of the Church till his death.
  40. ^ "People — Roger fitz Miles , earl of Hereford". Monastic Wales website. Monastic Wales. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
  41. ^ "XX", Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, vol. I, 1834, p. 168
  42. ^ White, Graeme J (2000). Restoration and Reform, 1153-1165: Recovery From Civil War in England. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 109. ISBN 0-521-55459-4. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  43. ^ Evans, Christopher J (1912). Breconshire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 81. Retrieved 26 October 2010. “Four of his [Milo's] sons succeeded him, but as they died without male heirs, their possessions went by marriage to Philip de Breos of Builth, the husband of their second sister.”
  44. ^ Waugh 2004, Bohun, Humphrey (VI).

ReferencesEdit