Shia Islam in Saudi Arabia
This section may stray from the topic of the article. (June 2017)
The government does not conduct census on religion and ethnicity but some sources estimated the percentage of Shiites in Saudi Arabia from 15% to 20% of approximately 20 million natives of Saudi Arabia. The modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was formed in 1932 by the House of Saud, who are followers of a movement within Sunni Islam known as Wahhabism or "the Wahhabite mission". Followers of the Wahhabite mission—who dominate religious institutions, courts and education of the kingdom—believe that "Muslims should return to the interpretation of Islam found in the classical texts, the Quran and the Sunnah." They also believe that "Muslims who seek intercession from holy men, such as the imams revered by Shiites, are not 'true' Muslims." While attempts to force conversion of Shiites have been infrequent, they face severe discrimination in Saudi Arabia and even executions (both legal and extrajudicial).
Saudi Arabia's Twelver Shia community, the Baharna, is primarily concentrated in the country's Eastern province, chiefly Qatif and Al-Ahsa. A Twelver Shia community also exists in Medina known as the Nakhawila. Similarly, a tribal Shia community also exists in the Hijaz region, manifesting itself in three tribes: the Banu Husayn (Al Hussaini), the Sharifs of Mecca who ruled for more than five centuries, along with two traditionally nomadic Hijazi tribes of Harb (especially the Banu Ali branch) and Juhaynah. A few historians believe that these Bedouin tribes belonged to a strain of Shia Islam that is neither Twelver nor Zaydi, with some believing that they profess neo-Kaysanite beliefs. Shia Islam exists in the southern region of the kingdom, with Najran and its Yam tribe being traditionally Sulaymani Ismaili. Zaydism also exists in a few towns bordering Northern Yemen.
- 1 History
- 2 Community structure, political and religious authority
- 3 Restrictions and persecutions
- 4 Ismaili
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
While Saudi Arabia has only existed since 1932, an earlier Al Saud state (Emirate of Diriyah) clashed with Shiites. Ibn Abdul-Wahhab believed that Shiites "imported into Islam" the practice of building mosques on graves, a practice he considered un-Islamic. He referred to the Shiites as Rafida (rejecters), a sectarian name his followers have continued to use.
In 1802, the Saud-Wahhabi alliance waged jihad (or at least qital, i.e. war) on the Shiite holy city of Karbala. There, according to a Wahhabi chronicler `Uthman b. `Abdullah b. Bishr:
Muslims [Wahhabis referred to themselves as Muslims, not believing Shiites to be Muslims] scaled the walls, entered the city [...] and killed the majority of its people in the markets and in their homes. [They] destroyed the dome placed over the grave of al-Husayn [and took] whatever they found inside the dome and its surroundings [...] the grille surrounding the tomb which was encrusted with emeralds, rubies, and other jewels [...] different types of property, weapons, clothing, carpets, gold, silver, precious copies of the Qur'an."
Al-Hasa, the main Shiite area of what is now Saudi Arabia, was conquered by Saudi forces in 1913. The initial treatment of Shiites was harsh, with religious leaders compelled to vow to "cease observance of their religious holidays, to shut down their special places of worship and to stop pilgrimages to holy sites in Iraq." Wahhabi ulema also "ordered the demolition of several Shiite mosques" and took "over teaching and preaching duties at the remaining mosques in order to convert the population." However, within a year Al-Saud emir Ibn Saud permitted the Shiite to expel the Wahhabi preachers and to hold private religious ceremonies led by the Shiite religious establishment "without interference."
Saudi authorities have however acted on Wahhabi desires to eliminate "vestiges of Shia religiosity" in and around Medina. In 1926, the Al-Baqi' mausoleum—which included the tombs of the Prophet Muhammad's family and his companions, second, forth, fifth, and six Shiite Imams—was destroyed by Ibn Saud. In 1975, the tomb of a Shiite imam (Ismail ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq) was reportedly destroyed, and a year later an ancient palm tree that legend had it had been planted under the direction of the Prophet Muhammad, and visited by Shiite and Sunni pilgrims for generations, was cut down on orders of a high ranking Wahhabi shiekh.
In 1979, the Iranian Islamic Revolution overthrew the Shah of Iran, replacing a pro-Western monarchy with an anti-Western theocratic Islamic republic. Iran is more populous than Saudi Arabia and its borders are relatively close to the latter's oil fields—which is also where most Saudi Shiites traditionally lived. The Iranian scholars were eager to export their "revolution," and ideologically opposed to both monarchical systems of government and any state allied with the West. Leaflets, radio broadcasts and tape cassettes from Iran targeted Saudi Shiites and attacked the Saudi government for corruption and hypocrisy. That November, Shiites commemorated Ashura (illegally) for the first time in many years. In February demonstrations were held on the one year anniversary of Ayatollah Khomeini's return to Iran. Saudi officials responded with both "sticks and carrots", arresting activists but also promising more schools, hospitals and infrastructure for the Shia region.
In 1987, following the deaths of over 300 during a demonstration by Iranian pilgrims in Mecca during the Hajj pilgrimage, Khomeini "denounced the House of Saud as "murderers" and called on all loyal Shiites in the Kingdom to rise up and overthrow them", further alarming Saudi officials. After oil pipelines were bombed in 1988, the Saudi government accused Shiites of sabotage executed several. In collective punishment restrictions were placed on their freedoms and they were further marginalized economically. Wahhabi ulama were given the green light to sanction violence against Shia. Fatwas were passed by the country's leading cleric, Abdul-Aziz ibn Baz denouncing Shia as apostates from Islam.
After the 1991 Gulf war ended, weakening Iran's mortal foe Saddam Hussien and exhibiting the strength of Saudi ally the United States, "there was a noticeable thaw in relations between the two countries." In 1993, the Saudi government announced a general amnesty resulting in various Shiite leaders being released from jail or returning from exile. "Hundreds of young [Shiites]" were provided with jobs in the governmental and private sectors. The anti-Shiite Imam of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina was even sacked after he attacked Shiism in a Friday sermon in the presence of Iranian president Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.
In 2003, the political direction turned again, and a series of "National Dialogues" were initiated that included Shiites (as well as Sufis, liberal reformers, and professional women), to the strong disapproval of Wahhabi purists. In late 2003, "450 Shia academics, businessmen, writers, and women" presented a petition to Crown Prince Abdullah demanding a greater rights including the right for Shia to be referred to "their own religious courts as Sunni courts do not recognize testimonies by Shia."
As of 2006, more militant Saudi Wahhabi clerics were circulating a petition calling for an intensification of sectarian violence against Shiites, while the official religious establishment was calling for them to renounce their "fallacious" beliefs voluntarily and embrace "the right path" of Islam, rather than be killed, expelled, or converted by violence.
In modern-day Saudi Arabia, the Sunni rulers limit Shiite political participation to "notables", according to scholar Vali Nasr. These notables benefit from their ties to power, and in return are expected to control their community. Much political activity takes place outside these parameters. Since 1979, hundreds of Saudi Shiites have been jailed, executed, and exiled.
According to Ondrej Beranek of Brandeis University, Shiite opposition in Saudi Arabia has "undergone various stages of development." Saudi Shiites found Ayatollah Khomeini and the Iranian Revolution a "political inspiration", but an "important ideological source" was the organization Harakat al-risaliyin al-tala'i' (literally "the Movement of Vanguards' Missionaries"), established in 1968 not in Iran but in the Iraqi city of Karbala under the auspices of marja' al- taqlid (religious authority) Sayyid Muhammad Mahdi al- Shirazi. Other organizations include Munazzamat al-thawra 'l-islamiyya (Organization of Islamic Revolution) -- established after the Intifada of 1979. Focusing on peaceful change it changed its name to al-Haraka 'l-islahiyya (Reform Movement).
In response to this change, King Fahd, met several of al-Saffar's followers and in October 1993 a pact was signed. Fahd promised to work towards improving conditions for Shia in Saudi Arabia, ordering the elimination of derogatory terms for them from textbooks, removing certain other forms of explicit discrimination, allowing many Shiite exiles to return to Saudi Arabia, and other acts. In return, al-Haraka 'l-islahiyya was dissolved and its members formally agreed to dissociate themselves from foreign groups and movements.
As of 2009, the main spokesman and representative of the Saudi Shiite movement in its more moderate incarnation has been Sheikh Hassan al-Saffar (b. 1958). Al-Saffar represents one of the few voices publicly calling for moderate, pragmatic action, tolerance and reconciliation between Shiites and Sunnis, and a political system based on civil society, free elections and freedom of speech.
At the other end of the Shiite political spectrum is the Saudi Hizballah or Hezbollah Al-Hejaz. Established in 1987, it supports the overthrow of the absolute monarchy. In 1988 and 1989, Saudi Hizballah led a couple of attacks on oil infrastructure and also murdered Saudi diplomats in Ankara, Bangkok, and Karachi. They were also allegedly involved in 1996 Khobar Towers bombing which killed dozens of US army personnel. Some of its members went through training in Iran. The group also is thought to use Iranian training camps in the Biqa' valley in Lebanon. The group throughout the 80's and the 90's became notorious for killing Saudi police and army men, Wahhabi preachers, people from the interior ministry and intelligence as well as conducting specialized attacks on the ARAMCO facilities refinery and the Saudi naval forces. During the late 90's however, the insurgency abruptly stopped as the Saudi government tired by the carnage and constant defeat of its forces to terminate the insurgency committed itself to genuine reforms. These reforms were brokered with Iraqi Shia scholars of the al-Badr organization.
In addition to these two factions, there are also smaller groups of traditionalists who look at the Saudi regime with suspicion and do not intend to become part of any reconciliation talks.
The American embassy in Saudi Arabia (as revealed by wikileaks), refers to these two political groupings of Shiites in the Eastern Province as Islahiyyah (the Shirazis) and Hezbollah Al-Hejaz (Saudi Hezbollah).
Following the 9/11 attacks and 2003 Riyadh compound bombings, Saudi Arabia seemed determined to stop the brutal campaign against its Shiite community, which in previous decades had resulted in hundreds of Shiites being jailed, executed, and exiled. Such a liberal move, however, could easily be understood as merely part of a new campaign aimed at improving the image of Saudi Arabia in the West.
Restrictions and persecutionsEdit
In 1988 fatwas passed by the country's leading cleric, Abdul-Aziz ibn Baz denounced the Shiites as apostates. Abdul-Rahman al-Jibrin, a member of the Higher Council of Ulama sanctioned the killing on Shiites in 1994. According to Vali Nasr, this was still be reiterated in Wahhabi religious literature as late as 2002. By 2007 al-Jibrin wrote that [Shiites] "are the most vicious enemy of Muslims, who should be wary of their plots."
Saudi Arabia has no Shiite cabinet ministers, mayors or police chiefs, according to another source, Vali Nasr, unlike other countries with sizable Shiite populations (such as Iraq and Lebanon) . Shiites are kept out of "critical jobs" in the armed forces and the security services, and not one of the three hundred Shiite girls schools in the Eastern Province has a Shiite principal.
Pakistani columnist Mohammad Taqi has written that "the Saudi regime is also acutely aware that, in the final analysis, Shiite grievances [...] stem from socioeconomic deprivation, as a result of religious repression and political marginalization bordering on apartheid."
Saudi Arabia is a glaring example of religious apartheid. The religious institutions from government clerics to judges, to religious curriculums, and all religious instructions in media are restricted to the Wahhabi understanding of Islam, adhered to by less than 40% of the population. The Saudi government communized Islam, through its monopoly of both religious thoughts and practice. Wahhabi Islam is imposed and enforced on all Saudis regardless of their religious orientations. The Wahhabi sect does not tolerate other religious or ideological beliefs, Muslim or not. Religious symbols by Muslims, Christians, Jewish and other believers are all banned. The Saudi embassy in Washington is a living example of religious apartheid. In its 50 years, there has not been a single non-Sunni Muslim diplomat in the embassy. The branch of Imam Mohamed Bin Saud University in Fairfax, Virginia instructs its students that Shia Islam is a Jewish conspiracy.
In November 2014 at al-Dalwah village in the eastern province of al-Ahsa, three unknown masked gunmen opened fire at a Husseiniya, or Shi'ite religious center, killing eight and injuring a dozens.
While Saudi citizen circles blamed the Khawarij for the attack, claiming they wanted to start a civil war, a handful of articles in the Saudi press argued that the attack "had not come out of nowhere", that there was anti-Shi'ite incitement in the kingdom on the part of "the religious establishment, preachers, and even university lecturers – and that it was on the rise". The Saudi government/religious establishment, as well as the National media did not comment on the attack.
In January 2016, Saudi Arabia executed the prominent Shiite cleric Sheikh Nimr, who had called for pro-democracy demonstrations, along with forty-seven other sentenced by the Specialized Criminal Court on terrorism charges.
2017–19 Qatif unrestEdit
Since May 2017 in response to protests against the government, the predominantly Shia town of Al-Awamiyah was put under full siege by the Saudi military. Residents were not allowed to enter or leave, and military forces indiscriminately shelled the neighborhoods with airstrikes, mortars and artillery fire along with snipers shooting residents. Dozens of Shia civilians were injured, including a three year old and a couple of residents killed.The Saudi government claims it is fighting terrorists in al-Awamiyah.
On July 26, 2017, Saudi authorities began refusing to give emergency services to wounded civilians. Saudi Arabia has also not provided humanitarian help to trapped citizens of Awamiyah.
In August 2017, it was reported that the Saudi government demolished 488 buildings in Awamiyah. This demolition came from a siege of the city by the Saudi government, as it continued to try to prevent the citizens of the city from gaining their rights.
Suppression of religious practiceEdit
The Saudi government has refused to allow Shiite teachers and students exemption from school to partake in activities for the Day of Ashura, one of the most important religious days for Shiites which commemorates the martyrdom of Muhammad's grandson, Husayn bin Ali, at the hands of the second Sunni Umayyad Caliph, Yazid. In 2009, during Ashura commencements, Shia religious and community leaders were arrested protesting against the government and chanting slogans against Wahhabis.
In 2009 a group of Shiites on their way to perform hajj pilgrimage (one of the five pillars of Islam that all able-bodied Muslims are required to perform once in their lives) in Mecca were arrested by Saudi religious police due to the involvement in a protest against the Saudi government. A fifteen-year-old pilgrim was shot in the chest and an unknown assailant stabbed a Shiite sheikh in the back, shouting "Kill the rejectionist [Shia]".
Shiite pilgrims go to Jannat al Baqi mainly to visit the grave of Fatimah and Ahl al-Bayt who are buried in the cemetery of Jannat al-Baqi' but no visit of other Sahabah in Islam. Many incidences of not following the rules of the place happened by Shiite in this region specifically resulting in the arrest which most of the times were released later. Shiites and Sunni Hanafi, Shafi'is, Barelvis, and Dawoodi Bohra Ismailis usually pray near graves of Ahl al-Bayt but in Wahhabism this act is considered as shirk. In Saudi Arabia, most of the people follow an interpretation of Sunni Islam called Wahhabism, which does not allow practices like praying near graves of Ahl al-Bayt in Jannat al Baqi.
Early 2009, several people grabbed stones, sand from the grave of Fatimah (who is daughter of Muhammad and the wife of Ali) in order to make turbahs out of them which is not permissible according certain interpretations of Sunni Islam, like Wahhabism.
Late 2011, an Australian man was charged for not following the law and involved with blasphemy and sentenced to 500 lashes and 2 years in jail; the latter sentence was later reduced. Also late 2011, a prominent Shiite Canadian cleric, Usama al-Attar, was arrested for unknown reasons but possibly because of his criticism of the kingdoms response to uprisings in Yemen and Bahrain. He was released on the same day, declaring the arrest entirely unprovoked.
Discrimination in educationEdit
Much of education in Saudi Arabia is based on Wahhabi religious material. The government has restricted the names that Shiites can use for their children in an attempt to discourage them from showing their identity. Saudi textbooks are hostile to Shiism, often characterizing the faith as a form of heresy worse than Christianity and Judaism.
Discrimination in the workforceEdit
Much discrimination occurs in the Saudi workforce as well. Shiites are prohibited from becoming teachers of religious subjects, which constitute about half of the courses in secondary education. Shia cannot become principals of schools. Some Shia have become university professors but often face harassment from students and faculty alike. Shiites are disqualified as witnesses in court, as Saudi Sunni sources cite the Shi'a practise of Taqiyya wherein it is permissible to lie while one is in fear or at risk of significant persecution. Shiites cannot serve as judges in ordinary court, and are banned from gaining admission to military academies, and from high-ranking government or security posts, including becoming pilots in Saudi Airlines.
Amir Taheri quotes a Shi'ite businessman from Dhahran as saying "It is not normal that there are no Shi'ite army officers, ministers, governors, mayors and ambassadors in this kingdom. This form of religious apartheid is as intolerable as was apartheid based on race."
Human Rights Watch reports that Shiites want to be treated as equals and desire to be free from discrimination (Human Rights Watch). However, the Shiites minority is still marginalized on a large scale.
The much smaller Sulaymani Ismāʿīlī minority, also known as the Seveners, differ from the Twelver Shiites in their acceptance of Isma'il ibn Jafar as the appointed spiritual successor (Imam), rather than Musa al-Kazim. There are an estimated 100,000 of them living in the southern region of Najran bordering Yemen. They also have been subject to what Human Rights Watch calls "official discrimination," encompassing "government employment, religious practices, and the justice system".
Following the clashes in April 2000, Saudi authorities imprisoned, tortured, and summarily sentenced many Ismailis, and transferred dozens of Ismaili government employees outside the region. Underlying discriminatory practices have continued unabated.
In 1997 the director of the Ministry of Islamic Affairs opened an office in Najran for the purpose of propagating Wahhabi doctrine to the local Isma'ilis. Saudi official Sheik Ali Khursan declared Ismaelis to be infidels because according to him "they did not follow the Sunna and do not believe that the Qur'an is complete", stating "We don't eat their food, we don't intermarry with them, we should not pray for their dead or allow them to be buried in our cemeteries." In 1997 the Governor Prince Mish'al ordered police to prevent Ismaelis from performing prayers during the post-Ramadan Islamic festival of Eid al-Fitr. "Anti-Ismaeli campaigns resulted in many arrests and flogging."
In April 2000, responding to an Amnesty International campaign publicizing lack of religious freedom in Saudi Arabia, Ismaelis in Najran openly commemorated Ashura for the first time in many years. Shortly thereafter Saudi religious police "stormed a major Ismaeli mosque, seized many of its religious texts and arrested three clerics". Local Ismaelis, who are often armed, retaliated, firing on security forces and burning some of their vehicles and killing dozens of them. Approximately 40 policemen and members of various security forces (all non-Ismaili) were killed and many more injured. Saudi Army reinforcements swept the area and made many arrests.
Dozens of Ismaeli government employees were transferred away from Najran."
- Hollie, McKay (12 December 2016). "Number of Christians celebrating Christmas in Saudi Arabia growing, but religious liberty isn't". Fox News. Fox News. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- Saudi Arabia's Shiite press for rights| bbc|by Anees al-Qudaihi | 24 March 2009
- Council on Foreign Relations| Author: Lionel Beehner| June 16, 2006
- Nasr, Shia Revival, (2006) p. 236
- "Demography of Religion in the Gulf". Mehrdad Izady. 2013.
- Commins, David (2009). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. pp. 155–6.
Within Saudi Arabia, official religious institutions under Wahhabi control multiplied at the same time that ulama maintained their hold on religious law courts, presided over the creation of Islamic universities and ensured that children in public schools received a heavy dose of religious instruction.
- Commins, David (2009). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. pp. 155–6.
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab [...] insisted that invoking and making vows to holy men indeed constituted major idolatry and that it was proper to deem as infidels anyone who failed to view such practices as idolatry. [...] He then stated that if one admits that these practices are major idolatry, then fighting is a duty as part of the prophetic mission to destroy idols. Thus, the idolater who call upon a saint for help must repent, If he does so, his repentance is accepted. If not, he is to be killed.
- Ibn Ghannam, Hussien (1961). Tarikh najd. Cairo. p. 438.
- Die Welt des Islams: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Islamkunde, Volume 37 page 289
- Commins, David (2009). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 16.
- "Deviant Groups \Raafidhah". fatwa-online.com. Archived from the original on 2014-06-06.
They are called the Raafidhah because they rejected the leadership of Zayd ibn 'Alee ibn al-Husayn, [...]Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Wahhabism - A Critical Essay: Chapter 2 Archived 2005-02-11 at the Wayback Machine
- Commins, David (2009). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 211.
- Commins, David (2009). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris.
[...] The Ikwan insisted that in domestic affairs their religious views should prevail, including the forced conversion of al-Hasa's Shiite population. To implement that decision, Shiite religious leaders gathered before the Wahhabi qadi and vowed to cease observance of their religious holidays, to shut down their special places of worship and to stop pilgrimages to holy sites in Iraq. [...] Wahhabi ulama ordered the demolition of several Shiite mosques and took over teaching and preaching duties at the remaining mosques in order to convert the population. [...] some Shiite emigrated to Bahrain and Iraq.
- Commins, David, The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia, p.170
- Ende, Werner, "The Nakhawila, a Shiite community in Medina past and present." Die Welt des Islams, xxxvii/3 (1997), p.294, n.109
- David Commins may be mistaken as there appears to be no Imam named Ismail ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq. Ja'far al-Sadiq was the 6th Imam and Ismail ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq may have been the son of Ja'far al-Sadiq.
- Ende, Werner, "The Nakhawila, a Shia community in Medina past and present." Die Welt des Islams, xxxvii/3 (1997), p.297, n.128
- Commins, David (2009). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 171.
Tehran's efforts to export the revolution through leaflets, radio broadcasts and tape cassettes castigating Al Saud for corruption and hypocrisy found a receptive audience in the Eastern Province. On 28 November, Saudi Shia summoned the courage to break the taboo on public religious expression by holding processions to celebrate the Shia holy day of Ashura [...]
"on 1 February, the one-year anniversary of Ayatollah Khomeini's return to Iran, violent demonstrations again erupted. Crowds attacked banks and vehicles and hoisted placards with Khomeini's picture. The government responded to the February protests with a mix of coercion and co-optation. On the one hand, leading Shiite activists were arrested. On the other, a high official from the Interior Ministry met with Shiite representatives and acknowledged that Riyadh had neglected the region's development needs. [...] extend the electricity network [...] more schools and hospitals and improve sewage disposal.
- Lacey, Robert (2009). Inside the Kingdom : Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. Viking. p. 102.
In August 1987 the Iranian demonstrations on the pilgrimage escalated one further and fatal step. Excited Iranians paraded through Mecca proclaiming `God is great! Khomeini is leader!` violating Islamic tradition by carrying knives and sticks beneath their pilgrim towels, according to Egyptian pilgrims who managed to escape the massacre that followed. A total of 275 Iranians, 85 Saudis, and 42 pilgrims of other nationalities were killed, most of them trampled to death in the pileup that resulted from the attempts by the Ministry of the Interior Special Forces to check the demonstration, which had been called by Mehdi Karrubi, Ayatollah Khomeini's personal representative in Mecca. The Saudi government refused to condemn their soldiers' actions. [...] Khomeini responded with fury. He denounced the House of Saud as murderers and called on all loyal Shia in the Kingdom to rise up and overthrow them.
- In the 1990s, leading Wahhabi clerics like Ibn Baz and Abd Allah ibn Jibrin reiterated the customary view that Shia were infidels. (source: Ende, Werner, "The Nakhawila, a Shia community in Medina past and present." Die Welt des Islams, xxxvii/3 (1997), p.335)
- Bradley, John R. (2005). Saudi Arabia Exposed : Inside a Kingdom in Crisis. Palgrave. pp. 82–3.
- Commins, David (2009). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 6.
[...] members of Al Saud decided it might be time to trim Wahhabism's domination by holding a series of National Dialogues that included Shia, Sufis, liberal reformers, and professional women. At present, the indications are not good for true believers in Wahhabi doctrine. But as its history demonstrates, the doctrine has survived crises before.
- Bradley, John R. (2005). Saudi Arabia Exposed : Inside a Kingdom in Crisis. Palgrave. p. 84.
- Beranek, Ondrej (January 2009). "Divided We Survive: A Landscape of Fragmentation in Saudi Arabia" (PDF). Middle East Brief. 33: 1–7. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival (W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 2006) p. 84
- Nasr, Vali (2007). The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 238.
- "Asia Times Online :: Middle East News - Saudi Shi'ites: New light on an old divide".
- "Hezbollah of Greater Bahrain" - Ahmed al-Khaz'Ali
- Gfoeller, Michael (2008-08-23). "Meeting with controversial Shi'a sheikh Nimr". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 2012-01-23. Retrieved 2012-01-23. Cite uses deprecated parameter
|deadurl=(help); Cite journal requires
- syedjaffar. "The Persecution of Shia Muslims in Saudi Arabia". August 4, 2013. CNN Report. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- With Neighbors Like These Iraq and the Arab States on Its Borders, edited by David Pollock, Washington Institute Policy Focus No 70, June 2007, p33.
This cited A Top Saudi Cleric Declares Shiites to Be Infidels, Calls on Sunnis to Drive Them Out, Associated Press, 22 January 2007.
- Saudi Arabia: Treat Shia Equally|hrw.org| 2009/09/02
- Mohammad Taqi (March 10, 2011). "Saudi Arabia: the prized domino". Daily Times (Pakistan). Archived from the original on June 6, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Human Rights in Saudi Arabia: The Role of Women, Congressional Human Rights Caucus, Testimony of Ali Al-Ahmed, Director of the Saudi Institute, June 4, 2002.
- Coogle, Adam. "Dispatches: Killings of Saudi Shia a Wakeup Call". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Saudi Columnists: There Is Anti-Shi'ite Incitement In Our Country". December 10, 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Saudi execution of Shia cleric sparks outrage in Middle East". The Guardian. 2 January 2016.
- ABNA24 (31 July 2017). "ABWA's satement on condemnation of Al Saud's crimes in Awamiyah".
- ABNA24, PressTV, (26 July 2017). "Saudi forces shell homes in Awamiyah, Two killed / Video & Pics".CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- "Snipers Injure Scores of Civilians in Saudi Arabia's Qatif". 14 June 2017.
- "PressTV-Saudi forces shot dead youth in restive Qatif".
- "PressTV-Saudi regime offensive on Shia town enters week 2".
- "'You might get shot any time': Saudi forces raid Shia town as Riyadh welcomes Trump".
- Editorial, Reuters. "U.N. slams erasing of "cultural heritage" in Saudi Arabia".
- "PressTV- Saudi forces intensify attacks on Shia town".
- "PressTV-'Riyadh erasing cultural heritage in Shia town'".
- "Al-Musawara neighborhood totally destroyed, Saudi Arabia says". Shiite News. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- "Saudi Arabia demolishes 500 residential buildings in Awamiya". Shiite News. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- "PressTV-Saudi forces kill head of Quran council in Qatif".
- "Saudi regime forces kill Sheikh Nimr's cousins in Qatif: Report". Archived from the original on 2017-08-06. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "PressTV-'Saudi forces kill Nimr's cousins in Qatif'".
- Encyclopædia Britannica
- Australian faces lashes for blasphemy in Saudi Arabia| 7 December 2011 |bbc news
- Saudi police arrest Canadian imam at Hajj aljazeera.com| 31 Oct 2011
- Saudi police release Canadian Shia imam| aljazeera.com| Last Modified: 31 Oct 2011
- Discrimination against Shiite Muslims in Saudi Arabia: The Old and New Reality by Dr. Mohamed J. Al-Hassan (King Saud University)
- Meyer, Henry. "Saudi Arabia Risks Shia Unrest in Wake of Bahrain Turmoil | Businessweek | 20 Feb. 2011.
- Taheri, Amir. Apartheid, Saudi Style, New York Post, May 22, 2003.
- Bradley, John R. (2005). Saudi Arabia Exposed: Inside a Kingdom in Crisis. Macmillan. pp. 73–5. ISBN 9781403970770.
- "The Ismailis of Najran. Second-class Saudi Citizens" (PDF). 2008. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "Saudi Arabia Police Open Fire at Protest in Qatif."| BBC| 10 Mar. 2011.
- "King Fahd Causeway (Bahrain Causeway)."| SAMIRAD (Saudi Arabia Market Information Resource).
- "Saudi Arabia". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "Battle of Karbala" (Islamic History) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web.
- Protesting in the city of Qatif in Saudi Arabia, police shooting at protestors. youtube.com 3/10/2011