Sheila Jeffreys (born 13 May 1948) is a former professor of political science at the University of Melbourne. An English expatriate and lesbian feminist scholar, she is best known for her analysis of the history and politics of human sexuality.
13 May 1948|
|Known for||Feminist activism|
|Main interests||Feminist scholar, author, political activist|
Jeffreys' argument that the "sexual revolution" on men's terms contributed less to women's freedom than to their continued oppression has commanded respect and attracted intense criticism. She argues that women suffering pain in pursuit of beauty is a form of submission to patriarchal sadism, that transsexuals reproduce oppressive gender roles and mutilate their bodies through sex reassignment surgery, and that lesbian culture has been negatively affected by emulating the sexist influence of the gay male subculture of dominant/submissive sexuality.
She is the author of several books about feminism and feminist history, including The Spinster and Her Enemies (1985), The Sexuality Debates (1987), Anticlimax (1990), Beauty and Misogyny (2005), and Gender Hurts (2014).
Jeffreys was born to an army family from London's East End. After attending an all-girls grammar school, she studied at Manchester University, then taught at a girls' boarding school. In 1973, Julie Bindel writes, Jeffreys decided "to abandon both heterosexuality and her feminine appearance". Jeffreys wrote in Beauty and Misogyny (2005):
In 1973 I gave up beauty practices as part of [the feminist] movement, supported by the strength of the thousands of heterosexual and lesbian women around me who were also rejecting them. I stopped dyeing my hair 'mid-golden sable' and cut it short. I stopped wearing make-up. I stopped wearing high heels and, eventually, gave up skirts. I stopped shaving my armpits and legs. I did not go back to these practices even during the darkest years of the 1990s and early 2000s, when the strength of the Women's Liberation Movement was no longer there to support the rejection of these cultural requirements."
In 1979, Jeffreys helped write Love Your Enemy? The Debate Between Heterosexual Feminism and Political Lesbianism, along with other members of the Leeds Revolutionary Feminist Group. Its authors stated, "We do think... that all feminists can and should be lesbians. Our definition of a political lesbian is a woman-identified woman who does not fuck men. It does not mean compulsory sexual activity with women."
Jeffreys was one of several contributors to The Sexual Dynamics of History: Men's Power, Women's Resistance, an anthology of feminist writings about gender relations published in 1983 under the name "London Feminist History Group." Jeffreys wrote the chapter on "Sex reform and anti-feminism in the 1920s".
In The Spinster and Her Enemies: Feminism and Sexuality 1880–1930, published in 1985, Jeffreys examines feminist involvement in the Social Purity movement at the turn of the century. In her 1990 work Anticlimax: A Feminist Perspective on the Sexual Revolution, Jeffreys offered a critique of the sexual revolution of the 1960s.
The Lesbian Heresy was published in 1993. In it Jeffreys criticises sadomasochistic practices involving women. One author involved in sadomasochism cites Jeffreys' views in this book as an example of the "simplistic and dualistic thinking" among anti-sadomasochism campaigners. Jeffreys describes sadomasochism as "male supremacist", a reenactment of heterosexual male dominance and women's oppression that glorifies violence and uses women's bodies as a sex aid, and as anti-lesbian and fascistic. The author claims that Jeffreys ignores that some heterosexual women may enjoy sadomasochistic activity, and that 'tops' may be women who work hard to give their 'bottoms' pleasure, rather than the passive recipients of sex in the way she describes.
The Industrial Vagina: The Political Economy of the Global Sex Trade was published in 2009. In it, Jeffreys describes the globalisation of the sex industry, and calls marriage a form of prostitution. Jeffreys writes, "the right of men to women's bodies for sexual use has not gone but remains an assumption at the basis of heterosexual relationships", and draws links between marriage and prostitution, such as mail-order brides, which she sees as a form of trafficking.
Views on transsexualismEdit
Female-to-male transsexualism; Gay pornography; Feminist critiques of queer theory; Queer political agenda; International sex industry. (Western beauty practices as makeup, high heel shoes, cosmetic surgery, as well as pornochic; Misogyny in fashion and transfemininity.)
In an interview, Julie Bindel explains that Jeffreys believes sex reassignment surgery "is an extension of the beauty industry offering cosmetic solutions to deeper rooted problems" and that in a society without gender this would be unnecessary. Jeffreys has presented these views in various forums. In a 1997 article in the Journal of Lesbian Studies, for example, Jeffreys contended that "transsexualism should be seen as a violation of human rights." Jeffreys also argued that "the vast majority of transsexuals still subscribe to the traditional stereotype of women" and that by transitioning medically and socially, trans women are "constructing a conservative fantasy of what women should be. They are inventing an essence of womanhood which is deeply insulting and restrictive."
Jeffreys' opinions on these topics have been challenged by transgender activists. Roz Kaveney, a trans woman and critic of Jeffreys, wrote in The Guardian that Sheila Jeffreys and radical feminists who share her views are "acting like a cult." Kaveney compared Jeffreys' desire to ban transsexual surgery to the Catholic Church's desire to ban abortion, arguing that both proposals bear negative "implications for all women." Kaveney also criticised Jeffreys and her supporters for alleged "anti-intellectualism, emphasis on innate knowledge, fetishisation of tiny ideological differences, heresy hunting, conspiracy theories, rhetorical use of images of disgust, talk of stabs in the back and romantic apocalypticism."
Gender Hurts: A Feminist Analysis of the Politics of Transgenderism, a book cowritten by Jeffreys and Lorene Gottschalk, was published in April 2014. Timothy Laurie argued that the formalisation of social dynamics between men and women in Gender Hurts in terms of "strategies' and dividends" risks "confusing the continued existence of unequal economic exchanges (well documented by R.W. Connell) with the less predictable, but equally important, struggles over what gets labelled 'masculine' and 'feminine' and for what collective purposes".
In May 2014, Judith Butler weighed in on Jeffreys' view that sex reassignment surgery is directly political. To Jeffreys' notion that reassignment surgery is a component of patriarchal control, Butler responded that "One problem with that view of social construction is that it suggests that what trans people feel about what their gender is, and should be, is itself “constructed” and, therefore, not real. And then the feminist police comes along".
Jeffreys stated in a 2014 ABC Radio "Sunday Night Safran" program that transsexual women are either "homosexual men who don’t feel they can be homosexual in the bodies of men" or "heterosexual men who have a sexual interest in wearing women’s clothes and having the appearance of women", provoking criticism from members of the Indigenous and trans communities for racism and transphobia.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (1987). The Sexuality debates. New York: Routledge & K. Paul. ISBN 9780710209368.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (1990). Anticlimax: a feminist perspective on the sexual revolution. London: Women's Press. ISBN 9780704342033.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (1993). The lesbian heresy a feminist perspective on the lesbian sexual revolution. North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex. ISBN 9781875559176.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (1997). The spinster and her enemies: feminism and sexuality, 1880–1930. North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex. ISBN 9781875559633.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (2003). Unpacking queer politics: a lesbian feminist perspective. Cambridge Malden, Massachusetts: Polity Press in association with Blackwell Pub. ISBN 9780745628387.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (2005). Beauty and misogyny: harmful cultural practices in the West. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415351829.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (2008). The idea of prostitution (2nd ed.). North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex. ISBN 9781876756673.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (2009). The industrial vagina: the political economy of the global sex trade. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415412339.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (2012). Man's dominion: religion and the eclipse of women's rights in world politics. Abingdon, Oxfordshire New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415596749.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (2014). Gender hurts: a feminist analysis of the politics of transgenderism. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 9780415539401.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (1992), "Pornography: creating the sexual future", in Hornsby, Jennifer; Frazer, Elizabeth; Lovibond, Sabina, Ethics: a feminist reader, Oxford, UK Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Blackwell, ISBN 9780631178316.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (1996), "Women's friendships and lesbianism", in Jackson, Stevi; Scott, Sue, Feminism and sexuality: a reader, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 46–56, ISBN 9780231107082.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (1996), "Sadomasochism", in Jackson, Stevi; Scott, Sue, Feminism and sexuality: a reader, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 238–244, ISBN 9780231107082.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (1996), "Return to gender: post-modernism and lesbian and gay theory", in Bell, Diane; Klein, Renate, Radically speaking: feminism reclaimed, North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex Press, pp. 359–374, ISBN 9781875559381.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (1996), "Heterosexuality and the desire for gender", in Richardson, Diane, Theorising heterosexuality: telling it straight, Buckingham Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Open University Press, ISBN 9780335195046.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (1997), "The queer disappearance of lesbians", in Mintz, Beth; Rothblum, Esther D., Lesbians in academia: degrees of freedom, New York: Routledge, pp. 269–278, ISBN 9780415917018.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (2004), "Prostitution as a harmful cultural practice", in Whisnant, Rebecca; Stark, Christine, Not for sale: feminists resisting prostitution and pornography, North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex Press, pp. 386–399, ISBN 9781876756499.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (2011), "Live pornography: strip clubs in the international political economy of prostitution", in Tankard Reist, Melinda; Bray, Abigail, Big Porn Inc.: exposing the harms of the global pornography industry, North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex Press, pp. 136–143, ISBN 9781876756895.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (2012), "Beyond 'agency' and 'choice' in theorizing prostitution", in Coy, Maddy, Prostitution, harm and gender inequality: theory, research and policy, Farnham, Surrey, England Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate, pp. 69–86, ISBN 9781409405450.
Essays and pamphlets
- Onlywomen Press (1981). Love your enemy?: the debate between heterosexual feminism and political lesbianism. London: Onlywomen Press. ISBN 9780906500088. A pamphlet by Leeds Revolutionary Feminist Group. Pdf version.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (September–October 1994). "The queer disappearance of lesbians: Sexuality in the academy". Women's Studies International Forum. Elsevier. 17 (5): 459–472. doi:10.1016/0277-5395(94)00051-4.
- Jeffreys, Sheila; Sullivan, Mary (2001). Legalising prostitution is not the answer: the example of Victoria, Australia (pdf). Fitzroy North, Victoria: Coalition Against Trafficking In Women. OCLC 223634685.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (15 February 2004). The legalisation of prostitution: a failed social experiment. Sisyphe.org.
- "Author/Editor: Sheila Jeffreys". spinifexpress.com.au. Spinifex Press.
- "Jeffreys, Sheila". Library of Congress. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
ECIP data view (b. May 13, 1948)
- Zoftig, Sarah (1982), "Coming out", in SAMOIS, Coming to power: writings and graphics on lesbian S/M: S/M, a form of eroticism based on a consenual exchange of power (2nd ed.), Boston, Massachusetts: Alyson Publications, p. 88, ISBN 9780932870285.
- Vance, Carole S. (1992). Pleasure and danger: exploring female sexuality. London New York: Pandora Press. p. 302. ISBN 9780044408673.
- Egerton, Jane (1993), "Sheila Jeffreys", in Gilbert, Harriett, The sexual imagination from Acker to Zola: a feminist companion, London: Jonathan Cape, p. 133, ISBN 9780224035354.
- Denfeld, Rene (1995), "The antiphallic campaign: male bashing and sexual politics", in Denfeld, Rene, The new Victorians: a young woman's challenge to the old feminist order, St Leonards, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin, p. 35, ISBN 9781863737890.
- Bindel, Julie (2 July 2005). "The ugly side of beauty", The Guardian.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (2005). Beauty and Misogyny: Harmful Cultural Practices in the West. London and New York: Routledge. p. 163. ISBN 9780415351829.
- Bindel, Julie (2 July 2005). "The ugly side of beauty". The Guardian.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (1983), "Sex reform and anti-feminism in the 1920s", in London Feminist History Group, The Sexual dynamics of history: men's power, women's resistance, London: Pluto Press, p. vi, ISBN 9780861047116.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (1993). The lesbian heresy: a feminist perspective on the lesbian sexual revolution. North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex. ISBN 9781875559176.
- Stein, Atara (1999), "'Without contraries is no progression': S/M bi-nary thinking, and the lesbian purity test", in Atkins, Dawn, Lesbian sex scandals: sexual practices, identities, and politics, New York: Haworth Press, p. 53, ISBN 9780789005489. Preview
- Bindel, Julie (12 November 2008). "'Marriage is a form of prostitution'". The Guardian.
- Cook, Henrietta (23 May 2015). "Radical feminist Sheila Jeffreys retires after 24 years at the University of Melbourne". Victoria, Australia.
- "Prof Sheila Jeffreys". findanexpert.unimelb.edu.au. University of Melbourne.
- Jeffreys, Sheila (May 1997). "Transgender activism: a lesbian feminist perspective". Journal of Lesbian Studies. Taylor and Francis. 1 (3–4): 55–74. doi:10.1300/J155v01n03_03. Pdf.
- Kaveney, Roz (25 May 2012). "Radical feminists are acting like a cult". The Guardian.
- Laurie, Timothy (2015). "Masculinity studies and the jargon of strategy: hegemony, tautology, sense". Angelaki: Journal of the Theoretical Humanities, special issue: Geophilosophies of masculinity: remapping gender, aesthetics and knowledge. Taylor and Francis. 20 (1): 13–30. doi:10.1080/0969725X.2015.10173733. Pdf.
- Butler, Judith; Williams, Cristan (1 May 2014). "Judith Butler addresses TERFs and the work of Sheila Jeffreys and Janice Raymond". The TERFS (Trans Exclusionary Radical Feminists) via WordPress.[self-published source]
- Safran, John (co-host); Maguire, Bob (co-host); Jeffreys, Sheila (guest); Flannery, Sean (guest); Sparrow, Jeff (guest) (16 February 2014). "Sunday 16 February 2014". Sunday Night Safran. ABC. Triple J.
- Ozturk, Serkan (5 March 2014). "Leading feminist launches bizarre 'racist' attack on trans community". Star Observer.