Shango (Yoruba language: Ṣàngó, also known as Changó or Xangô in Latin America; as Jakuta or Badé; and as Ṣangó in Trinidad Orisha[1]) is an Orisha (or spirit) in Yoruba religion. Genealogically speaking, Shango is a royal ancestor of the Yoruba as he was the third Alaafin of the Oyo Kingdom prior to his posthumous deification. Shango has numerous manifestations, including Airá, Agodo, Afonja, Lubé, and Obomin.[2][3] He is known for his powerful double axe (Oṣè). He is considered to be one of the most powerful rulers that Yorubaland has ever produced.

Thunder, Lightning, Fire, Justice, Dance, Virility
Member of the Orisha
Representation of Ṣàngó, National Museum of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro
Other namesSango, Ṣàngó, Changó, Xangô, Jakuta, Nzazi, Hevioso, Siete Rayos
Venerated inYoruba religion, Dahomey mythology, Ewe religion, Vodun, Santería, Candomblé, Haitian Vodou, Louisiana Voodoo, Folk Catholicism
DayThe fifth day of the week
ColorRed and White
RegionNigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana,Latin America
Ethnic groupYoruba people, Fon people, Ewe people
Personal information
SpouseOya, Oba, Osun

In the New World, he is syncretized with either Saint Barbara or Saint Jerome.

Historical figure edit

Ṣàngó was the third Alafin of Oyo, following Oranmiyan and Ajaka.[3] He brought prosperity to the Oyo Empire.[4] According to Professor Mason's Mythological Account of Heroes and Kings, unlike his peaceful brother Ajaka, he was a powerful and violent ruler. He reigned for seven years which were marked by his continuous campaigns and many battles. His reign ended due to the inadvertent destruction of his palace by lightning. He had three wives, namely Queen Oshun, Queen Oba, and Queen Oya.

Some of the slaves brought to the Americas were Yoruba, one of the various ethnic groups drawn into the Atlantic slave trade, and they brought the worship of Ṣàngó to the New World as a result. Strong devotion to Ṣàngó led to Yoruba religions in Trinidad and Recife, Brazil being named after the deity.[5]

In Yorubaland, Ṣàngó is worshipped on the fifth day of the week, which is named Ojo Jakuta. Ritual worship foods include guguru, bitter cola, àmàlà, and gbegiri soup. Also, he is worshipped with the Bata drum. One significant thing about this deity is that he is worshipped using red clothing, just as he is said to have admired red attire during his lifetime.[6]

Veneration of Ṣàngó edit

Nigeria edit

Ṣàngó is viewed as the most powerful of the orisha pantheon and is often described in two differing narratives.[7] In the first narrative, Ṣàngó casts a "thunderstone" to earth, which creates thunder and lightning, to anyone who offends him. Worshippers in Yorubaland in Nigeria do not eat cowpea because they believe that the wrath of the god of thunder and lightning would descend on them.[8] In the second narrative, Ṣàngó is gifted with the ability to breathe fire and smoke through his nostrils and is known for being angered by his quarrelsome wives. These narratives also encapsulate the virility, bravery, and governance of Ṣàngó.[7] While he was feared for tyranny and destructive powers, he was also highly revered for his bravery, fairness, and tremendous powers.[7]

The Ṣàngó god necklaces are composed of varying patterns of red and white beads, usually in groupings of four or six, which are his sacred numbers. Rocks created by lightning strikes are venerated by Ṣàngó worshipers; these stones, if found, are maintained at sacred sites and used in rituals. Ṣàngó is called on during coronation ceremonies in Nigeria to the present day.[9][10][5]

The Americas edit

Ṣàngó is venerated in Santería as "Changó". As in the Yoruba religion, Changó is one of the most feared gods in Santería.[9]

In Haïti, he is from the "Nago" Nation, and is known as Ogou Chango. Palo recognizes him as "Siete Rayos".

Candomblé edit

Ṣàngó is known as Xangô in the Candomblé pantheon. He is said to be the son of Oranyan, and his wives include Oya, Oshun, and Oba, as in the Yoruba tradition. Xangô took on strong importance among slaves in Brazil for his qualities of strength, resistance, and aggression. He is noted as the god of lightning and thunder. He became the patron orixa of plantations and many Candomblé terreiros. In contrast Oko, the orixá of agriculture, found little favor among slaves in Brazil and has few followers in the Americas. The main barracão of Ilê Axé Iyá Nassô Oká, or the terreiro Casa Branca, is dedicated to Xangô. Xangô is depicted with an oxê, or double-sided ax similar to a labrys; and a brass crown.[11][5][12]

Characteristics edit

  • Consecrated day: Friday
  • Colors: white and red
  • Elements: thunder, lightning, fire
  • Sacred food: amalá (a stew of okra with shrimp and palm oil)
  • Instruments: oxê, a double ax; bangles; brass crown; Thunder Stones, or objects struck by lightning
  • Garment: red cloth with printed white squares or cowrie shells
  • Necklace or Elekes: white and red beads
  • Archetype: power, dominance
  • Sacred dance: alujá, the roda de Xangô. It speaks of his achievements, deeds, consorts, power, and dominion
  • Sacrificial animals: fresh water turtle, male goat, sheep[12][11][13]

Amalá, also known as amalá de Xangô, is the ritual dish offered to the orixá. It is a stew made of chopped okra, onion, dried shrimp, and palm oil. Amalá is served on Wednesday at the pegi, or altar, on a large tray, traditionally decorated with 12 upright uncooked okra. Due to ritual prohibitions, the dish may not be offered on a wooden tray or accompanied by bitter kola. Amalá de Xangô may also be prepared with the addition of beef, specifically an ox tail. Amalá de Xangô is different than àmàlà, a dish common to Yoruba areas of Nigeria.[11]

Popular culture edit

  • "Shango (Chant to the God of Thunder)" is a track from Drums of Passion, an album released by Nigerian percussionist Babatunde Olatunji in 1960.
  • "Shango" is the title of a Hugh Masekela track on his 2016 album No Borders.
  • Shango is the name of the Europa Mission vessel in season 2 of Star Trek: Picard.
  • The song "Que Viva Chango" by Celina y Reutilio refers both to Chango and to Santa Barbara.[14][15]
  • Shango is a large theme in the Mighty Sparrow song "Congo Man".
  • Caliban invokes Shango in Aimé Césaire's play Une Tempête (A Tempest).[16]
  • Shango appears as a minor character in The Iron Druid Chronicles by Kevin Hearne.
  • In episode 28 of the telenovela Celia, loosely based on the life of Celia Cruz and produced by Telemundo, the cultural ancestors of Celia's African heritage visit her in her dreams, chanting and invoking the presence of Chango.
  • "Shango" is a bonus track on Guadalcanal Diary's album 2x4.
  • Chango is portrayed by Wale in season 3 of American Gods.[17]
  • FC Shango is an American men's recreational football club based in Minnesota and was formed in 1992. Competing in the highest division in amateur soccer in Minnesota, FC Shango won the state amateur soccer tournament in 2017, and currently has three teams: MASL D2, MSSL O40, and O50. They are the 2023 over 50 Masters League champions of the Minnesota Senior Soccer League MSSL. [1].

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Salamone, Frank A. (2004). Levinson, David (ed.). Encyclopedia of Religious Rites, Rituals, and Festivals. New York: Routledge. p. 24. ISBN 0-415-94180-6.
  2. ^ Adeoye, C. L. (1989). Ìgbàgbọ́ àti ẹ̀sìn Yorùba (in Yoruba). Ibadan: Evans Bros. Nigeria Publishers. pp. 285–302. ISBN 9781675098.
  3. ^ a b Bascom, William Russell (1980). Sixteen Cowries: Yoruba Divination from Africa to the New World. Indiana University Press. p. 44. ISBN 0-253-20847-5.
  4. ^ Lum, Kenneth Anthony (2000). Praising His Name in the Dance. Routledge. p. 231. ISBN 90-5702-610-4.
  5. ^ a b c Voeks, Robert (1997). Sacred leaves of Candomblé: African magic, medicine, and religion in Brazil. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 55. ISBN 9780292787315.
  6. ^ Johnson, History of the Yorubas, 149-152.
  7. ^ a b c Tisken, Joel E., ed. (2009). Sango in Africa and the African Diaspora. Indiana: Indiana University Press. pp. 218–219. ISBN 9780253220943.
  8. ^ "Sango spit fire in Oyo @ World Sango Festival 2016 Mp3 İndir". Retrieved 2019-06-10.
  9. ^ a b Murrell, Nathaniel Samuel (2010). Afro-Caribbean Religions : an Introduction to Their Historical, Cultural, and Sacred Traditions. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 9781439900406.
  10. ^ Onifade, Olasunkanmi Adeoye (2006). ". Perception of Health educator about the effects of food taboos and fallacies on the health of Nigerians" (PDF). Educational Research and Development (JOERD): 44–50. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  11. ^ a b c Lody, Raul (2003). Dicionário de arte sacra & técnicas afro-brasileiras. Rio de Janeiro: Pallas. pp. 38, 195–197. ISBN 9788534701877.
  12. ^ a b Hargreaves, Patricia, ed. (2018). Religiões Afro: as origens, as divindades, os rituais. São Paulo: Abril. p. 28. ISBN 9788569522492.
  13. ^ Magalhães, Elyette Guimarães de (2003). Orixás da Bahia (8a ed.). Salvador, Bahia: Secretaria da Cultura e Turismo. pp. 155–156.
  14. ^ "- YouTube". YouTube.
  15. ^ "Que Viva Chango lyrics by Celina & Reutilio".
  16. ^ Césaire, Aimé (2010). A tempest. Alexandria, VA: Alexander Street Press.
  17. ^ Abbey White (2021-01-31). "Why Chango From American Gods Season 3 Looks So Familiar". Retrieved 2021-02-01.

Bibliography edit

  • Johnson, Samuel, History of the Yorubas, London 1921 (pp. 149–152).
  • Lange, Dierk: "Yoruba origins and the 'Lost Tribes of Israel'", Anthropos 106 (2011), 579-595.
  • Law, Robin: The Oyo Empire c. 1600 – c. 1836, Oxford 1977.
  • Seux, M.-J., Épithètes royales akkadiennes et sumériennes, Paris 1967.
  • Tishken,Joel E., Tóyìn Fálọlá, and Akíntúndéí Akínyẹmí (eds), Sàngó in Africa and the African Diaspora, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2009.

Further reading edit

  • Charles Spencer King, "Nature's Ancient Religion: Orisha Worship & IFA" ISBN 1-4404-1733-4
  • Charles Spencer King, "IFA Y Los Orishas: La Religion Antigua De LA Naturaleza" ISBN 1-4610-2898-1

External links edit