Shūshoku katsudō

Shūshoku katsudō (Japanese: 就職活動) is the rigorous employment recruitment process for Japanese university students entering the work world.[1]Shūkatsu (就活), as abbreviated, starts in April each year and ends during the Japanese hiring season each year from August to October.[2] Japanese university students who fail to receive a job offer often must wait a year to repeat the process competing against the following year's graduating students.[2] Those graduates are referred to as shūshoku rōnin (就職浪人), borrowing the term for a masterless samurai.[3][4] The stress involved has been cited as a factor in suicide in Japan.[5] The shūkatsu system is under strain due to Japan's shrinking population and competition from foreign and nontraditional companies.[1]


  1. ^ a b Why Japan’s ‘shūkatsu’ job-seeking system is changing BBC, Mari Shibata, 21 August 2019
  2. ^ a b Shukatsu sexism: The Japanese jobseekers fighting discrimination BBC News, Tom Bateman, 17 January 2021
  3. ^ Akihiko Yonekawa. Beyond Polite Japanese. page 25. Kodansha 2001. ISBN 4-7700-2773-7
  4. ^ 浪人 at Japanese-English dictionaries: プログレッシブ和英中辞典 Archived 2013-02-18 at or ニューセンチュリー和英辞典 Archived 2013-02-19 at
  5. ^ Do stressed millennials spell end for ‘shukatsu’, Japan’s notorious graduate recruitment process? SCMP, Crystal Tai, 22 May 2019