Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind

Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind (Hebrew: קיצור תולדות האנושות, Qitzur Toldot ha-Enoshut) is a book by Yuval Noah Harari, first published in Hebrew in Israel in 2011 based on a series of lectures Harari taught at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and in English in 2014.[1][2] The book, focusing on Homo sapiens, surveys the history of humankind, starting from the Stone Age and going up to the twenty-first century. The account is situated within a framework that intersects the natural sciences with the social sciences.

A Brief History of Humankind
First edition (Hebrew)
AuthorYuval Noah Harari
Original titleקיצור תולדות האנושות
LanguageHebrew (2011)
English (2014)
SubjectHistory, social philosophy
PublisherDvir Publishing House Ltd. (Israel)
Random House
Publication date
Followed byHomo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow 

Summary edit

Harari's work places human history within a framework, with the natural sciences setting limits for human activity and social sciences shaping what happens within those bounds. The academic discipline of history is the account of cultural change.

Harari surveys the history of humankind from the Stone Age up to the 21st century, focusing on Homo sapiens. He divides the history of Sapiens into four major parts:[3]

  1. The Cognitive Revolution (c. 70,000 BCE, the start of behavioral modernity when imagination evolved in Sapiens).
  2. The (first) Agricultural Revolution (c. 10,000 BCE, the development of agriculture).
  3. The Unification of Humankind (c. 34 CE, the gradual consolidation of human political organizations towards globalization).
  4. The Scientific Revolution (c. 1543 CE, the emergence of objective science).

Harari's main argument is that Sapiens came to dominate the world because they are only animal that can cooperate flexibly in large numbers. He argues that prehistoric Sapiens were a key cause of the extinction of other human species such as the Neanderthals and numerous other megafauna. He further argues that the ability of Sapiens to cooperate in large numbers arises from its unique capacity to believe in things existing purely in the imagination, such as gods, nations, money and human rights. He argues that these beliefs give rise to discrimination – whether racial, sexual or political – and it is potentially impossible to have a completely unbiased society. Harari claims that all large-scale human cooperation systems – including religions, political structures, trade networks and legal institutions – owe their emergence to Sapiens' distinctive cognitive capacity for fiction.[4] Accordingly, Harari describes money as a system of mutual trust and political and economic systems as similar to religions.

Harari's key claim regarding the Agricultural Revolution is that while it promoted population growth for Sapiens and co-evolving species like wheat and cows, it made the lives of most individuals (and animals) worse than they had been when Sapiens were mostly hunter-gatherers, since their diet and daily lives became significantly less varied. Humans' violent treatment of other animals is a theme that runs throughout the book.

In discussing the unification of humankind, Harari argues that over its history, the trend for Sapiens has increasingly been towards political and economic interdependence. For centuries, the majority of humans lived in empires, and capitalist globalization is effectively producing one, global empire. Harari argues that money, empires, and universal religions are the principal drivers of this process.

Harari describes the Scientific Revolution as an innovation in European thought, whereby elites became willing to admit to and try to remedy their own ignorance. He describes this as one driver of early modern European imperialism and of the current convergence of human cultures. Harari also claims there is a lack of research into the history of happiness, positing that people today are not significantly happier than in past eras.[5] He concludes by discussing how modern technology may soon end the species by ushering in genetic engineering, immortality, and non-organic life. Harari metaphorically describes humans as deities in that they can create species.

Harari cites Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997) as one of the greatest inspirations for the book.[6]

Reception edit

Lithuanian hardcover version of Sapiens

Popular reception edit

First published in Hebrew in 2011, the book was later released in English in 2015 and has since been translated into 65 different languages.[7] It made The New York Times best-seller list, appearing for 182 weeks (as of May 2022) including 96 consecutive weeks.[8][9] It won the National Library of China's Wenjin Book Award for the best book published in 2014.[10][11] Writing four years after its English-language publication, Alex Preston wrote in The Guardian that Sapiens had become a "publishing phenomenon" with "wild success" symptomatic of a broader trend toward "intelligent, challenging nonfiction, often books that are several years old".[12] Concurrently, The Guardian listed the book as among the ten "best brainy books of the decade".[13] The Royal Society of Biologists in the UK shortlisted the book in its 2015 Book Awards.[14] Bill Gates ranked Sapiens among his ten favorite books,[15] and Mark Zuckerberg also recommended it.[16] Kirkus Reviews awarded a star to the book, noting that it is "the great debates of history aired out with satisfying vigor".[17] The British daily The Times also gave the book a rave review, quoting that "Sapiens is the kind of book that sweeps cobwebs out of your brain" and that it is "mind-thrilling".[18] The Sydney Morning Herald described the book as "always engaging and often provocative".[19]

In 2015 the Israel Museum in Jerusalem created a special, temporary exhibit based on the book, using archeological and artistic displays to demonstrate the main themes found in the book. The exhibit ran from May until December 2015.[20]

Discussing the book's success in 2020, Ian Parker writing for The New Yorker said "the book thrived in an environment of relative critical neglect" since it received few major reviews at the time of its release. Parker describes Sapiens' extremely broad scope as being a defense against expert criticism. Quoting Harari's academic advisor Steven Gunn, "Nobody's an expert on the meaning of everything, or the history of everybody, over a long period."[21] In a 2022 article titled "The Dangerous Populist Science of Yuval Noah Harari" for Current Affairs, neuroscientist Darshana Narayanan expanded on The New Yorker's comments: "I tried my hand at fact-checking Sapiens ... I consulted colleagues in the neuroscience and evolutionary biology community and found that Harari's errors are numerous and substantial, and cannot be dismissed as nit-picking."[22]

Scholarly reception edit

Anthropologist Christopher Robert Hallpike reviewed the book and did not find any "serious contribution to knowledge". Hallpike suggested that "...whenever his facts are broadly correct they are not new, and whenever he tries to strike out on his own he often gets things wrong, sometimes seriously". He considered it an infotainment publishing event offering a "wild intellectual ride across the landscape of history, dotted with sensational displays of speculation, and ending with blood-curdling predictions about human destiny."[23]

Science journalist Charles C. Mann concluded in The Wall Street Journal, "There's a whiff of dorm-room bull sessions about the author's stimulating but often unsourced assertions."[24]

Reviewing the book in The Washington Post, evolutionary anthropologist Avi Tuschman points out problems stemming from the contradiction between Harari's "freethinking scientific mind" and his "fuzzier worldview hobbled by political correctness", but nonetheless wrote that "Harari's book is important reading for serious-minded, self-reflective sapiens."[25]

Reviewing the book in The Guardian, philosopher Galen Strawson concluded that, among several other problems, "Much of Sapiens is extremely interesting, and it is often well expressed. As one reads on, however, the attractive features of the book are overwhelmed by carelessness, exaggeration and sensationalism". He specifically mentions how the author ignores happiness studies, that his claims of the "opening of a gap between the tenets of liberal humanism and the latest findings of the life sciences" is silly and deplores how the author, once again, transforms Adam Smith into the apostle of greed.[26]

Bibliographic details edit

The original Hebrew publication was first issued in 2011 as קיצור תולדות האנושות [Ḳitsur toldot ha-enoshut], which translates into A Brief History of Humankind.

A 2012 English translation was self-published with the title From Animals Into Gods. The English translation was published in 2015 as Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind, "translated by the author with the help of John Purcell and Haim Watzman", simultaneously in London by Harvill Secker ISBN 978-1846558238 (hardback), ISBN 978-1846558245 (trade paperback)[27] and in Canada by Signal (ISBN 978-0-7710-3850-1 (bound), ISBN 978-0-7710-3852-5 (html)). It was then republished in London by Vintage Books in 2015 (ISBN 978-0099590088 (paperback)).

In 2020 the first volume of the graphic novel version of the book was published simultaneously in several languages, with the title Sapiens: A Graphic History, Volume 1: The Birth of Humankind. It is credited as coauthored by Harari and David Vandermeulen, with adaptation and illustrations by Daniel Casanave. The second volume Sapiens: A Graphic History, Volume 2: The Pillars of Civilization was published in October 2021.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Strawson, Galen (11 September 2014). "Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  2. ^ Payne, Tom (26 September 2014). "Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari, review: 'urgent questions'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  3. ^ Ben Shephard. Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind review – thrilling story, dark message, The Guardian, 21 September 2014.
  4. ^ "Sapiens". Yuval Noah Harari.
  5. ^ Harari, Yuval Noah. Were we happier in the stone age?, The Guardian, September 5, 2014.
  6. ^ Kennedy, Paul (January 12, 2015). "Sapiens". IDEAS with Paul Kennedy. CBC.
  7. ^ Harari, Yuval (2022-05-07). "Sapiens - Yuval Noah Harari". Official Website - Yuval Noah Harari. Retrieved 2022-05-07.
  8. ^ "60 Minutes sits down with historian and author Yuval Noah Harari". 31 October 2021. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  9. ^ "Paperback Nonfiction Books - Best Sellers - Books - May 8, 2022 - The New York Times". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  10. ^ China Book Award, CCTV News, April 23, 2015.
  11. ^ What makes us human, China Daily, May 18, 2016, p. 20.
  12. ^ Preston, Alex (July 29, 2018). "How the 'brainy' book became a publishing phenomenon". The Guardian. Archived from the original on July 31, 2018.
  13. ^ "Best 'brainy' books of this decade". The Guardian. July 29, 2018. Archived from the original on July 31, 2018.
  14. ^ "Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind". RSB. Retrieved 2019-07-02.
  15. ^ Gates, Bill (2016-05-20). "My 10 Favorite Books: Bill Gates". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  16. ^ "I finally read 'Sapiens,' the book that Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg both recommend to everyone – and I get why Silicon Valley loves it so much". Business Insider. 2019-04-14. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  17. ^ "Science Books - Best Sellers - Books - The New York Times". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  18. ^ Carey, John. "Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  19. ^ Davis, Glyn (2014-11-21). "Review: Sapiens". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  20. ^ "Israel Museum turns a 'brief history of humankind' into exhibit". Haaretz. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  21. ^ Parker, Ian (10 February 2020). "Yuval Noah Harari's History of Everyone, Ever". The New Yorker. Retrieved 19 August 2023.
  22. ^ Narayanan, Darshana (6 July 2022). "The Dangerous Populist Science of Yuval Noah Harari". Current Affairs. Retrieved 19 August 2023.
  23. ^ Hallpike, C. R. A Response to Yuval Harari's 'Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind', New English Review, December 2017.
  24. ^ Mann, Charles C. (6 February 2015). "How Humankind Conquered the World". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  25. ^ Tuschman, Avi (16 June 2016). "How humans became human". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  26. ^ Strawson, Galen (11 September 2014). "Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  27. ^ "A brief history of human kind". Retrieved 2019-07-25.

External links edit