Santa Maria in Domnica
The Minor Basilica of St. Mary in Domnica alla Navicella (Basilica Minore di Santa Maria in Domnica alla Navicella), or simply Santa Maria in Domnica or Santa Maria alla Navicella, is a Roman Catholic basilica in Rome, Italy, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary and active in local charity according to its long tradition. The current Cardinal Deacon of the Titulus S. Mariae in Domnica is William Joseph Levada.
|Basilica di Santa Maria in Domnica |
Basilica Minore di Santa Maria in Domnica alla Navicella (in Italian)
Facade of Santa Maria in Domnica
|Ecclesiastical or organizational status||Minor Basilica|
|Leadership||William Joseph Levada|
|Architectural style||Early Christian, Renaissance, and Baroque|
|Groundbreaking||AD 5th century|
The appellation "in Domnica" has been differently explained. One interpretation is the derivation from "dominicum" ("of the Lord"), and by extension "church". Another interpretation is that it refers to the name of Cyriaca, a Christian woman who resided nearby and whose name denotes "belonging to the Lord": "Dominica" in Latin. A third interpretation is that the name derives from the Latin phrase in dominica (praedia) ("on Imperial property"). The appellation "alla Navicella" denotes "near the little ship", and refers to the sculpture of a Roman ship that has been in this location since ancient times, possibly as a votive offering to an ancient temple, and which Pope Leo X turned into a fountain.
The basilica was built in ancient times, close to the barracks of the Fifth Cohort of the Roman Vigiles on the Caelian Hill. The basilica is mentioned in the records of a synod of Pope Symmachus in AD 499. In 678, it was one of seven churches assigned to deacons by Pope Agatho.
The Medici family extensively modified the interior in the 16th century, because some of them were the cardinal holders of the archdiaconate through much of that century.
In 1513, Cardinal Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, shortly before he became Pope Leo X, in conjunction with Andrea Sansovino added the facade portico with Tuscan columns and the fountain. He was followed by Giulio di Giuliano de 'Medici, the future Pope Clement VII from 1513-7. Giovanni de' Medici became cardinal-deacon at the age of 17 in 1560, but died in 1562. He was followed by his brother Ferdinando I de' Medici, who also became Grand Duke of Tuscany. He added the coffered ceiling.
The facade of the basilica is in the Renaissance style, and has a porch with five arches separated by travertine pilasters, with two square and one round window. The tympanum has the coat of arms of Pope Innocent VIII in the center, and that of cardinals Giovanni and Ferdinando de' Medici on the sides. The inconspicuous bell tower houses a bell from 1288. The design of the facade (1512-3) has been attributed to Andrea Sansovino.
The interior of the basilica retains its 9th century plan, and consists of a nave and two lateral aisles of equal length and separated by 18 granite columns which were spolia from an ancient temple and crowned with Corinthian capitals. The wall above the windows was frescoed by Perin del Vaga, based on designs of Giulio Romano.
The triumphal arch is flanked by two porphyry columns. The mosaics of the apse from the 9th century depict Christ with two angels, and the twelve Apostles, with Moses and Elias depicted underneath. In the semi-dome, Pope Paschal (with a square halo) kissing the foot of the Blessed Virgin Mary, vested as a Byzantine noblewoman, seated on a throne with the Christ Child, and surrounded by a multitude of angels.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Santa Maria in Domnica.|
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- Thayer, Bill, "S. Maria in Domnica", Gazetteer
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- Alia Englen, Caelius I: Santa Maria in Domnica, San Tommaso in Formis e il Clivus Scauri (Roma: Bretschneider, 2003).
- Giselle de Nie, Karl Frederick Morrison, Marco Mostert, Seeing the Invisible in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: Papers from "Verbal and Pictorial Imaging: Representing and Accessing Experience of the Invisible, 400-1000": (Utrecht, 11-13 December 2003) (Turnhout: Brepols, 2005).
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- Michael G. Sundell, Mosaics in the Eternal City (Tempe, AZ, USA: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2007), pp. 43 ff.
- Caroline Goodson, The Rome of Pope Paschal I: Papal Power, Urban Renovation, Church Rebuilding and Relic Translation, 817-24 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).
- High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of Santa Maria in Dominica | Art Atlas