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In Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism, a sant is a human being revered for his or her knowledge of "self, truth, reality" and as a "truth-exemplar".[1][2]

Contents

EtymologyEdit

Sant is sometimes translated as "saint", but this is a false cognate (there is no etymological commonality).[3] Sant is derived from the Sanskrit root sat, which can mean "truth, reality, essence", and saint is derived from Latin sanctus, which means "holy, sacred",[1] from Indo-European root sak-, "to sanctify"[4]

Schomer and McLeod explain Sant as preceptor of Sat or "truth, reality", in the sense of "'one who knows the truth' or 'one who has experienced Ultimate Reality', that is a person who has achieved a state of spiritual enlightenment or mystical self-realisation".[5][6] William Pinch suggests the best translation of sant is "truth-exemplar".[1]

UsageEdit

Sant differs from saint not merely in the etymological sense but also in usage. The word is used in various contexts:[2][5][7]

  • In fifteenth- and sixteenth-century India under Islamic rule, it was used generally to describe teachers and poet-scholars who led worshippers and communities the praises of god or goddess within the Bhakti movement in Hinduism.
  • It referred to the Gurus of Sikhism religion that developed from the 15th century onwards, and other holy person of very exhalted status, one of being the ideal human being.[8][9] The 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, created the Khalsa a unique indentity for Sikhs which embeded being a Sant Sipahi, a Saint Soilder.[10]
  • In modern era, the term sometimes describes any holy man or woman who advocates a particular form of spirituality or members of the group that leads a Sant Mat (teachings of a spiritual congregation).
  • The term is also used in a generic sense and in this respect is similar to the usage of saint to indicate a morally good person. As such, it has been applied to a wide range of gurus and other religious leaders.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Citations

  1. ^ a b c William Pinch (1996), Peasants and Monks in British India, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520200616, page 181 footnote 3
  2. ^ a b Schomer & McLeod (1987), pp. 1-17
  3. ^ Schomer & McLeod (1987), p. 3
  4. ^ Watkins, Calvert. "American Heritage Dictionary Indo-European Roots Appendix". Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  5. ^ a b Hawley (1987), p. 57
  6. ^ Schomer & McLeod (1987), p. 2
  7. ^ John Hawley and Mark Juergensmeyer (2008), Songs of the Saints of India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195694208, pages 2-8
  8. ^ Takhar, Opinderjit (2016). Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Oxon: Routledge. pp. On the theological plane, a sant is an exalted and venerable figure in the Sikh scriptures. He is to be applauded by ordinary Sikhs. The virtuous life associated with a sant or a brahmagyani (one who has a perfect knowledge of God) is strenuously defined in Sikh scriptures. A sant is almost a super-human ideal. ISBN 9781351900102.
  9. ^ Schomer & McLeod (1987), pp. 251-267
  10. ^ Kohli, Surinder (1993). The Sikh and Sikhism. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 4.

Bibliography