Sackler family

The Sackler family is an American and British family, many of whom are known for founding and owning the pharmaceutical company Purdue Pharma. Purdue Pharma, and by extension some members of the family, have faced criticism and lawsuits regarding overprescription of pharmaceutical drugs, including Oxycontin, and Purdue Pharma's role in the North American opioid crisis.[1][2][3]

HistoryEdit

The Sackler family are descendants of Isaac Sackler and his wife Sophie (née Greenberg), Jewish immigrants to the United States from Galicia (now Ukraine) and Poland,[4] who established a grocery business in Brooklyn. The couple had three sons, Arthur, Mortimer, and Raymond Sackler who all went to medical school and became psychiatrists. They were often cited as early pioneers in medication techniques which ended the common practice of lobotomies, and were also regarded as the first to fight for the racial integration of blood banks.[5] In 1952, the brothers bought a small pharmaceutical company, Purdue-Frederick.[6] Raymond and Mortimer ran Purdue, while Arthur, the oldest brother, became a pioneer in medical advertising and one of the foremost art collectors of his generation. He also gifted the majority of his collections to museums around the world. After his death in 1987, his option on one third of that company was sold by his estate to his two brothers who turned it into Purdue Pharma.[7]

In 1996 Purdue Pharma introduced OxyContin, a version of oxycodone reformulated in a slow-release form. Heavily promoted,[8][9] oxycodine is seen as a key drug in the emergence of the opioid epidemic.[10][11] Elizabeth Sackler, daughter of Arthur Sackler, claimed that her branch of the family did not participate in or benefit from the sales of narcotics. While some have criticized Arthur Sackler for pioneering marketing techniques to promote non-opioids decades earlier, Professor Evan Gertsman said in Forbes magazine, "It is an absurd inversion of logic to say that because Arthur Sackler pioneered direct marketing to physicians, he is responsible for the fraudulent misuse of that technique, which occurred many years after his death and from which he procured no financial gain."[12][13][14] In 2018, multiple members of the Raymond and Mortimer Sackler families, Richard Sackler, Theresa Sackler, Kathe Sackler, Jonathan Sackler, Mortimer Sackler, Beverly Sackler, David Sackler, and Ilene Sackler, were all named as defendants in suits filed by numerous states over their involvement in the opioid crisis.[15][16]

The family was first listed in Forbes list of America's Richest Families in 2015.[4]

GenealogyEdit

  • Isaac Sackler and Sophie Greenberg
    • Arthur Sackler, (1913–1987),[17] married Else Finnich Jorgensen 1934 and divorced,[18][8] married Marietta Lutze 1949 and divorced, and Jillian Lesley Tully 1981 until death
    • Mortimer Sackler (1916–2010) obtained British citizenship and renounced American citizenship,[19] married Muriel Lazarus (1917–2009) and divorced,[20] Gertraud (Gheri) Wimmer - married 1969[21] and divorced, Theresa Elizabeth Rowling (born 1949) - married in 1980 until death
      • Ilene Sackler Lefcourt (married Gerald B. Lefcourt and divorced)
      • Kathe Sackler
      • Mortimer A. Sackler (married Jaqueline Sackler)
      • Samantha Sophia Sackler Hunt[8]
      • Marissa Sackler
      • Sophie Sackler (married Jamie Dalrymple)
      • Michael Sackler[8]
    • Raymond Sackler (1920–2017), married Beverly Feldman in 1944 until death[8] Beverly died in October 2019, aged 95[22]
      • Richard Sackler, born 1945, married Beth Sackler and divorced.[10]
        • David Sackler (married Joss Sackler)
        • Marianna Sackler (married James Frame)
      • Jonathan Sackler (1955–2020)

PhilanthropyEdit

The Sackler family has made a name as philanthropists and supported major cultural institutions, including the Jewish Museum (Manhattan); Metropolitan Museum of Art; the American Museum of Natural History; the Guggenheim; the Smithsonian; the Tate Gallery; the National Gallery; the Natural History Museum, London; the Victoria and Albert Museum; the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; the British Museum; Shakespeare's Globe; the Serpentine Galleries; and the Louvre.[23][24]

The family also supported universities, including Harvard University, the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, Columbia University, Tufts University, New York University, the Royal College of Art, the University of Sussex, and the University of Edinburgh.[4][23] The Sackler Faculty of Medicine at Tel Aviv University is named after Arthur, Mortimer, and Raymond Sackler for their donations. Similarly, the Sackler Institute of Pulmonary Pharmacology at King's College London was named after Mortimer and Theresa Sackler.[25][26]

The Sackler family name, as used in institutions which the family have donated to, saw increased scrutiny in the late 2010s over the family's association with OxyContin. David Crow, writing in the Financial Times, described the family name as "tainted" (cf. Tainted donors).[27][28] In March 2019, the National Portrait Gallery and the Tate galleries in the UK announced that they would not accept further donations from the family. This came after the American photographer Nan Goldin threatened to withdraw a planned retrospective of her work in the National Portrait Gallery if the gallery accepted a £1 million donation from a Sackler fund.[29][30] In June 2019, NYU Langone Medical Center announced they will no longer be accepting donations from the Sacklers, but have yet to change the name of the Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences.[31] Later in 2019, the American Museum of Natural History, and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, each announced they will not accept future donations from any Sacklers that were involved in Purdue Pharma.[32]

On July 1, 2019, Nan Goldin, an American photographer, the founder of P.A.I.N.,[33] led a small groups of protesters who unfurled a banner "Take down the Sackler name" against the backdrop of the Louvre's glass pyramid.[33][34][35][36][37] According to The New York Times, the Louvre in Paris was the first major museum to "erase its public association" with the Sackler family name. On July 16, 2019 the museum had removed the plaque at the gallery entrance about Sacklers’ donations made to the museum. Throughout the gallery, grey tape covered signs such as Sackler Wing, including signage for the Louvre's Persian and Levantine artifacts collection, which was removed on July 8 or 9. Signage for the collection had identified it as the Sackler Wing of Oriental Antiquities since 1997.[38]

Opioid lawsuitsEdit

In 2019, a suit was brought in the Southern District of New York, which included more than 500 counties, cities and Native American tribes. It named eight family members: Richard, Jonathan, Mortimer, Kathe, David, Beverly and Theresa Sackler as well as Ilene Sackler Lefcourt.[39] In addition, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and Utah all brought suits against the family. On the federal level, the family faced an overall bundle of 1,600 cases.[40]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ellis, Ralph; Schuman, Melanie (March 24, 2019). "Hundreds of cities, counties and Native American tribes file federal lawsuit against Sackler family over opioid crisis". CNN. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
  2. ^ Perraudin, Frances. "Sackler Trust halts new philanthropic giving due to opioid lawsuits". The Guardian.
  3. ^ "Who are the Sacklers, the family at the center of the opioid crisis?". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 2019-05-22. Retrieved 2019-06-02.
  4. ^ a b c Alex Morrell (July 1, 2015). "The OxyContin Clan: The $14 Billion Newcomer to Forbes 2015 List of Richest U.S. Families". Forbes. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  5. ^ Gerstmann, Evan (May 10, 2019). "Harvard, Arthur Sackler And The Perils Of Indiscriminate Shaming". Forbes.
  6. ^ "Who are the Sacklers, the family at the center of the opioid crisis?". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 2020-02-22. Retrieved 2019-06-02.
  7. ^ "Our Incomplete List of Cultural Institutions and Initiatives Funded by the Sackler Family". Hyperallergic. 2018-01-11. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  8. ^ a b c d e Joanna Walters (February 18, 2018). "Meet the Sacklers: the family feuding over blame for the opioid crisis". The Guardian. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
  9. ^ Barry Meyer (May 10, 2007). "In Guilty Plea, OxyContin Maker to Pay 600 Million". New York Times. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  10. ^ a b Christopher Glazek (October 16, 2017). "The Secretive Family Making Billions From the Opioid Crisis". Esquire. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  11. ^ Keefe, Patrick Radden (October 23, 2017). "The Family That Built an Empire of Pain". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  12. ^ "Forbes".
  13. ^ "Nan Goldin Receives Elizabeth A. Sackler's Support in Condemning Purdue Pharma". Artforum (artforum.com). January 23, 2018. and Sackler, Elizabeth A. (February 1, 2018). "Growing P.A.I.N." Artforum (artforum.com). Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  14. ^ "Sackler scion backs photog's campaign against OxyContin". Page Six. January 18, 2018. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  15. ^ Dwyer, Colin. "Massachusetts Sues OxyContin Maker Purdue Pharma, Saying It 'Peddled Falsehoods'". Npr.org. NPR. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
  16. ^ Christine, Willmsen; Martha, Bebinger. "Massachusetts Attorney General Implicates Family Behind Purdue Pharma In Opioid Deaths". Npr.org. NPR.
  17. ^ Glueck, Grace (1987-05-27). "Dr. Arthur Sackler Dies at 73; Philanthropist and Art Patron". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-05-11.
  18. ^ "Paid Notice: Deaths SACKLER, ELSE". March 17, 2000 – via NYTimes.com.
  19. ^ David Cohen (May 11, 2018). "The Sackler Files: Billionaire liked to parade as philanthropist... in fact he was tax avoider on industrial scale". Evening Standard. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  20. ^ Muriel L. Sackler , NYT obituary
  21. ^ "SACHS, FRANK thru SACHS, GEORGE". sortedbyname.com.
  22. ^ Schott, Paul (October 15, 2019). "Purdue Pharma co-owner and Greenwich resident Beverly Sackler dies". New Haven Register.
  23. ^ a b Goukassian, Elena. "Our Incomplete List of Cultural Institutions and Initiatives Funded by the Sackler Family". Hyperallergic. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  24. ^ "Annual Campaign 2016". The Jewish Museum. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  25. ^ "New Sackler Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences". 13 February 2002. Archived from the original on 2 October 2015.
  26. ^ Cohen, David (March 19, 2018). "The Opioid Timebomb: The Sackler family and how their painkiller fortune helps bankroll London arts". Evening Standard. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  27. ^ David Crow (September 8, 2018). "What next for the Sacklers? A pharma dynasty under siege". Financial Times. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  28. ^ David Armstrong (February 21, 2019). "Sackler Embraced Plan to Conceal OxyContin's Strength From Doctors, Sealed Testimony Shows". ProPublica. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  29. ^ "Tate art galleries will no longer accept donations from the Sackler family". Guardian. 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  30. ^ Walters, Joanna. "Nan Goldin threatens London gallery boycott over £1m gift from Sackler fund". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  31. ^ Youn, Soo. "NYU Langone no longer accepting donations from the Sacklers, the family that owns OxyContin maker Purdue Pharma". ABC News. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  32. ^ Harris, Elizabeth A. (May 15, 2019). "The Met Will Turn Down Sackler Money Amid Fury Over the Opioid Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
  33. ^ a b Walters, Joanna (2018-01-22). "'I don't know how they live with themselves' – artist Nan Goldin takes on the billionaire family behind OxyContin". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
  34. ^ Walters, Joanna (22 March 2019). "Tate art galleries will no longer accept donations from the Sackler family". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-03-24 – via www.theguardian.com.
  35. ^ Goldin, Nan. "Nan Goldin". Art Forum. Archived from the original on 2018-01-03. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
  36. ^ Walters, Joanna; Thorpe, Vanessa (17 February 2019). "Nan Goldin threatens London gallery boycott over £1m gift from Sackler fund". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  37. ^ In 2018, Goldin went public with her rehabilitation process to overcome her opioid addiction. Goldin was prescribed OxyContin after breaking her wrist. Goldin established [[P.A.I.N.|Prescription Addiction Intervention Now (P.A.I.N.) through which she used social media activism to contrast the Sackler family's cultural philanthropy with their role in inflamming the opioid crisis as owners and managers of Purdue Pharma who manufactured and marketed OxyContin. P.A.I.N. also protested that the Sackler family have never taken responsibility for their role in the opioid crisis. Previous P.A.I.N protests took place in Sackler Wing's Temple of Dendur at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2018, at the Guggenheim Museum in 2019. In February 2019, Goldin issued a statement saying she no longer would participate in the planned retrospective of her photography, which was to be exhibited at the National Portrait Gallery in London if the Tate did not refuse the Sacklers most recent donation of £1 million.
  38. ^ Marshall, Alex (July 17, 2019). "Louvre Removes Sackler Family Name From Its Walls". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
  39. ^ "New York Sues Sackler Family Members and Drug Distributors", New York Times, March 28, 2019.
  40. ^ "Lawsuits Lay Bare Sackler Family’s Role in Opioid Crisis", New York Times, April 1, 2019.