Royal Army Ordnance Corps
The Royal Army Ordnance Corps (RAOC) was a corps of the British Army. At its renaming as a Royal Corps in 1918 it was both a supply and repair corps. In the supply area it had responsibility for weapons, armoured vehicles and other military equipment, ammunition and clothing and certain minor functions such as laundry, mobile baths and photography. The RAOC was also responsible for a major element of the repair of Army equipment. In 1942 the latter function was transferred to the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME) and the vehicle storage and spares responsibilities of the Royal Army Service Corps were in turn passed over to the RAOC. The RAOC retained repair responsibilities for ammunition, clothing and certain ranges of general stores. In 1964 the McLeod Reorganisation of Army Logistics resulted in the RAOC absorbing petroleum, rations and accommodation stores functions from the Royal Army Service Corps as well as the Army Fire Service, barrack services, sponsorship of NAAFI (EFI) and the management of staff clerks from the same Corps. On 5 April 1993, the RAOC was one of the corps that amalgamated to form The Royal Logistic Corps (RLC).
|Royal Army Ordnance Corps|
|Active||1918 – 1993|
|Role||Storage and issuing of ordnance|
|Motto(s)||Sua tela tonanti (literally "His [i.e. Jupiter's] Missiles to the one who is Thundering", but commonly translated as "To the Warrior his Arms")|
|March||The Village Blacksmith|
|Tactical Recognition Flash|
Predecessors of the RAOCEdit
Supply and repair of technical equipment, principally artillery and small arms, was the responsibility of the Master General of the Ordnance and the Board of Ordnance from the Middle Ages until they lost their independence in 1855. Thereafter followed thirty years of fluctuating allocation of responsibilities and a great variety of titles of both corps and individuals. This complex, convoluted and largely unsatisfactory period insofar as Army logistics was concerned was summarised in 1889 as follows:
'The English Ordnance Department goes back into an older history than the Army. There were Master Generals of the Ordnance and Boards of Ordnance centuries before there were Secretaries of State for War or Commanders-in-Chief. Begun under the Tudors the Board of Ordnance lived through the changes of the Great Rebellion, the Commonwealth, the Restoration and the Revolution until it fell, at last, in the panic that followed in the disasters of the Crimean War. ...the many alterations in administration that followed the abolition of the Board of Ordnance, through the last 30 years, can only be read as a negative evidence in favour of the organisation, and as positive proof that the machinery of effective Army Store administration has yet to be evolved from its ruins.'
The Storekeeper's department was part of the civil establishment of the Board of Ordnance, though (as with much of the Board's activity) troops were involved in various aspects of its operation when not deployed elsewhere. By the mid-eighteenth century, Woolwich Warren (the future Royal Arsenal) had outgrown the Tower of London as the main ordnance storage depot in the realm. In times of war, the Board of Ordnance Storekeepers found themselves responsible for conveying guns, ammunition and certain other items to the troops in the field (whereas provision of food, supplies and other equipment was largely dependent on the Commissariat, a department of HM Treasury). Until 1792, the transport and issue of weapons and ammunition to troops in the theatre of war was achieved by the formation of artillery trains, as and where required. In that year, with Britain about to engage in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Board sought to place this ad hoc arrangement on a permanent footing by establishing a Field Train Department. A Lieutenant-General of the Royal Artillery served as its Commandant and a Major-General as his Deputy, but otherwise its personnel were uniformed civilians: under a Senior Commissary based at Woolwich were Commissaries, Assistant Commissaries, Clerks of Stores and Conductors of Stores (equivalent to Majors, Captains, subalterns and NCOs respectively). In peace time nothing more than a small cadre of officers was maintained (at the headquarters in Woolwich), but in time of war they were supplemented by recruits from the Ordnance Storekeeper's department to serve in the field; thus the strength of the Department varied dramatically, from 4 or 5 (during the peaceful years 1828-1853) to 346 at its peak in 1813. Each recruit received special training in the handling of munitions. During the Crimean War a number of Sergeants were seconded from the Royal Artillery to serve as Military Conductors in addition to the civilian staff.
The Board of Ordnance also had its own military establishment (consisting of the Royal Artillery and the Royal Engineers, which were not at that time part of the British Army). With regard to these troops the Field Train Department had additional responsibilities: it provided them with pay, clothing, medical supplies and camp equipment when deployed (while the Commissariat provided their food and forage). The Field Train Department provided the Royal Engineers with their pontoon bridges and other specialist equipment, and (until the formation of a separate Corps of Artillery Drivers) provided for the movement of artillery pieces in the field (other than those pertaining to the Royal Horse Artillery). For the duration of conflict the Department's personnel accompanied the Artillery and Engineer units in the field providing them with logistic support (including repair facilities).
Between 1795 and 1815, the Field Train served in thirty expeditions and campaigns. In peacetime, the civilians and sergeants returned to their former duties, but the cadre of officers was retained; they were based initially in the Royal Arsenal, and then in the Grand Depot (just off Woolwich Common) where the guns were stored ready for deployment. At the start of the Crimean War, the Ordnance Field Train was mobilized once again. An parallel supply corps within the Army (the Royal Waggon Train, first established in 1794) had been disbanded as a cost-cutting measure in 1833, however, and its responsibilities devolved again to the Commissariat (which was by now more attuned to peacetime operations than warfare); after a well-publicised series of logistical failings the Commissariat and the Board of Ordnance, as well as the command-structure of the army itself, were all strongly criticised, leading (among other things) to the abolition of the Board (in 1855) and its Field Train Department (in 1859, its officers having transferred to the new Military Store Department).
In the years following the Crimean War three corps can be identified as the direct predecessors of the RAOC. The Military Store Department (MSD) created in 1861 granted military commissions and provided officers to manage stores inventories. In parallel a subordinate corps of warrant officers and sergeants, the Military Store Clerks Corps (MSC), was also created to carry out clerical duties. These small corps (235 officers in the MSD and 44 MSC) based largely at the Tower of London, Red Barracks, Woolwich and Weedon Bec were supplemented in 1865 by a Military Store Staff Corps (MSSC) to provide soldiers.
In 1870 a further reorganisation, ostensibly to simplify management, resulted in the MSD, MSC and MSSC being grouped with the Army Service Corps (ASC) under the Control Department. The officers remained a separate branch (Ordnance or Military Stores) in the Control Department but the soldiers were absorbed into the ASC. This arrangement lasted until 1876.
The Control Department was disbanded in 1876. The Ordnance/Military Store officers joined a newly created Ordnance Stores Department (OSD). Five years later, in 1881, the soldiers also left the ASC and became the Ordnance Store Corps (OSC). In 1894 there were further changes. The OSD was retitled the Army Ordnance Department (AOD) and absorbed the Inspectors of Machinery from the Royal Artillery (RA). In parallel the OSC was retitled the Army Ordnance Corps (AOC) and at the same time absorbed the Corps of Armourers and the RA's Armament Artificers.
In 1918 the AOD and AOC amalgamated to form the Royal Army Ordnance Corps, receiving the "Royal" prefix for their service during World War I, and for the first time officers and soldiers served in the same organisation.
Ordnance Services Organisation before 1914Edit
The RAOC and its predecessors were organised in two broad divisions: a static organisation of depots and other installations and field units that provided close support to operations. From the Second World War onwards there was increasing pressure to increase mobility on operations of stock holding units.
The earliest depot for military stores was the Tower of London, headquarters of the Ordnance Office, which for many centuries sufficed to hold the Army's stock of artillery, small arms and ammunition albeit in unsatisfactory circumstances. The Tower continued to be used for storage into the 19th century, but in 1671 the Board of Ordnance acquired a parcel of land at Woolwich which soon supplanted the Tower to become the Board's main storage depot. Manufacture of guns and ammunition also took place on the site, which was later named the Royal Arsenal. The first modern purpose-built depot to store weapons was constructed alongside the Grand Union Canal at Weedon in 1808. In 1813 a new Grand Storehouse was opened in the Royal Arsenal, containing multiple warehouses for all kinds of military stores.
After the Crimean War the regimental depot, and home of the RAOC and its predecessors, became the Red Fort at Woolwich. This had been built as an Infirmary for the Royal Marine Barracks linked to the nearby Royal Dockyard. Woolwich Dockyard closed in 1869, the site was taken over by the War Office and became a vast ordnance stores complex, annexed (and linked by rail) to the facility in the Royal Arsenal; at the same time the Infirmary was converted to become a barracks for the troops based there. To this was added the Royal Army Clothing Department at Pimlico when it was taken over by the AOD in 1895.
During the period from the 1860s to 1914, in addition to a new depot for mobilisation in Aldershot, various depots were established to support the Army throughout the world (with the notable exception of India where the Indian Army managed its own parallel organisation in Ordnance Depot Quetta, Rawalpindi and Karachi (then British India and now Pakistan), the Indian Army Ordnance Corps (IAOC). In 1881 there were detachments in Dublin, Jersey, Gibraltar, Malta, Bermuda, Canada, St Helena, Cape of Good Hope, Mauritius and Straits Settlements. There was also a substantial detachment supporting the Anglo-Zulu War in Natal.
Thereafter there was substantial support by the RAOC's predecessors to every late Victorian expedition with the major efforts being the two campaigns in Egypt and the Sudan (1882-5 and 1898) and the Boer War (1899-1902). Both campaigns required the support of very large numbers of troops, animals and equipment in hostile environments. They produced a well-developed system of stores dumps and repair facilities along extended lines-of-communication. The two decades before the First World War saw the increasing mechanization of the Army but this was largely undertaken on a piecemeal basis. The ordnance role largely remained confined to artillery with the ASC leading the way with vehicles and the RE with aviation and communications. Much of the story of the next hundred years of Army logistics is the reorganization and steady rationalization of these and other technical changes.
First World WarEdit
As with the rest of the British Army the AOD/AOC was transformed by the First World War. Both the sheer scale of the war and the increasing technical complexity created an organisational structure that, in its outlines, survives until today. The depots at Woolwich, Weedon and Pimlico were supplemented by the wholesale takeover of warehouses throughout the country and in early 1915 a depot was established at Didcot to be the major focus for the receipt and distribution of RAOC stores. Ammunition storage was also expanded dramatically and the former peacetime magazines at places such as Portsmouth and Plymouth were supplemented by purpose built depots at Bramley, Altrincham, Credenhill and Didcot. On the Western Front a highly successful logistic infrastructure, largely rail based, was created to support the front. Parallel systems, but of less complexity, supported operations in Italy. Other expeditions such as Gallipoli, Salonika, Palestine and Mesopotamia brought supply challenges and a large logistic bases were established on the Egyptian Canal Zone and Basra.
After the war there was considerable retrenchment, but in the 1930s re-armament and the mechanisation of the Army led to a redesign of the UK base. A Central Ordnance Depot (COD) and workshop to support vehicles, built on the site of the First World War National Shell Filling Factory, Chilwell, opened in 1937. The operation of this depot was notable in that it mirrored and tried to improve on best civilian practice at the time; this became a hallmark of RAOC development in the following decades.
A further COD to hold non-vehicle technical stores opened at Donnington, Shropshire in 1940 in order to remove critical items from Woolwich to a less vulnerable site. Purpose-built depots for both tracked and wheeled vehicles were opened across the country and three Central Ammunition Depots (CAD) were built. Serving south, central and northern England respectively, these were CAD Monkton Farleigh, Wiltshire (also known as CAD Corsham); CAD Nesscliffe, Shropshire; and CAD Longtown, Cumbria. Finally in 1942 a very large COD, widely spread out across the Oxfordshire countryside to mitigate the risk of bomb damage, opened at Bicester to hold stores principally to support the invasion of France.
Forward of the UK base, a huge array of temporary depots were built to meet the rapidly changing pace of war. Base Ordnance Depots (BOD) and Base Ammunition Depots (BAD) sprung up all over the world wherever a major line of communication was established.
Major changes took place after 1942 when the REME absorbed most of the RAOC repair functions and the RAOC in turn took over the RASC's vehicle organisation. The more mobile nature of the Second World War also led to the creation of units at divisional and corps level with higher levels of mobility. The most notable of these was the ordnance field park, principally carrying vehicle and technical stores spares.
Post-war to 1993Edit
In the period 1945–93 the RAOC, as with the rest of the Army, reduced greatly in size and closed its worldwide bases as garrisons withdrew. At the same time, there was considerable development of warehousing techniques and information technology. In 1950 the regimental depot was moved from Feltham Barracks, Middlesex to Princess Royal Barracks, Deepcut. By 1980 the RAOC was reduced to two CODs at Bicester and Donnington (COD Chilwell was closing, CODs Branston and Didcot had closed in 1963 and Weedon in 1965 after being downgraded from a COD in 1957), two CADs at Kineton and Longtown (CAD Bramley closed in 1974) and a single Central Vehicle Depot (now retitled Central Vehicle Organisation) at Ashchurch (CVDs Hilton and Ludgershall having closed in the late 1970s).
Across the UK a structure of Regional Depots, Ordnance Support Units, Training Materiel Parks, supply depots and Ammunition Sub-Depots was steadily run down. At the height of the Northern Ireland troubles Ord Dep Kinnegar was a major logistic facility but is now much reduced.
Overseas, 3 BOD in Singapore closed in 1972 leaving a Composite Ordnance Depot in Hong Kong (that finally closed shortly before handover in 1997). The Middle East logistic base withdrew from Egypt in 1956 – 5 BOD and 9 BAD closing in 1955 – and was partially re-established in Aden. In turn this closed in 1967 with facilities being established in Sharjah and Bahrain. These, in turn, closed in 1971. The Ordnance Depot in Cyprus became part of the Joint Logistic Unit in 1988. In Germany, 15 BOD and 3 Base Ammunition and Petrol Depot (BAPD) closed in 1992. Smaller successor units, including one at Antwerp, remain.
Two post-war campaigns (Falklands 1982 and Gulf 1990/1) were unique in being fought in areas completely outside existing theatres. Temporary lines of communication were rapidly established that successfully managed huge surges in materiel. Increasingly these operations had a joint Service element.
Formation of Royal Logistic CorpsEdit
On 5 April 1993, following the Options for Change review, the Royal Army Ordnance Corps united with the Royal Corps of Transport, the Royal Pioneer Corps, the Army Catering Corps, and the Postal and Courier Service of the Royal Engineers, to form the Royal Logistic Corps.
Appointments in the RAOCEdit
Appointments in the RAOCEdit
Prior to 1981/82 the Royal Army Ordnance Corps, in common with the rest of the British Army, used the idiosyncratic system of staff titles that was unique to British and most Commonwealth armies. After 1981 in NATO assigned units, principally those in British Army of the Rhine (BAOR), the standard NATO system was adopted with all appointments elsewhere changing the following year.
The senior RAOC appointment was Director Equipment and Ordnance Stores (DEOS) − always a Major-General − which during the 1920s became Director Ordnance Services (DOS). DOS was also a title given to senior RAOC officers at major commands such as Middle East Command, 21st Army Group and in more recent times BAOR. After the Somerville Logistic Reorganisation Committee Report of 1977 the head of the corps was re-titled Director General Ordnance Services (DGOS). Following the huge expansion of the RAOC in the Second World War the senior RAOC major general was designated Controller Ordnance Services (COS) from 1942 to 1948
- Deputy Director Ordnance Services (DDOS), usually a brigadiers' appointment, were found in the War Office (MOD after 1964) and in large headquarters throughout the Army.
- Chief Ordnance Officer (COO) was a brigadiers' or colonels' appointment and was used as an alternative to DOS, e.g. COO United Kingdom Land Forces
- Colonel Ordnance (Col Ord), a title principally used in the Ministry of Defence, this title was retained in DGOS after 1981 despite the fact that Supply was in general use elsewhere.
- Assistant Director of Ordnance Services (ADOS), usually a lieutenant colonel's, but occasionally a colonel's, appointment on the staff.
- Deputy Assistant Director of Ordnance Services (DADOS), a major's appointment on the staff.
- Corps Commander Royal Army Ordnance Corps (CCRAOC), a unique title for the brigadier in I (British) Corps held for only one year until the appointment was retitled Comd Sup 1 (Br) Corps.
- Commander Royal Army Ordnance Corps (CRAOC), a lieutenant colonel - occasionally a colonel in UK districts - and senior RAOC officer in a two star headquarters.
- Brigade Ordnance Officer (BOO), an officer, usually a captain, attached to a brigade.
- Brigade/District Ordnance Warrant Officer (B/DOWO) a warrant officer 1st class - frequently a conductor - attached to a headquarters.
- Chief Ammunition Technical Officer (CATO), the senior ammunition officer in a large headquarters and was usually a lieutenant colonel, in a smaller headquarters the appointment was called Senior Ammunition Technical Officer (SATO) and usually held the rank of major.
- Before 1942 the senior Ordnance Mechanical Engineer in a headquarters was designated Principal Ordnance Mechanical Engineer (POME).
- Until 1920 the AOC and later RAOC, in common only with the Royal Engineers, maintained a rank of Second Corporal.
After 1980/1 most of these titles disappeared with the notable exception of CATO/SATO and DOWO/BOWO. All RAOC appointments gave the staff grade (e.g. Staff Officer Grade 2: SO2 suffixed with the word Sup), the head of corps in a headquarters irrespective of rank was titled Comd Sup. In MOD the titles of DGOS and DDOS were retained.
General Ordnance Services headsEdit
This is a list of heads of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps
Controller of Ordnance ServicesEdit
- Major General Sir Leslie Williams KBE CB MC (28 June 1942 to 20 April 1946)
- Major General WW Richards CB CBE MC (21 April 1946 to 17 July 1947)
Director of Ordnance ServicesEdit
- Major General William W Richards CB CBE MC 18 July 1947 to 20 April 1948
- Major General Gerald TW Horne CB CBE 21 April 1948 to 20 April 1951
- Major General Sir Neville Swiney KBE CB MC 21 April 1951 to 21 April 1955
- Major General Sir Lionel Cutforth KBE CB 22 April 1955 to 21 April 1958
- Major General George O Crawford CB CBE 22 April 1958 to 21 April 1961
- Major General Sir John C Hildreth KBE 22 April 1961 to 19 November 1964
- Major General George le F Payne CB CBE 20 November 1964 to 18 March 1968
- Major General Alexander Young CB 19 March 1968 to 8 April 1971
- Major General Leonard TH Phelps CB OBE 9 April 1971 to 8 November 1973
- Major General Norman H Speller CB 9 November 1973 to 17 October 1976
- Major General Michael Callan 18 October 1976 to 3 April 1977
Director General of Ordnance ServicesEdit
- Major General Michael Callan CB 4 Apr 1977 to 14 March 1980
- Major General James Brown CB 15 March 1980 to 11 March 1983
- Major General William L Whalley CB 12 March 1983 to September 1985
- Major General Gerald B Berragan CB Septembr 1985 to March 1988
- Major General JA Hulme CB March 1988 to July 1990
- Major General David FE Botting CB CBE July 1990 to 4 April 1993
'The RAOC Gazette The requirement for a Corps journal was first mooted at Woolwich in the 1880s, and begun in 1896 with hectographs. These were created and sent to South Africa during the Boer War 1900-1901. The first Editor was Lt Leon du Plergny, formerly a Conductor and known as the "Plug" by his clerks.
The first printed edition was published in 1906 and continued uninterrupted until 1914. It was published post-war from 1920 until 1993 as a monthly magazine.
The RAOC Gazette is still published every 6 months as a Membership Newsletter of the RAOC Association, and as a sub-section of'The Sustainer, House journal of The Royal Logistic Corps. The latter is quarterly magazine published as the Autumn, Winter, Spring and Summer editions.
Before the Second World War, RAOC recruits were required to be at least 5 feet 2 inches tall (5 feet 4 inches for Driver Mechanics) and could enlist up to 25 years of age. They initially enlisted for three years with the colours and a further nine years with the reserve. Fitters could also choose six years with the colours and six years in the reserve, or eight and four years. Clerks and Storemen enlisted for six years and six years. They trained at the RAOC Depot, Hilsea Barracks, Portsmouth, before proceeding to specialist trade training. Armourers were only recruited from boy entrants and enlisted for twelve years. Armament Artificers trained at the Military College of Science, Woolwich for fifteen months. Half of them were serving soldiers who were already qualified fitters. Armament Artificers had to be at least 22 years of age and could enlist up to 30; they enlisted for twelve years and were promoted Staff Sergeant as soon as they had completed training.
- Extract from a War Office Committee of 1888-9 on Ordnance matters probably penned by General Sir William Butler and quoted in Major General A Forbes, 'A History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps' Vol II Medici Society London 1929, p3.n
- Hogg, Brigadier O.F.G. (1963). The Royal Arsenal Woolwich. Volume I. London: Oxford University Press.
- Sharpe, L. C. (1993). The Field Train Department of the Board of Ordnance. Royal Logistic Corps museum.
- Steer, Brigadier Frank (2005). To The Warrior His Arms: the story of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps 1918-1993. Barnsley, S. Yorks: Pen & Sword.
- HED Harris ' the First Five Hundred Years', RAOC School, Blackdown 1962. pp65-67
- Major General A Forbes 'A History of Army Ordnance Services', Medici Society, London 1929. Vol II pp 151-152
- Major General A Forbes 'A History of the Army Ordnance Services' Medici Society, London 1929. Vol II pp 153-5
- Major General A Forbes 'A History of the Army Ordnance Services' Medici Society, London 1929. Vol I. p192
- Major General A Forbes 'A History of the Army Ordnance Services' Medici Society, London 1929. Vol II. p82
- Major General A Forbes 'A History of the Army Ordnance Services' Medici Society, London 1929. Vol II. p155
- Major General A Forbes 'A History of the Army Ordnance Services' Medici Society, London 1929. Vol II. p182 notes that the total strength of British forces of all types in the war 'did not fall far short of 450,000 while regular army strength never dropped below 151,000.'
- Major General A Forbes 'A History of the Army Ordnance Services' Medici Society, London 1929. Vol III. pp192-217
- Alan Henry Fernyhough; Henry Edward David Harris (1966). History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps, 1920-1945. Blackdown: Royal Army Ordnance Corps. p. 59.
- Brigadier AH Fernyhough 'A History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps 1920-45' RAOC, Blackdown 1966 lists BODs in West Africa, the Middle East and South East Asia as well as France and Italy.
- "The Royal Logistic Corps and Forming Corps". The Royal Logistic Corps Museum. Archived from the original on 14 August 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- Brigadier AH Fernyhough 'History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps 1920-45' RAOC. Blackdown, 1966. p. 361. Fernyhough gives the precise date of 23 October.
- Major General LTH Phelps 'A History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps 1945-1982' RAOC, Blackdown 1991. p4
- Phelps, Major General LTH (1992). A History of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps 1945-1982. Blackdown. p. 9.
- War Office, His Majesty's Army, 1938