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Forage is plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock.[1] Historically, the term forage has meant only plants eaten by the animals directly as pasture, crop residue, or immature cereal crops, but it is also used more loosely to include similar plants cut for fodder and carried to the animals, especially as hay or silage.[2] The term forage fish refers to small schooling fish that are preyed on by larger aquatic animals.[3]

While the term forage has a broad definition, the term forage crop is used to define crops, annual or biennial, which are grown to be utilized by grazing or harvesting as a whole crop.[4]

Contents

Common foragesEdit

 
Bull feeding on grass
 
Horse-drawn transport of fodder in Romania
 
Meadow of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)

GrassesEdit

Grass forages include:[5][6]

Herbaceous legumesEdit

Herbaceous legume forages include:[7]

 
White clover (Trifolium repens)

Tree legumesEdit

Tree legume forages include:

 
Sheep with silage

SilageEdit

Silage may be composed by the following:[8]

Crop residueEdit

Crop residues used as forage include:

  • Sorghum
  • Corn or soybean stover

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Fageria, N.K. (1997). Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. NY,NY: Marcel Dekker. p. 595. 
  2. ^ Fageria, N.K. (1997). Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. NY,NY: Marcel Dekker. p. 583. 
  3. ^ Karpouzi V, R Watson and D Pauly (2006) "Forage fish consumption by marine mammals and seabirds" Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 14 (3): 33–46.
  4. ^ Givens, D. Ian (2000). Forage evaluation in ruminant nutrition. CABI. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-85199-344-7. 
  5. ^ Murphy, B. (1998). Greener Pastures On Your Side of the Fence. Colchester, Vermont: Arriba Publishing. pp. 19–20. 
  6. ^   Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Pasture". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead. 
  7. ^ Murphy, B. (1998). Greener Pastures On Your Side of the Fence. Colchester, Vermont: Arriba Publishing. p. 20. 
  8. ^ George, J. R. (1994). Extension Publications: Forage and Grain Crops. Dubuque,Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. p. 152.