The River Tweed, or Tweed Water (Scottish Gaelic: Abhainn Thuaidh, Scots: Watter o Tweid, Welsh: Tuedd), is a river 97 miles (156 km) long that flows east across the Border region in Scotland and northern England. Tweed (cloth) derives its name from its association with the River Tweed. The Tweed is one of the great salmon rivers of Britain and the only river in England where an Environment Agency rod licence is not required for angling. Tweed is an Old Brythonic (Celtic) name meaning 'border'.
The River Tweed at Coldstream
|⁃ location||Tweedsmuir, Scottish Borders, Scotland|
|Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland, England|
|Length||156 km (97 mi)|
It rises in the Lowther Hills at Tweed's Well near to where the Clyde, draining northwest (10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the Tweed's Well), and the Annan draining south (1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the Tweed's Well) also rise. "Annan, Tweed and Clyde rise oot the ae hillside" is a saying from the Border region. East of Kelso, it becomes a section of the eastern part of the border. Entering England, its lower reaches are in Northumberland, where it enters the North Sea at Berwick-upon-Tweed.
The river's valley floor is a drumlin field and the relic of a paleo-ice stream that flowed through the area during the last glaciation. Major towns through which the Tweed flows include Innerleithen, Peebles, Galashiels, Melrose, Kelso, Coldstream and Berwick-upon-Tweed, where it flows into the North Sea. Tweed tributaries include:
- Whiteadder Water
- River Till
- Eden Water
- Teviot Water
- Leader Water
- Gala Water
- Leithen Water
- Quair Water
- Eddleston Water
- Manor Water
- Lyne Water
- Holms Water
The upper parts of the catchment of the Tweed in Scotland form the area known as Tweeddale, part of which is protected as the Upper Tweeddale National Scenic Area, one of 40 such areas in Scotland which are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure its protection from inappropriate development.
- Article on Tweed Cloth
- "University of Wales Dictionary". University of Wales Dictionary. University of Wales. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
- The Tweed: Take a trip on a river flowing with history, The Independent, 21 April 2007
- "National Scenic Areas". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 2018-01-17.
|Wikisource has the text of a 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia article about River Tweed.|
- British Waterways: River Tweed
- The River Tweed Commission website
- The Tweed Foundation
- Tweed Forum website
- River Tweed: Special Area of Conservation (SAC)
- SEPA (Scottish Environment Protection Agency): River Level Data
- River Tweed map
- Gazetteer for Scotland: River Tweed
- Paper describing palaeo-icestream and landforms in the Tweed Valley
- Map and aerial photo sources for Tweed's Well and Tweedmouth
- Open Canoe Hire Specialists