Reinhard Gehlen (3 April 1902 – 8 June 1979) was a German career intelligence officer who served the Weimar Republic, Nazi Germany, the U.S. intelligence community, and the NATO-affiliated Federal Republic of Germany during the Cold War.

Reinhard Gehlen
Reinhard Gehlen 1945
Born(1902-03-03)3 March 1902
Erfurt, Province of Saxony, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire
Died8 June 1979(1979-06-08) (aged 77)
Starnberg, Bavaria, West Germany
Allegiance Weimar Republic (1920–1933)
 Nazi Germany (1933–1945)
 United States (1946–1956)
 West Germany (1956–1968)
Battles/warsWorld War II
Cold War
AwardsDeutsches Kreuz in silver
War Merit Cross
Großes Bundesverdienstkreuz am Schulterband
Grand Cross of the Order pro Merito Melitensi of the Order of Malta (1948)

Born into a Lutheran family at Erfurt, Gehlen joined the Reichswehr, the truncated Army of the Weimar Republic, and remained a career military intelligence officer after Adolf Hitler became Chancellor in 1933. Gehlen was chief of the Wehrmacht Fremde Heere Ost (FHO), an anti-Soviet military intelligence service, during World War II. He achieved the rank of major general before he was fired by Adolf Hitler in April 1945 because of the FHO's alleged "defeatism"[1] and accurate but pessimistic intelligence reports about Red Army military superiority.[2]

Following the end of World War II, Gehlen surrendered to the United States Army. While in a POW camp, Gehlen offered FHO's microfilmed and secretly buried archives about the USSR and his own services to the U.S. intelligence community. Following the start of the Cold War, the U.S. military (G-2 Intelligence) accepted Gehlen's offer and assigned him to establish the Gehlen Organization, an espionage service focusing on the Soviet Union and Soviet Bloc. Beginning with his time as head of the Gehlen Organization, Gehlen favored both Atlanticism and close cooperation between what would become West Germany, the U.S. intelligence community, and the other members of the NATO military alliance. The organization would employ former Wehrmacht military intelligence officers.

After West Germany regained its sovereignty, Gehlen became the founding president of the Federal Intelligence Service (Bundesnachrichtendienst, BND) of West Germany (1956–68). Gehlen obeyed a direct order from West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, and also hired former counterintelligence officers of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and the Sicherheitsdienst (SD), in response to an alleged avalanche of covert ideological subversion hitting West Germany from the intelligence services behind the Iron Curtain.[3][4]

Gehlen was instrumental in negotiations to establish an official West German intelligence service based on the Gehlen Organization of the early 1950s. In 1956, the Gehlen Organization was transferred to the West German government and formed the core of the Federal Intelligence Service (BND), the Federal Republic of Germany's official foreign intelligence service, with Gehlen serving as its first president until his retirement in 1968.[4][5] While this was a civilian office, he was also a lieutenant-general in the Reserve forces of the Bundeswehr, the highest-ranking reserve-officer in the military of West Germany.[6] He received the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1968.

Early life


Gehlen was born 1902 into a Protestant family in Erfurt. He had two brothers and a sister. He grew up in Breslau where his father, a former army officer, was a publisher for the Ferdinand-Hirt-Verlag, a publishing house specializing in school books.[7]

In 1920, Gehlen completed his Abitur and joined the Reichswehr.[8]

After graduating from the German Staff College in 1935, Gehlen was promoted to captain and assigned to the German General Staff.[9] Gehlen served on the General Staff until 1936 and was promoted to major in 1939.

Second World War


At the time of the German attack on Poland (1 September 1939), he was a staff officer in an infantry division.[9] In 1940, he became liaison officer to Field Marshal Walther von Brauchitsch, Army Commander-in-Chief; and later was transferred to the staff of General Franz Halder, the Chief of the German General Staff. In July 1941, he received a promotion to lieutenant-colonel and was sent to the Eastern Front, where he was assigned as senior intelligence-officer to the Fremde Heere Ost (FHO) section of the Staff.

Head of FHO

The anticommunist espionage networks of the Gehlen Organization remained in place after the Red Army's conquest and the consolidation of Soviet hegemony in the east of Europe.

In spring of 1942, Gehlen assumed command of the Fremde Heere Ost (FHO) from Colonel Eberhard Kinzel.[10] Before the Wehrmacht disasters in the Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943), a year into the German war against the Soviet Union, Gehlen understood that the FHO required fundamental re-organization, and secured a staff of army linguists and geographers, anthropologists, lawyers, and junior military officers who would improve the FHO as a military-intelligence organization despite the Nazi ideology of Slavic inferiority.[11]

Max Network


Gehlen made great use of cables received from the Max Network.[12] [13] Originally an Abwehr creation, Max was one of the primary sources of FHO intelligence on the Soviet Military. Based in Sofia, Max - the Klatt Bureau (Dienststelle Klatt) was led by a Jew, Richard Kauder[14] [15] and included many other Jews as radio operators.[16] Max cables were highly accurate, and amounted to 10,700 cables from 1942–44,[17] causing a British warning – Ultra intercepted the Max cables[18] – to Stalin regarding a high-placed mole in Stavka.[19] When the cables continued, the British suspected a Soviet operation but later dismissed that idea upon investigation. The cables are available to be read upon purchase from the British archives at cost.[20] The fact remains that aside from several instances of possible Soviet disinformation, most of the Max cables contained extremely accurate intelligence. Max was a big reason for the rise of Gehlen's career, and he leveraged the "success of Max" into a spymaster's reputation and a postwar career. Possible Soviet penetration of Max would parallel and be a strong contributor for the thorough Soviet penetration of NTS and the Gehlen Organization.[21]

True Allegiances


During the war some German officers attempted to trace the mechanics of Kauder's networks, and never found a satisfactory explanation. Nevertheless, the information was so potent that FHO refused to allow any tainting of their golden source.

After the war, the Allies interrogated Kauder and his associates and promptly concluded that the Soviets ran the entire Max operation, and that Kauder was not a professional spy but merely allowed himself to be the figurehead relaying information he received from his NKVD contacts and sources. However, the Max information was accurate, and both the NKVD and Smersh later investigated the Max network. It is possible that Stalin kept Max away from the regular organizational structures, which he never fully trusted.

It is argued that the accuracy of the Max reports were the bait that caused the FHO overreliance on Max – to the extent that Nazi officials defied Hitler's explicit directive to stop working with Kauder the Jew.[22] This information was the bait that may have carried costs for the Soviets but was worth the payoff when it was later used as part of the Soviet Maskirovka Strategy to trap the Wehrmacht in Stalingrad, Kursk, and the Summer Offensive of 1944 (Operation Bagration). Many of the Jews who stayed alive working for Kauder later moved to Israel. Ageing Israelis have made the claim "a handful of Jews won World War Two[23]" — slightly legitimate if Max caused the downfall of the German effort in the east, where most of the German army were destroyed.[24] [25]

On the other hand, Max cables clearly warned FHO regarding Operation Mars, a terrible defeat for the Red Army. This caused the British to conclude that it was impossible for Max to be a Soviet operation. However, the British may have been blinded by western ideals regarding acceptable costs of national sacrifice.

The Max Network is one of the unsolved mysteries of the war, with Kauder's loyalties and sources of information still unclear.

Max beginnings


Kauder was born in Vienna in 1900. Provided a Pacifist upbringing by his father, Kauder became a lifelong self-declared pacifist. [26] His time in Vienna was marked by associations and friendships with idealists, some communist, some socialist, and some zionist. Some were future spies, like Kim Philby – then with his Jewish and NKVD agent-wife Litzi Friedman. Also present then were Harry Peter Smollet – then Hans Peter Smolka, Ehud Avriel and Teddy Kollek. [27] Teddy Kollek's career in Israeli intelligence saw him informing the CIA of Philby's communist activism, but was told by James Angleton to keep the information to himself. Ehud Avriel's connections to Kauder were instrumental in the Maxwell - Czechoslovakia weapons deal of 1948. Kauder himself was later considered by the CIA to be working with Israeli intelligence.[28]

Smollet introduced Kauder to Otto Hatz, a Hungarian intelligence officer, who later introduced him to Momotaro Enomoto, a Japanese journalist for the well-known newspaper Mainishi Shimbun. [29] Enomoto believed in pro-communist anarchism, and was himself friends with Smollet. Enomoto's journalist passport which allowed him to travel freely between Budapest, Vienna and Berlin. He had friends among the German elite and had unrestricted access to all Japanese ambassadors to Europe. However, he was expelled from Turkey for being a collaborator of the Japanese military attache, for whom he conducted some investigations in Turkey. [30]

In January, 1940, Kauder was called into a meeting with Abwehr officers in Vienna. At the advice of Enomoto and Hatz he went into what he thought would be a trap for a Jew like him. Colonel Rudolf von Marogna-Redwitz, head of the Vienna station, asked him to head to Sofia and run their intelligence operations there through a cover of a Japanese news service. Sofia was chosen being the only Axis country that continued to have diplomatic relationships with the Soviet Union, and the huge staff of the Soviet Embassy in Sofia included NKVD agents. He informed Kauder that the idea of the Sofia base and that Kauder should run it was all from Enomoto.[31] Although Kauder did charge for his services, he was also promised Abwehr protection for his Jewish mother. The Abwehr gave him the codename Fritz Klatt. Arriving in Sofia in 1940, he was soon after joined by both Enomoto and Hatz.

Kauder was sent initially to collect intelligence on the Bulgarian Air Force, but reported that he made contact with anti-communist Ukrainian emigre groups, who still had vast connections in Ukraine and southern Russia. the Nazis were impressed and reported it up the chain of command, who promptly approved the establishment of Kauder's network. In reality, a Japanese international news service was something the Japanese and the Nazis had been working towards for awhile. [32] Enomoto – a well placed Japanese communist loosely in the employ of Japanese Intelligence seems to have learned of this from both Japanese sources and by overhearing a conversation. Max was thus the Soviet counterstroke. [33] Kauder's network was kept secret apart from a few Abwehr officers, and was stowed away in Abwehr 2, and not in Abwehr 1 where spies belong. Kauder's cables were actually split into Max and Moritz, with Moritz focusing on the Mediterranean front. The Moritz cables are considered to have been much less accurate than the Soviet-focused Max cables.[34]

The German decision to launch Max (and pay Kauder's hefty fees) was taken by Abwehr Director Wilhelm Canaris, who was one of the few Germans involved in the secretive joint venture with the Japanese. Otto Wagner, The initial supervisor of Kauder, was not trusted by the secretive Canaris and was not read in on the Japanese connection and how a Jew came to be implausibly working for the Nazis. Wagner would make many luckless attempts at figuring out the Kauder network, which he did not fully trust. [35]

On May 6, 1940, Kauder brought two of his Ukrainian contacts, namely Prince Anton Turkul[36] and Ira Longin (Ilya Longa)[37] [38] to meet the Abwehr officers. Turkul said he had previously worked with British intelligence, and was handled by Dickie Ellis. Turkul also informed them that he had already put his NTS network into existence. [39] Turkul's past work for MI6 went a long way in establishing his credibility with the Abwehr.

Enomoto then took Kauder to Salonika to meet NKVD officer Nahum Eitingon aboard a Russian Merchant Ship in the port.[40] Eitingon informed Kauder that going forward he would be the only one to have any contact with the Germans. Eitingon promised Kauder personal protection. [41] It was at this time that Kauder realized that his network was really a Soviet operation.

Max Operation


Max was probably the most sophisticated radio operation in World War Two:

"Kauder now had skilled German radio operators at his disposal. He also formed his own team [of Jews] that worked with the radio operators and managed detailed records of all messages. Each message was assigned a serial number, which tracked its number within the series of messages; and a secondary catalogue number that indicated the region and location that the message referred to. The messages were also filed by date, which was of no less importance. It was an incredibly efficient and well-organized system. If asked what exactly was reported about a specific city or region, or what was reported on a specific date, Kauder could retrieve the message instantly, using his simple, intelligent and efficient filing method.[42]

Dismissal, 1945


Gehlen's cadre of FHO intelligence-officers produced accurate field-intelligence about the Red Army that frequently contradicted Nazi Party ideological perceptions of the eastern battle front. Hitler dismissed the gathered information as defeatism and philosophically harmful to the war effort against "Judeo-Bolshevism" in Russia. In April 1945, despite the accuracy of the intelligence, Hitler dismissed Gehlen, soon after his promotion to major general.[43]

Preparation for Post-War


The FHO collection of both military and political intelligence from captured Red Army soldiers assured Gehlen's post–WWII survival as a Western anticommunist spymaster, with networks of spies and secret agents in the countries of Soviet-occupied Europe. During the German war against the Soviet Union in 1941 to 1945, Gehlen's FHO collected much tactical military intelligence about the Red Army, and much strategic political intelligence about the Soviet Union. Understanding that the Soviet Union would defeat and occupy the Third Reich, Gehlen ordered the FHO intelligence files copied to microfilm; the FHO files proper were stored in watertight drums and buried in various locations in the Austrian Alps.[44]

They amounted to fifty cases of German intelligence about the Soviet Union, which were at Gehlen's disposal as a bargaining tool with the intelligence services of the Western Allies.[45] Meanwhile, as of 1946, when Joseph Stalin consolidated his absolute power and control over Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe as agreed at the Potsdam Conference of 1945 and demarcated with what became known as the Iron Curtain, the Western Allies of World War II, the U.S, Britain, and France had no sources of covert information within the countries in which the occupying Red Army had vanquished the Wehrmacht.

Cold War


On 22 May 1945, Gehlen surrendered to the Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC) of the U.S. Army in Bavaria and was taken to Camp King, near Oberursel, and interrogated by Captain John R. Boker. The American Army recognised his potential value as a spymaster with great knowledge of Soviet forces and anticommunist intelligence contacts in the Soviet Union. In exchange for his own liberty and the release of his former subordinates (also prisoners of the US Army), Gehlen offered the Counter Intelligence Corps access to the FHO's intelligence archives and to his intelligence gathering abilities aimed at the Soviet Union, known later as the Gehlen Organization.[9] Boker removed his name and those of his Wehrmacht command from the official lists of German prisoners of war, and transferred seven former FHO senior officers to join Gehlen.[citation needed] The FHO archives were unearthed and secretly taken to Camp King, ostensibly without the knowledge of the camp commander.[citation needed] By the end of summer 1945, Captain Boker had the support of Brigadier General Edwin Sibert, the G2 (senior intelligence officer) of the U.S. Twelfth Army Group,[46] who arranged the secret transport of Gehlen, his officers and the FHO intelligence archives, authorized by his superiors in the chain of command, General Walter Bedell Smith (chief of staff for General Eisenhower), who worked with William Donovan (former OSS chief) and Allen Dulles (OSS chief), who also was the OSS station-chief in Bern. On 20 September 1945, Gehlen and three associates were flown from the American Zone of Occupation in Germany to the US, to become spymasters for the Western Allies.[47]

In July 1946, the US officially released Gehlen and returned him to occupied Germany.[48] On 6 December 1946, he began espionage operations against the Soviet Union, by establishing what was known to US intelligence as the Gehlen Organization or "the Org", a secret intelligence service composed of former intelligence officers of the Wehrmacht and members of the SS and the SD, which was headquartered first at Oberursel, near Frankfurt, then at Pullach, near Munich.[9] The organization's cover-name was the South German Industrial Development Organization. Gehlen initially selected 350 ex-Wehrmacht military intelligence officers as his staff; eventually, the organization recruited some 4,000 anticommunist secret agents.[49][50]

Gehlen Organization, 1947–56


After he started working for the U.S. Government, Gehlen was subordinate to US Army G-2 (Intelligence). He resented this arrangement and in 1947, the year after his Organization was established, Gehlen arranged for a transfer to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The agency kept close control of the Gehlen Organization, because during the early years of the Cold War of 1945–91, Gehlen's agents were providing the United States Federal Government with more than 70% of its intelligence on the Soviet armed forces.[51]

Early in 1948, Gehlen Org Spymasters began receiving detailed reports from their sources throughout the Soviet Zone of covert East German remilitarization long before any West German politicians had even thought of such a thing. Further operations by the Gehlen Org produced detailed reports about Soviet construction and testing of the MiG-15 jet-propelled aircraft, which United States airmen flying F-86 fighters would soon to face in aerial combat during the Korean War.[52]

East German propaganda in 1957

Between 1947 and 1955, the Gehlen Organization also debriefed every German PoW who returned to West Germany from captivity in the Soviet GULAG. The network employed hundreds of former Wehrmacht military intelligence and some SS officers, and also recruited many other agents from within the massive anti-Communist ethnic German, Soviet, and East European refugee communities throughout Western Europe. They were accordingly able to develope detailed maps of the railroad systems, airfields, and ports of the USSR, and the Org's field agents even infiltrated the Baltic Soviet Republics and the Ukrainian SSR.

Among the Org's earliest counterespionage successes was Operation Bohemia, which began in March 1948 after Božena Hájková, the sister in law of Czechoslovak military intelligence officer Captain Vojtěch Jeřábek, defected to the American Zone and applied for political asylum in the United States. After learning from Hájková that Captain Jeřábek was secretly expressing anti-communist opinions to his family, the Org dispatched a Czech refugee and veteran field agent codenamed "Ondřej" to make contact with the Captain and his family in Prague. During the night of 8-9 November 1948, after being warned by "Ondřej" of an imminent Stalinist witch hunt for "rootless cosmopolitans" within the Czechoslovak officer corps, Captain Jeřábek and two other senior military intelligence officers crossed the border into the American Zone and defected to the West. In addition to several lists of Czechoslovakian spies in West Germany, Captain Jeřábek also carried the keys to breaking Czechoslovakian intelligence's codes. The results were nothing less than devastating for Czechoslovakian espionage and led to multiple arrests and convictions.[53]

The security and efficacy of the Gehlen Organization were compromised by East German and Soviet moles within it, such as Johannes Clemens, Erwin Tiebel and Heinz Felfe who were feeding information while in the Org and later, while in the BND that was headed by Gehlen.[54] All three were eventually discovered and convicted in 1963.[55]

There were also Communists and their sympathizers within the CIA and the SIS (MI6), especially Kim Philby and the Cambridge Spies.[citation needed] As such information appeared, Gehlen, personally, and the Gehlen Organization, officially, were attacked by the governments of the Western powers.[56] The British government was especially hostile towards Gehlen,[when?] and the politically Left wing British press ensured full publicisation of the existence of the Gehlen Organization, which further compromised the operation.[57]

Federal Intelligence Service (BND), 1956–1968

The Gehlen Organization in transition: CIA report on the negotiations to establish the BND (1952) of West Germany.

On 1 April 1956, 11 years after World War II had ended, the U.S. Government and the CIA formally transferred the Gehlen Organization to the authority of what was by then the Federal Republic of Germany, under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer (1949–63).[9] By way of that transfer of geopolitical sponsorship, the anti–Communist Gehlen Organization became the nucleus of the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND, Federal Intelligence Service).[9]

Gehlen was the president of the BND as an espionage service until his retirement in 1968.[58] The end of Gehlen's career as a spymaster resulted from a confluence of events in West Germany: the exposure of a KGB mole, Heinz Felfe, (a former SS lieutenant) working at BND headquarters;[59] political estrangement from Adenauer, in 1963, which aggravated his professional problems; and the inefficiency of the BND consequent to Gehlen's poor leadership and continual inattention to the business of counter-espionage as national defence.[citation needed]

According to Der Spiegel journalists Heinz Höhne and Hermann Zolling, the premature end of the German colonial empire in 1918 placed West Germany's new foreign intelligence service, the Bundesnachrichtendienst at a considerable advantage in dealing with the newly independent governments of post-colonial Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. This is why many Third World military and foreign intelligence services were largely trained by BND military advisors. This made it possible for the BND to easily receive accurate intelligence in these regions which the CIA and former colonialist intelligence services could not acquire without recruiting local spy rings. BND covert activities in the Third World also laid the groundwork for friendly relations that Gehlen attempted to use to steer local governments into taking an anti-Soviet and Pro-NATO stance during the ongoing Cold War and further assisted the West German economic miracle by both encouraging and favoring West German trade and corporate investment.[60]

Gehlen's refusal to correct reports with questionable content strained the organization's credibility, and dazzling achievements became an infrequent commodity. A veteran agent remarked at the time[when?] that the BND pond then contained some sardines, though a few years earlier the pond had been alive with sharks.[61]

The fact that the BND could score certain successes despite East German Stasi interference, internal malpractice, inefficiencies and infighting, was primarily due to select members of the staff who took it upon themselves to step up and overcome then existing maladies. Abdication of responsibility by Reinhard Gehlen was the malignancy; bureaucracy and cronyism remained pervasive, even nepotism (at one time Gehlen had 16 members of his extended family on the BND payroll).[62] Only slowly did the younger generation then advance to substitute new ideas for some of the bad habits caused mainly by Gehlen's semi-retired attitude and frequent holiday absences.[62]

Gehlen was forced out of the BND due to "political scandal within the ranks", according to one source,[citation needed] He retired in 1968 as a civil servant of West Germany, classified as a Ministerialdirektor, a senior grade with a generous pension. His successor, Bundeswehr Brigadier General Gerhard Wessel, immediately called for a program of modernization and streamlining.[63]





Several publications have criticized the fact that Gehlen allowed former Nazis to work for the agencies. The authors of the book A Nazi Past: Recasting German Identity in Postwar Europe stated[when?] that Reinhard Gehlen simply did not want to know the backgrounds of the men whom the BND hired in the 1950s.[64] The American National Security Archive states that "he employed numerous former Nazis and known war criminals".[65]

An article in The Independent on 29 June 2018 made this statement about BND employees:[66]

"Operating until 1956, when it was superseded by the BND, the Gehlen Organization was allowed to employ at least 100 former Gestapo or SS officers.... Among them were Adolf Eichmann’s deputy Alois Brunner, who would go on to die of old age despite having sent more than 100,000 Jews to ghettos or internment camps, and ex-SS major Emil Augsburg.... Many ex-Nazi functionaries including Silberbauer, the captor of Anne Frank, transferred over from the Gehlen Organization to the BND.... Instead of expelling them, the BND even seems to have been willing to recruit more of them – at least for a few years".

On the other hand, Gehlen himself was cleared by the CIA's James H. Critchfield, who worked with the Gehlen Organization from 1949 to 1956. In 2001, he said that "almost everything negative that has been written about Gehlen, [as an] ardent ex-Nazi, one of Hitler's war criminals ... is all far from the fact," as quoted in the Washington Post. Critchfield added that Gehlen hired the former Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS) men "reluctantly, under pressure from German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer to deal with 'the avalanche of subversion hitting them from East Germany'".[4]



Gehlen's memoirs were published in 1977 by World Publishers, New York. In the same year another book was published about him, The General Was a Spy, by Heinz Hoehne and Herman Zolling, Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, New York. A review of the latter, published by the CIA in 1996, calls it a "poor book" and goes on to allege that "so much of it is sheer garbage" because of many errors. The CIA review also discusses another book, Gehlen, Spy of the Century, by E. H. Cookridge, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1971, and claims that it is "chock full of errors". The CIA review is kinder when speaking of Gehlen's memoirs but makes this comment:[67]

"Gehlen's descriptions of most of his so-called successes in the political intelligence field are, in my opinion, either wishful thinking or self-delusion.... Gehlen was never a good clandestine operator, nor was he a particularly good administrator. And therein lay his failures. The Gehlen Organization/BND always had a good record in the collection of military and economic intelligence on East Germany and the Soviet forces there. But this information, for the most part, came from observation and not from clandestine penetration".

Upon Gehlen's retirement in 1968, a CIA note on Gehlen describes him as "essentially a military officer in habits and attitudes". He was also characterized as "essentially a conservative", who refrained from entertaining and drinking, was fluent in English, and was at ease among senior American officials.[68]


  1. ^ Critchfield, Lois M. (30 November 2018). James H. Critchfield: His Life's Story (1917–2003). AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-5462-6975-5.
  2. ^ "Intelligence Officer's Bookshelf" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency.
  3. ^ Richelson, J.T. (1997). A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press. pp. 233, 235. ISBN 978-0-19-976173-9.
  4. ^ a b c Lardner, George Jr. (18 March 2001). "CIA Declassifies Its Records On Dealings With Ex-Nazis". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  5. ^ "Gehlen Organization – German Intelligence Agencies". Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  6. ^ Pahl, Magnus. Fremde Heere Ost: Hitlers militärische Feindaufklärung, p. 32, Ch. Links Verlag, 2013, ISBN 3862842037.
  7. ^ "Reinhard Gehlen – Munzinger Biographie". Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  8. ^ Müller, Rolf-Dieter (20 April 2018). Reinhard Gehlen. Geheimdienstchef im Hintergrund der Bonner Republik: Die Biografie (in German). Ch. Links Verlag. ISBN 978-3-86284-409-8.
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Reinhard Gehlen – Biografie WHO'S WHO". Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  10. ^ Höhne, Heinz; Zolling, Hermann (1972). The General Was a Spy: The Truth about General Gehlen and His Spy Ring. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan. p. 10. ISBN 0-698-10430-7.
  11. ^ Höhne & Zolling, p. 13.
  12. ^ Interrogation of Kauder on July 15, 1946, quoted in Robert W. Stephens, Stalin’s Secret War: Soviet Counterintelligence against the Nazis, 1941–1945 (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 171.
  13. ^ Aarons, Loftus, The Secret War Against the Jews, 135 (2000)
  14. ^ Каудер, Рихард
  15. ^ ריכארד קאודר
  16. ^ working "to save themselves and their families from the concentration camps, The Jews of the Max network were bilingual, expert in radio transmission, coding, and covert operations... They were, in fact, Communist Jews who risked their lives inside the heart of the Third Reich’s intelligence service. Aarons, Loftus, The Secret War Against the Jews, 135-36 (2000). After the war these Jews became part of the communist and socialist left in Israel. Still unexplored to a degree, understanding the strengths of zionist intelligence requires comprehending the zionist appeal to people from all sorts of ideologies as well as the shared development of zionism and their activists with those ideas and activists of other young radicals, like Kim Philby. Coupled with immigration of jews from all the Arab countries, Israel was perhaps the country best positioned to understand the various groups around the world. Reuven Shiloah - the founder of Mossad and long time leader of Haganah Intelligence - realized that this ability was the unique value that Israelis had to offer world intelligence agencies, and so began the Mossad liaisons with the CIA and MI6, as those allied agencies valued the perspective of the Israeli dossiers, especially on Communism and Arabism. Max is a classic example – The knowledge of the Max Network would prove to be invaluable to the Israelis. See, e.g., Aarons, Loftus, The Secret War Against the Jews, 153, 538 (2000)
  17. ^ Interrogation of Kauder on July 15, 1946, quoted in Robert W. Stephens, Stalin’s Secret War: Soviet Counterintelligence against the Nazis, 1941–1945 (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 171.
  18. ^ Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 88
  19. ^ Stalin also learned of Ultra decrypting the then Enigma-run Max cables through John Cairncross. Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 88
  20. ^ The National Archives [dead link]
  21. ^ The Russians were the masters of espionage throughout the 20th century. (They were further buttressed by the many western volunteers who begged to have their services accepted. If the Soviets (or Stalin) had been less paranoid, World War Two would have looked very different). The Russians were heavily focused on infiltrating and controlling the counter-revolutionary groups abroad, as they simply followed in the traditions of the Czar's Ohkrana, who perfected the technique. But see e.g., Yevno Azef, who left all sides of the conflict in revolution utterly dazed and confused. also
  22. ^ "Admiral Canaris convinced the German generals to ignore Hitler’s edict that Jews could not work for Nazi intelligence. With the approval of the German High Command, [] Gehlen, [] protected the Jews in the Max network by transferring them, on paper, to the Hungarian secret service. Aarons, Loftus, The Secret War Against the Jews, 136 (2000)
  23. ^ Aarons, Loftus, The Secret War Against the Jews, 133 (2000)
  24. ^ Let’s be blunt: the German army lost World War II on the Eastern Front. For most of the war, 75-80 percent of the Wehrmacht had to be deployed in the East, a preponderance dictated by the sheer size of the front, and 80 percent of German war dead perished there: about four million of the five million German soldiers killed in World War II.
  25. ^ Aarons, Loftus, The Secret War Against the Jews, 136 (2000)
  26. ^ Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 27
  27. ^ Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 32
  28. ^ CIA report Retrieved 19 November 2023
  29. ^ Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 36
  30. ^ Poslanstvo NDH u Sofiji. Diplomatski izvještaji 1941-1945., (Editor: Nada Kisić-Kolanović), Volume 2, Zagreb, 2003, p.131
  31. ^ Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 45
  32. ^ Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 51
  33. ^ Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 51
  34. ^ Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 57
  35. ^ Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 72
  36. ^ Turkul's identity as a leader of the white army counter-revolutionary emigre groups and a possible Soviet mole is something that has interested researchers
  37. ^ in the words of Arnold Silver, Longin was an intelligent liar who could spin off sixty cover stories in as many minutes
  38. ^ Ilya was an officer in Turkul's division and his confidant as well. Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 59. For those who consider Turkul to have been a true counter-revolutionary, Longin may have been the true mole fooling his boss.
  39. ^ Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 57
  40. ^ Eitingon had a lot of business with Enomoto, who was involved in a lot more NKVD activity than just Max, which seems to have not been a Soviet priority at the time. The immediate benefit of Max seems to have been providing Enomoto with greater cover. Furthermore, the Germans fully funded the bill, leaving the NKVD with control over a nazi cell, at the cost of zero kopecks. While the Soviets were good, they were not prophets; they merely discovered a German-Japanese construction of a cell disguised as a news service and took it over in Okhrana fashion. The benefits remained to be seen. This all occurred during the quiet of the Ribbentrop - Molotov pact. See Generally, Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 75
  41. ^ Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 64
  42. ^ Ziv-Tal, A. Enigma Named Max, 79-80
  43. ^ Höhne & Zolling, p. 44.
  44. ^ Simpson, Christopher (1988). Blowback: The First Full Account of America's Recruitment of Nazis, and its Disastrous Effect on Our Domestic Foreign Policy. New York: Collier Books. p. 41. ISBN 0-02-044995-X.
  45. ^ Höhne & Zolling, p. 52.
  46. ^ Simpson, pp. 41–42.
  47. ^ "The German Strategic Mastermind Behind America's Post-War Order". Palladium. 13 April 2019. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  48. ^ Höhne & Zolling, p. 63.
  49. ^ Gutman, W. E. (22 August 2012). A Paler Shade of Red: Memoirs of a Radical. CCB Publishing. ISBN 978-1-927360-97-2.
  50. ^ "Foreign News: Spy Service". Time. 11 July 1955. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  51. ^ Höhne & Zolling, p. 88.
  52. ^ Höhne & Zolling, p. 88-97.
  53. ^ Höhne & Zolling, p. 156-158.
  54. ^ Richelson, Jeffery T. (17 July 1997). A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-976173-9.
  55. ^ Childs, David; Popplewell, Richard (27 July 2016). The Stasi: The East German Intelligence and Security Service. Springer. ISBN 978-1-349-15054-0.
  56. ^ Bagley, Tennent H. (1 January 2007). Spy Wars: Moles, Mysteries, and Deadly Games. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-13478-0.
  57. ^ Höhne & Zolling, p. 172.
  58. ^ "Gehlen dies at 77". New York Times. 10 June 1979. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  59. ^ BND cryptanalysts deciphered KGB messages that led to Felfe.
  60. ^ Heinz Höhne & Hermann Zolling (1972), The General was a Spy: The Truth about General Gehlen, 20th century Superspy who served Hitler, the CIA, and West Germany, Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, New York. Pages 220-221.
  61. ^ Höhne & Zolling, p. 213
  62. ^ a b Höhne & Zolling, p. 245
  63. ^ Höhne & Zolling, p. 255
  64. ^ Messenger, David A.; Paehler, Katrin (21 April 2015). A Nazi Past: Recasting German Identity in Postwar Europe. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-6057-3.
  65. ^ "The CIA and Nazi War Criminals". Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  66. ^ "Himmler's daughter worked for Germany's foreign intelligence agency in 1960s, officials admit". The Independent. 29 June 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  67. ^ "The Service: The Memoirs of General Reinhard Gehlen by Reinhard Gehlen. Book review by Anonymous — Central Intelligence Agency". 2 February 2017. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  68. ^ "Biographic sketch on General Reinhard Gehlen" (PDF). 1968. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2017.

Bibliography and sources



Government offices
Preceded by
President of the Federal Intelligence Bureau
Succeeded by