Regional accreditation is the educational accreditation of schools, colleges, and universities in the United States by one of seven regional accrediting agencies. Accreditation is a voluntary process by which colleges demonstrate to each other, and sometimes to employers and licensing agencies, that their credits and degrees meet minimum standards. It is the self-regulation of the higher education industry.
Each regional accreditor oversees the vast majority of public and private educational institutions, both not-for-profit and for-profit, in its region. Their primary function is accreditation of post-secondary institutions, though there is a limited amount of accreditation of primary and secondary schools.
Regional accreditation is older than national accreditation and, with a few exceptions, more rigorous than national accreditation. Additionally, most non-profit institutions are regionally accredited while most for-profit colleges and universities are nationally accredited.
List of regional accreditorsEdit
- Middle States Commission on Higher Education, formerly part of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools - Postsecondary institutions in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands.
- New England Association of Schools and Colleges - Educational institutions in the six New England states (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont).
- Higher Learning Commission, formerly part of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools - Educational institutions in Arkansas, Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin, West Virginia, and Wyoming. Since 2006, the North Central Association has been part of AdvancED.
- Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU) for postsecondary institutions in Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. Since 2012, the Northwest Accreditation Commission for primary and secondary schools has been a division of AdvancED.
- Southern Association of Colleges and Schools - Educational institutions in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia.
- Western Association of Schools and Colleges - 4-year educational institutions in California, Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, Micronesia, Palau, and Northern Marianas Islands, as well as schools for American children in Asia.
- Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges, formerly part of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges - 2-year educational institutions in California, Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, Micronesia, Palau, and Northern Marianas Islands, as well as schools for American children in Asia.
The seven organizations form the Council of Regional Accrediting Commissions (C-RAC). Each regional accrediting commission's executive directors and commission chairs sit on C-RAC and periodically promulgate principles and guidelines which are followed by the regional commissions. Although the principles do not replace individual commission regulations, they provide a basis for assessing accreditation practice between regions.
All regional agencies have accrediting authority for colleges and universities, 2-year, 4-year, or both. Some agencies also have accrediting authority over K-12 schools (primary and secondaryschools). The Northwest and Mid-Atlantic regional accreditors divide responsibility between two separate accreditation agencies with one focusing on primary and secondary schools and the other focusing on postsecondary institutions. In the Western region, there is a separate commission that accredits 2-year colleges.
The regional accrediting agencies were established in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in response to a perceived need for better articulation between secondary schools and higher education institutions (the school offered the courses the college needed applicants to have taken; this helped colleges and universities evaluate prospective students). The New England Association was formed in 1885 by a group of schoolmasters of secondary schools. The Middle States Association formed in 1887. The faculty of Vanderbilt University led the establishment of the Southern Association in 1895, and the North Central Association was organized the same year at a meeting of 36 administrators of midwestern schools, colleges, and universities. The Northwest Association of Secondary and Higher Schools (predecessor of the two organizations that now serve that region) was formed in 1917 and the Western Association was founded in 1923.
Initially the main focus of the organizations was on accreditation of secondary schools and establishment of uniform college entrance requirements. Regional accreditation replaced other methods, such as the Association of American Universities's "AAU Accepted List" (1914-1948).
Accreditation first emerged as a regional rather than national activity because it typically involved site visits, and the fastest transportation available at the time was the railroad.
Regional accreditation vs. national accreditationEdit
Regionally accredited institutions are usually academically oriented, state-owned or non-profit private institutions. Nationally accredited schools are usually career-oriented and for profit. Both regional and national accreditations are recognized by the United States Department of Education (U.S.DoED) , the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA).
Every college in the United States has the right to set standards and to accept or refuse to accept transfer credits. If a student has attended a school that is not regionally accredited, it may be difficult or impossible to have the credits, or even the degree earned, recognized by a regionally accredited college (or employer). A 2005 study by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) found that, in making decisions on credit transfer, about 84 percent of U.S. higher education institutions considered whether the sending institution is accredited, and many had policies stating that they would accept credits only from regionally accredited institutions. About 63 percent of institutions told the GAO that they would accept credit from any regionally accredited institution, but only 14 percent similarly accepted credits from nationally accredited schools. Regionally accredited institutions are reluctant to accept credits from nationally accredited institutions due, in part, to national accreditors' less stringent standards for criteria such as faculty qualifications and library resources. Students who anticipate transferring credits from a nationally accredited school to a regionally accredited one are advised to verify in advance that the credits will be accepted.[unreliable source?]
In general, the names of U.S. post-secondary institutions and their degree titles do not indicate whether the institution is accredited or the type of accreditation it holds. Rules on this topic vary from state to state. For example, Tennessee Higher Education Commission regulations require that post-secondary institutions in the state of Tennessee must be regionally accredited to use the word "university" in their names, and that a school lacking regional accreditation may not use the word "college" in its name without adding a qualifier such as "career", "vocational", "business", "technical", "art", "Bible", or "Christian". Tennessee rules also specify that only regionally accredited schools can issue liberal arts degrees or degree titles such as Associate of Arts or Science and Bachelor of Arts or Science.
- Statement of Commitment by the Regional Accrediting Commissions for the Evaluation of Electronically Offered Degree and Certificate Programs, retrieved from University of Hawaii website, June 19, 2011. "The eight regional accrediting commissions assure the quality of the great majority of degree-granting institutions of higher learning in the United States." (Page i)
- Catherine Finnegan, Aligning Information Technology with Academic Standards Archived 2011-10-05 at the Wayback Machine, Educause Center for Applied Research Research Bulletin, volume 2006, Issue 10, May 9, 2006. "Regional acceditors include among their membership nearly all community colleges and public and private colleges universities in the region that they serve." (Page 2)
- Janice M. Karlen, Accreditation and Assessment in Distance Learning, Academic Leadership: The Online Journal, Volume 1, Issue 4, Fall 2003 (November 2003). "Most institutions rely upon one of the eight regional accreditation organizations for their accreditation status."
- Lechuga, Vicente (2005). The Changing Landscape of the Academic Profession. New York: Routledge, p. 48.
- Regional Accrediting Organizations 2010-2011 Archived 2009-08-31 at the Wayback Machine, Council for Higher Education Accreditation, accessed June 19, 2011
- Regionally Accredited Colleges/Universities Archived 2010-08-31 at the Wayback Machine, State of Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, accessed June 19, 2011
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 18, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 19, 2010. Retrieved October 5, 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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- "Frequently Asked Questions About the Middle States Association and the Middle States Commission on Higher Education". Middle States Commission on Higher Education. 2015. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
- Fred F. Harcleroad and Judith S. Eaton (2005), "The Hidden Hand: External Constituencies and their Impact," Chapter 9 in Philip G. Altbach, Robert Oliver Berdahl, and Patricia J. Gumport, editors, American higher education in the twenty-first century: social, political, and economic challenges. Page 263. JHU Press. ISBN 0-8018-8035-1, ISBN 978-0-8018-8035-3.
- "The Higher Learning Commission". www.northcentralassociation.org.
- "The Association of American Universities: A Century of Service to Higher Education 1900-2000". Association of American Universities. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
- Judith S. Eaton, Accreditation and Recognition in the United States Archived 2012-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, CHEA, 2008.
- Demanding Credit, Inside Higher Ed, Oct. 19, 2005 by Scott Jaschik
- Tussling Over Transfer of Credit, Inside Higher Ed, February 26, 2007 by Doug Lederman
- Government Accountability Office, Transfer Students: Postsecondary Institutions Could Promote More Consistent Consideration of Coursework by Not Basing Determinations on Accreditation, GAO-06-22, October 2005.
- What is the Difference Between Regional and National Accreditation, Yahoo! Education website[unreliable source?]
- Tennessee Comptroller of the Treasury, Protecting Tennesseans from Education Fraud, March 2007. Page 7.[dead link]
- U.S. Department of Education, Accreditation in the United States