List of unrecognized higher education accreditation organizations

This is a list of unrecognized higher education accreditation organizations, as identified by the organizations themselves, government authorities in their respective countries, or other independent authorities. This article includes entities that are engaged in higher education accreditation or have been identified as being accreditors, but which lack appropriate recognition or authorization.

Prerequisites and rules for higher education accreditation vary from country to country. In most countries, the function of quality assurance for higher education institutions is conducted by a government ministry of education.[1] However in the United States, educational accreditation is performed primarily by private nonprofit membership associations,[2] the legitimacy of which is validated through recognition by the United States Department of Education (USDE), the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA), or both.[3] USDE and CHEA recognize many of the independent accrediting organizations, but not all. Accreditors seek USDE or CHEA recognition for different reasons; for example, USDE recognition is required for accreditors whose institutions or programs seek eligibility for federal student aid funds. CHEA recognition confers an academic legitimacy on accrediting organizations, helping to solidify the place of these organizations and their institutions and programs in the national higher education community.[4]

Often, a school relying on accreditation from an unrecognized accrediting body will not be viewed as legitimate in the academic community.[5] Institutional accreditation is usually required by US institutions to receive federal government funds.[1] Also, students who attend institutions of higher education that are accredited through organizations not recognized by the USDE or CHEA do not qualify for US government financial aid.[1] Similarly, employers or graduate programs cannot be confident that graduates of an unaccredited institution or program will be appropriately prepared.[6]

To assist education consumers, several national and international bodies publish lists of recognized accreditation bodies and accredited educational institutions, as well as lists of other accreditors that are known to lack the necessary legal authority or recognition, and higher education providers known to lack accreditation.[7] The United States organization CHEA maintains an international directory of education ministries and other recognized higher education quality assurance bodies worldwide. The 2007 version of that directory lists 467 recognized bodies in 175 countries.[8]

Many, but not all, of the entities in the list below are considered to be fraudulent accreditation mills that were set up to help diploma mills lure students and whose "accreditation" has no legal or academic value. Some diploma and degree mills have played a role in creating these accrediting bodies as well. These diploma and degree mills may further confuse matters by claiming to consider work history, professional education, or previous learning, and may even require the submission of a purported dissertation or thesis, in order to give an added appearance of legitimacy.[9] Some other listed entities are religious accreditation bodies, whose accreditation may have doctrinal significance but lacks recognized academic value.[10]

Also included are some organizations that do not offer educational accreditation but have been falsely identified as accrediting bodies by organizations that claim to have been accredited by them. A notable example of this last type is UNESCO, which does not have authority to recognize or accredit higher education institutions or agencies.[7] Nonetheless, because diploma mills have claimed false UNESCO accreditation, UNESCO itself has published warnings against education organizations that claim UNESCO recognition or affiliation.[7][11]

A edit

B edit

  • Board of Online Universities Accreditation (BOUA)[12][16][20][21][42]
  • British Learning Association (BLA)[12][20]
  • British Public University System, claims authorization from British Honduras (which became Belize in 1981)[12]

C edit

  • Central Orthodox Synod, claimed accreditor of International Reform University[12]
  • Central States Consortium of Colleges & Schools (CSCCS), Warren, Ohio[12][20]
  • Centre of Academic Excellence UK (CAEUK)[15][20]
  • Central States Council on Distance Education (CSCDE), (Washington, DC); alternatively named Central States Association Council on Distance Education[12][14][16][20][21][23]
  • Christ For The Nations Association of Bible Schools (CFNABS) [2]<January 2017>
  • Christian Accrediting Association (CAA)[20]
  • College for Professional Assessment[43]
  • Council for the Accreditation of Correspondence Schools[21]
  • Commission for the Accreditation of European Non-Traditional Universities[21]
  • Commission on Medical Denturitry Accreditation (COMDA)[20][21][44]
  • Commission on Online Higher Learning[16]
  • Confederation of International Accreditation Commission (CIAC) CIAC is registered in Delaware, USA as a private company, however, solely operates out of India and has no functional presence in the USA as it claims. Their Registered Office Address noted on the company's website is of the address of their company registration Agent. Therefore, evident that it is another fake degree accreditation agencies misleading public and regulators in India portraying it as an International organisation.[45][46]
  • Council for Distance Education Accreditation (CDEA), (connected to Association of International Education Assessors)[20][39]
  • Council for International Education Accreditation (CIEA)[20][21]
  • Council on Postsecondary Alternative Education[21]
  • Council on Postsecondary Christian Education – According to John Bear's list of unrecognized accreditors, this organization was established by the operators of LaSalle University (Louisiana) and Kent College (Louisiana).[10][21]
  • Council on Medical Denturitry Education (COMDE)[20][21][44]

D edit

E edit

G edit

H edit

I edit

  • International Accreditation Council for Business Studies (IACBS)] - IACBS since 1991, does not exist[53]
  • Innovation University of Silicon Valley recently founded (2015), office located in California
  • Integra Accreditation Association (IAA)[20]
  • Inter-Collegiate Joint Committee on Academic Standards (ICJCAS)[20][21]
  • Interfaith Education Ministries (IEM)[20]
  • International Academic Accrediting Commission (IAAC)[20]
  • International Accreditation Agency for Online Universities (IAAOU) (connected to operators of Ashwood University, Belford University, and Rochville University)[20][21][54][55]
  • International Accreditation for Universities, Colleges and Institutes (IAUCI)[20][21][42]
  • International Accreditation and Recognition Council (IARC)[20][56]
  • International Accrediting Association for Colleges and Universities (IAACU)[21]
  • International Accrediting Commission (IAC) (Kenosha, Wisconsin)[27] (aka Accrediting Commission International)
  • International Accrediting Commission for Schools, Colleges, and Theological Seminaries (IAC) (aka International Accrediting Commission)[10][21]
  • International Accrediting Commission for Postsecondary Institutions (IACPI)[20]
  • International Accrediting Commission for Postsecondary Education Institutions[10]
  • International Association for Distance Learning (IADL) - IADL states that it does not accredit institutions unless they "are licensed or approved by national or regional government or are already accredited by a nationally or internationally recognised organisation or body"[57] and that it has no government affiliation,[58] but IADL has been claimed as an accreditor by institutions lacking standard licensing, approval or accreditation.
  • International Accreditation Organisation[59][60]
  • International Association of Bible Colleges and Seminaries (IABCS) a proposed name for Southern Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges, Institutes and Seminaries.[61] Southern Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges, Institutes and Seminaries (which is also named Southern Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges and Seminaries and Southern Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges[61]) did not also become accredited.[12]
  • International Association of Educators for World Peace[19][20]
  • International Association of Universities and Schools (IAUS)[14][20][21][23][62] (not to be confused with the International Association of Universities (IAU))
  • International Commission for Higher Education (ICHE)[15][20][21]
  • International Commission of Open Post Secondary Education (ICOPSE)[20][21]
  • International Commission on Distance Learning,[19]
  • International Distance Education and Learning Council (IDETC)[20] (not to be confused with the US-recognized Distance Education and Training Council (DETC))
  • International Distance Learning Accrediting Association (IDLAA)[20]
  • International Education Ministry of Accreditation Association[14][63]
  • International Interfaith Accreditation Association [3] (IIAA) (Closing down operations at the end of May 2007[64])
  • International Parliament for Safety and Peace (IPSP), operating from Italy[65][66]
  • International University Accrediting Association (IUAA) (in California)[14][19][20][21][23]

K edit

  • Kingdom Fellowship of Christian Schools and Colleges[20]

M edit

  • Middle States Accrediting Board (MSAB)[10][21]
  • Mid States Accrediting Agency[21]
  • Midwestern States Accreditation Agency (MSAA)[19][20]

N edit

P edit

  • Pacific Association of Schools and Colleges (PASC)[10][12][20][21]
  • Private World Association of Universities and Colleges[12]
  • Professional Board of Education, West Lebanon, New Hampshire[12]

Q edit

R edit

S edit

  • Society of Academic Recognition[12]
  • Southern Accrediting Association of Bible Colleges and Seminaries[12]
  • Southern Accrediting Association of Bible Institutes and Colleges (SAABIC)[12][14][20][21][23]
  • Southern Accrediting Association of Christian Schools, Colleges, and Seminaries, Milton, Florida[12]
  • Southern Association of Accredited Colleges and Universities[12][21]
  • Southern Cross International Association of Colleges and Schools[12]
  • Southwestern Association of Christian Colleges[12]

T edit

  • The Association for Online Distance Learning (TAODL)[20]
  • Transworld Accrediting Commission International (TWACI), Riverside, California, USA[74]

U edit

  • UNESCO[7] (UNESCO states that they do not have the power to accredit any higher education institutions or agencies; as a consequence, institutions or agencies claiming to be recognized by UNESCO should be looked upon with suspicion)
  • United Congress of Colleges (UCC) (Ireland, UK)[14][20][21][23]
  • University of Action Learning (UAL) (Port Vila, Vanuatu)[73]
  • US-DETC—Nevada (not to be confused with the legitimate Distance Education and Training Council (DETC), based in Washington DC)[14][20][21][23]
  • United States Distance Learning Association (USDLA);[20] posted on the Michigan list, but website does not claim to provide accreditation
  • Universal Council for Online Education Accreditation (UCOEA)[15][20][21]

V edit

  • Verity College (Illinois, Michigan)[14]
  • Virtual University Accrediting Association (VUAA)[14][23]
  • Virtual University Accrediting Association (in California) (VUAA)[19][20][21]
  • Virtuous Universal Accreditation Commission[12]

W edit

See also edit

External links edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c An Overview of U.S. Accreditation, by Judith S. Eaton, CHEA. Archived August 4, 2007.
  2. ^ Diploma mills provide phony credentials, By Helena Andrews, The Capital Times/Medill News Service, February 14, 2005
  3. ^ a b c Recognized Accrediting Organizations (as of August 2010), lists accreditation organizations recognized by CHEA and/or USDE (accessed October 9, 2010)
  4. ^ "An Overview of U.S. Accreditation" (PDF). p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 4, 2007.
  5. ^ Important Questions about "Diploma Mills" and "Accreditation Mills" Archived 2010-03-31 at the Wayback Machine, Council for Higher Education Accreditation, Fact Sheet 6, May 2003. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  6. ^ "CHEA - Value of US Accreditation (FAQ)" (PDF). p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d Luca Lantero, Degree Mills: non-accredited and irregular higher education institutions Archived 2015-05-13 at the Wayback Machine, Information Centre on Academic Mobility and Equivalence (CIMEA), Italy. "On Unesco's website a warning has also been published regarding all institutions that claim to be recognized by them, but which are actually not. As Unesco make clear in their communiqué, they do not have the power to accredit any higher education institutions or agencies; as a consequence, institutions or agencies claiming to be recognized by Unesco has to be looked upon with suspicion."
  8. ^ CHEA International Directory introduction Archived 2011-04-20 at the Wayback Machine, accessed November 21, 2010
  9. ^ "Bogus Institutions and Accrediting Bodies" (PDF).
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Accrediting Agencies Not Recognized Under GAAP Archived 2009-03-08 at the Wayback Machine (website recommended by US Department of Education Archived 2007-11-09 at the Wayback Machine; both websites accessed October 21, 2007)
  11. ^ UNESCO "Alert: Misuse of UNESCO Name by Bogus Institutions", UNESCO website, accessed 30 November 2011
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at Ezell, Allen; Bear, John (2012). Degree Mills: The Billion-Dollar Industry That Has Sold Over a Million Fake Diplomas. Prometheus Books. ISBN 9781616145088.
  13. ^ Bear, John; Bear, Mariah (2003-01-01). Bears' Guide to Earning Degrees by Distance. Ten Speed Press. p. 215. ISBN 1-58008-431-1. Retrieved 2009-04-16. Claims accreditation from the International States Parliament for Safety and Peace; in the past has claimed accreditation from the Academy for the Promotion of International Culture and Scientific Exchange (APICS), an unrecognized agency.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Accrediting" entities not recognized by the State of Oregon Archived 2010-10-15 at the Wayback Machine, Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization (accessed March 17, 2009)
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Fiocchetti, C., Checcacci, C. & Lantero, L., "How to spot and counter diploma mills", Chapter 4 (November, 2010) Information Centre on Academic Mobility and Equivalence (CIMEA) "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-13. Retrieved 2012-02-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Ezell, Allen (2009), Recent Developments with Degree Mills: Accreditation Mills and Counterfeit Diploma and Transcript Operations Archived 2012-03-13 at the Wayback Machine, College and University 85(2): 40–50. Accessed on website of MACRAO, the Michigan Association of Collegiate Registrars & Admissions Officers, October 19, 2010.
  17. ^ a b c d "Unrecognized and Fake Agencies for Online College Accreditation". Retrieved January 24, 2012.
  18. ^ Quintana, Chris (June 2, 2021). "Feds cancel reinstated accreditor after USA TODAY finds apparently fake college". USA Today. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Bear, John, and Bear, Mariah P.: Bears' Guide to Earning Degrees by Distance Learning. Ten Speed Press, 2003, pages 51–61. ISBN 1-58008-431-1
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce "Colleges and Universities not Accredited by CHEA; Unapproved Accrediting Bodies" (PDF). State of Michigan Civil Service Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 28, 2011. (list is no longer being maintained)
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br Stephen Barrett, Be Wary of Nonrecognized Accreditation Agencies, dated November 20, 2008, Credential Watch website, accessed October 7, 2010
  22. ^ "Accredited Universities of Sovereign Nations". Retrieved 2021-02-12.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board List of Fraudulent or Unrecognized Accreditors (archived February 17, 2007)
  24. ^ "Not listed on CHEA-recognized organizations". Council for Higher Education Accreditation. Archived from the original on August 15, 2006. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
  25. ^ Information concerning unaccredited universities
  26. ^ The Agency of International Education is associated with the training college called Infant Massage Information Service. Rolfe, John. "Infant Massage Information Service Investigated by Fair Trading", The Herald Sun, Sydney, 6 November 2014. Retrieved on 6 November 2014.
  27. ^ a b c d Bears' Guide to Earning Degrees by Distance Learning by John Bear, Mariah P. Bear (2003), page 61
  28. ^ Thomas Bartlett, ""Inquiry Into Higher-Education Group Reveals Odd Connections," Chronicle of Higher Education, Monday, August 25, 2008 longer excerpt at [1]
  29. ^ See American Communication Association accreditation webpage; ACA is an organization of communication scholars and practitioners. It offers accreditation of a wide variety of communication programs. It is not currently endorsed by EAES or CHEA.
  30. ^ a b c States Struggle to Regulate Online Colleges That Lack Accreditation by Sarah Carr and Andrea L. Foster, The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 23, 2001
  31. ^ a b c Canyon College lists accreditation through the Nevada based ANMAB and the New York based ACPSA. "Canyon College Accreditation". Canyon College website. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved October 18, 2010..
  32. ^ "American Naturopathic Medical Accreditation Board is a scam". Diploma Mill Police Trinity College Natural Health Distance Learning Accreditation Report. geteducated. p. 1. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  33. ^ Registrars’ Group Takes On Diploma Mills, Inside Higher Ed, February 10, 2006.
  34. ^ The University of Northern Virginia, which claims accreditation from the American University Accreditation Council (formerly identified as the American Council of University Accreditation), states on its website Archived 2010-07-23 at the Wayback Machine that "AUAC is not recognized by the US Department of Education as an accrediting body and is a non-CHEA accreditation agency for the U.S. schools with international programs." (Accessed October 10, 2010)
  35. ^ Tom Bartlett, Karin Fischer, and Josh Keller, Little-Known Colleges Exploit Visa Loopholes to Make Millions Off Foreign Students, The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 20, 2011. Identifies the organization as "not recognized by the Department of Education." "Drive to the address on the contact page and ... you'll find a bustling auto-body repair shop. That shop, it turns out, is owned by Gary Zhu, acting chairman of the board at UNVA."
  36. ^ a b Associated Press, Cheyenne police chief defends distance-learning degree Archived 2007-10-13 at the Wayback Machine, April 23, 2005.
  37. ^ Association for Innovation in Distance Education Archived 2008-09-05 at the Wayback Machine website (accessed July 20, 2008): "AIDE is not an accrediting agency approved/recognized by the U.S. Department of Education."
  38. ^ "AICCS Disclaimer". Association of Independent Christian Colleges & Seminaries. Retrieved 30 January 2011. "Because of the AICCS Board of Directors' convictions in support of religious freedom, Christian liberty, and the separation of church and state, AICCS has never applied for affiliation with any federal government agency. AICCS, therefore, is not recognized by the United States Department of Education."
  39. ^ a b Association of International Education Assessors and its affiliate, the Council for Distance Education Accreditation, are based in the United States (Murfreesboro, Tennessee), but their website states Archived 2008-02-14 at the Wayback Machine that the organization "is not listed with any government agency or the U.S. Department of Education."
  40. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-18. Retrieved 2016-10-14.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  41. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-13. Retrieved 2008-03-08.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  42. ^ a b c Gene Trainor, Diploma mills keep churning out bogus degrees, Star-Telegram (Fort Worth, Texas), March 27, 2010
  43. ^ Bear, John; Bear, Mariah P. (2003). Bears' Guide to Earning Degrees by Distance Learning. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 1580084311.
  44. ^ a b "Minutes, CHEA Board of Directors Meeting, January 22, 2001". CHEA. Archived from the original on June 18, 2006. At its September 25, 2000 meeting, the board of directors accepted the committee on recognition's recommendation that the American Denturitry Association Council on Denturitry Education Commission on Denturitry Accreditation be deemed ineligible to be considered for CHEA recognition.
  45. ^ "Fraud Alert - Munir Khan". Bad Science. 2020-10-23. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  46. ^ "Stop Fake Certificates! - Ethics News -". Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  47. ^ "Recognitions" Archived 2011-07-26 at the Wayback Machine, Educational Accreditation Association website, accessed September 26, 2009, indicates an intention to request recognition
  48. ^ About Us Archived 2013-08-17 at the Wayback Machine,, accessed August 6, 2012. States "Education International is applying for recognition and/or listing with" several governments.
  49. ^ Bogus university boasts web of institutes from Kenya to Malaysia,, November 13, 2005. The newspaper phoned the EQAC; the call was answered on a mobile phone in Spain by a respondent who could not answer the questions. The University of Aberdeen is listed on the EQAC website as an accredited institution, but a university spokesperson said: "We have never heard of that commission. They may have listed us on their website, but we certainly haven't gone through any formal process to gain accreditation."
  50. ^ Marsha Forys, Children's counselor charged with fraud Archived 2007-03-06 at the Wayback Machine, Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, April 26, 2005
  51. ^ "Cimea — Against the mills" (PDF). p. 43. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  52. ^ Although based in the United States (Helena, Montana), the Hygienic Doctors Association official website states (in an FAQ) as its response to the question "Is The H.D.A. recognized by the Department of Education?" that "Current laws in the United States of America prohibit the recognition of global accreditation of associations and organizations," indicating its acknowledgment that it lacks recognition.
  53. ^ "IACBS Website".
  54. ^ First-Degree Fraud Archived 2009-02-08 at the Wayback Machine Houston Press July 20, 2006
  55. ^ Arne J Almquist (2011). "Academic Libraries, Marketing, Accreditation, and Support". In Sharon G. Almquist (ed.). Distributed Learning and Virtual Librarianship. ABC-CLIO. p. 284. ISBN 978-1-59158-906-8.
  56. ^ IARC website states that its recognition "does not guarantee any sort of acceptance by any particular country or government" and its February 2008 newsletter states that IARC "derives its authority from its membership rather than government or any one particular industry body". (Website accessed March 11, 2008; spelling and punctuation are those used in the source.)
  57. ^ "". Retrieved 2023-01-12.
  58. ^ "Legal notices". International Association for Distance Learning. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  59. ^ Swan, Melanie (27 November 2012). "Education ministry warns UAE students of unaccredited online degrees". The National. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  60. ^ Kohli, Gauri (21 March 2017). "Global drive planned to check fake colleges and universities". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  61. ^ a b "history of International Association of Bible Colleges and Seminaries". IABCS HISTORY. International Association of Bible Colleges and Seminaries. p. 1. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  62. ^ Psst. Wanna Buy a Ph.D.? Chronicle for Higher Education by Thomas Bartlett and Scott Smallwood, June 25, 2004
  63. ^ Unrecognized and Fake Agencies for Online College Accreditation,, retrieved January 24, 2012
  64. ^ According to the recognition page of the Calamus International University "Calamus - Recognition". Archived from the original on 2007-07-08. Retrieved 2007-07-17., the IIAA is closing down operations at the end of May 2007.
  65. ^ Ezell, Allen; Bear, John (2005). "Appendix E: Accreditation". Degree Mills: The Billion-dollar Industry That Has Sold Over A Million Fake Diplomas. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-59102-238-1. Here is a list of more than two hundred accrediting agencies that, as of late 2004, are not recognized by either CHEA or the US Department of Education. Inclusion on this list does not mean the accreditor is good or bad, real or fake, but only that it [is] not recognized by either of these two agencies. [...] Parlamento Mondiale per la Sicurazza e la Pace. Accreditor claimed by Senior University, Wyoming. It awards titles of nobility from an address in Palermo, Italy.
  66. ^ "The Diploma Mafias - with a list of diploma factories worldwide". New Sabah. Iraq. Retrieved 2011-08-20. Rutherford University, a diploma factory first based in Canada, escaped to the American state of Wyoming two years ago, after the Canadian government had taken action against companies selling fake university diplomas. But after Wyoming invoked its higher education laws, the university decided it was better to leave America altogether and it is now selling its diplomas from Swaziland. Its website says the university is "fully accredited" by something called the "International States Parliament" which is also a joke. Other institutes which look like daughters of Rutherford University even claim to be accredited by the "Supreme Council of the Presidency of the International States Parliament" which is three times nothing.
  67. ^ "What is Accreditation". National Accrediting Agency of Private Theological Institutions website. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012. Retrieved August 30, 2012. National Accrediting Agency of Private Theological Institutions, in accordance with the inspired teaching of the Bible, has chosen not to seek endorsement from either the EAES or CHEA.
  68. ^ National Association of Private Nontraditional Schools and Colleges website Archived 2007-11-06 at
  69. ^ The higher education approval authority in Liberia is the National Commission on Higher Education, which reports that some fake universities diploma mills have disseminated fake documentation from Liberian authorities. Republic of Liberia National Commission on Higher Education, Urgent Disclaimer on the Illegal Establishment and Recognition of Higher Education Institutions in the Republic of Liberia (2004). Archived on March 3, 2008.
  70. ^ "Man pleads guilty in $5M 'diploma mill' scheme". Prosecutors said the duo even created a fraudulent accrediting body, the National Distance Learning Accreditation Council,
  71. ^ "Investigating the bogus education scam". BBC. 7 January 2008.
  72. ^ Saini, Angela (8 January 2008). "A degree of deception". The Guardian. London.
  73. ^ a b Milne, Jonathan (October 10, 2008). "Teachers' wasted study on popular emotional literacy course". Times Educational Supplement. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  74. ^ Transworld Accrediting Commission International – Home Page
  75. ^ describes WAOE as a "real, esteemed professional agency for educators" that is not involved in accreditation and does not allow its name to be used as an accrediting agency. (Print Unrecognized and Fake Agencies for Online College Accreditation,, retrieved August 29, 2012)
  76. ^ See World Conference of Associations of Theological Institutions website; WOCATI is an international consortium that includes accrediting organizations; it does not describe accreditation as one of its functions.
  77. ^ The World-wide Accreditation Commission's website (accessed July 17, 2008) states: "The World Wide Accreditation Commission of Christian Educational Institution, in accordance with the Inspired teaching of the Bible, has chosen not to seek endorsement with either the EAES or CHEA."