Red Deer (provincial electoral district)

Red Deer was a provincial electoral district in Alberta, Canada, mandated to return a single member to the Legislative Assembly of Alberta from 1905 to 1986.[1]

Red Deer
Alberta electoral district
Defunct provincial electoral district
LegislatureLegislative Assembly of Alberta
District created1905
District abolished1986
First contested1905
Last contested1982

The district was split into Red Deer North and Red Deer South in 1986.

HistoryEdit

Although an antecedent Red Deer district had existed in the Northwest Territories that covered much of central Alberta, it was split into Innisfail and Lacombe for the 1902 general election. Upon Alberta upon Alberta joining Confederation in September 1905, a smaller Red Deer district was created between Lacombe and Innisfail.

For most of the district's history, it was a swing riding, with no party being able win with a second representative until the Progressive Conservatives in the 1970s.

In the 1980s the city grew too large to be contained within a single electoral district, and Red Deer was split into Red Deer North and Red Deer South.

Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs)Edit

MLAs for Red Deer
Assembly Years Member Party
See Innisfail and Lacombe 1902-1905
1st 1905–1909 John Moore Liberal
2nd 1909–1910 Edward Michener Independent
1910–1913 Conservative
3rd 1913–1917
4th 1917–1918
1918 Vacant
1918–1921 John Gaetz Liberal
5th 1921–1926 George Smith United Farmers
6th 1926–1930
7th 1930–1931
1931 Vacant
1931–1935 William Payne Conservative
8th 1935–1940 Alfred Hooke Social Credit
9th 1940–1943 Alfred Speakman Unity Movement
1943 Vacant
1943–1944 David Ure Social Credit
10th 1944–1948
11th 1948–1952
12th 1952–1953
1953–1954 Vacant
1954–1955 Cam Kirby Conservative
13th 1955–1959
1959 Progressive Conservative
14th 1959–1963 William Ure Social Credit
15th 1963–1967
16th 1967–1971
17th 1971–1975 James Foster Progressive Conservative
18th 1975–1979
19th 1979–1982 Norman Magee
20th 1982–1986 Jim McPherson
See Red Deer North and Red Deer South 1986–present

Red Deer elected Liberal candidate John Moore as its first MLA in 1905 over the town's founder, Leonard Gaetz. However, he was defeated in 1909 by independent conservative candidate Edward Michener.[2] Socialist candidate Donald McClure finished third.[3]

Michener crossed the floor to the Conservative Party in 1910, becoming party leader and Leader of the Opposition. As party leader, he presided over a revival in Conservative fortunes in the 1913 election, but after losing to the Liberals again in 1917 he stepped down as leader. Prime Minister Robert Borden appointed him to the Senate in 1918, vacating the seat for Red Deer.

The ensuing by-election saw Leonard Gaetz' son John Gaetz, running for the Liberals unlike his father, triumph over the Conservative candidate. He served the rest of the term but was also defeated in the following election by United Farmers candidate and former mayor of Red Deer George Smith.

Smith defended the seat in the 1926 and 1930 elections despite strong challenges from Gaetz and Conservative candidate William Ernest Payne. However, Smith died suddenly in 1931, again vacating the seat. Payne was able to capture Red Deer for the Conservatives in the resulting by-election.

The 1935 election saw "Bible Bill" Aberhart's Social Credit sweep into power unexpectedly, with Alfred Hooke defeating Payne in Red Deer. After one term, Hooke chose to run in the new Rocky Mountain House district. He won the seat and stayed on as MLA until Social Credit's eventual defeat in 1971, serving in various cabinet positions.

However, the Red Deer seat was left open in 1940. Former Red Deer MP Alfred Speakman was jointly endorsed by the Liberals and Conservatives in what became known as the Independent Citizen's Association, officially running as an independent on the ballot, and managed to defeat the new Social Credit candidate to win the seat. He became the fifth member for Red Deer to serve only one term upon his death in 1943.

Social Credit candidate David Ure won the seat back for the government in a by-election in late 1943. He served three terms as MLA and Agriculture Minister until he, too, was killed in office by a traffic accident in 1953.

Conservative Cam Kirby picked the seat up in a 1954 by-election (defeating David Ure's younger brother, William Ure), and was re-elected in 1955. Despite winning the leadership of the newly-renamed Progressive Conservatives, however, Kirby lost to William Ure in 1959.

The younger Ure served as Red Deer MLA for three terms. Due to a boundary redistribution in 1971, he ran for re-election in Innisfail, but Social Credit lost both seats as the Progressive Conservatives swept to power. James Foster became MLA for Red Deer with the new government, and served two terms.

When he retired in 1979, Norman Magee defended the seat for the PCs, becoming the first Red Deer MLA from the same political party as his predecessor. Magee retired after one term and Jim McPherson served the final term for Red Deer before it was split in two in 1986. The new districts, Red Deer North and Red Deer South, continued to elect PC candidates until 2015, when both were won by the New Democrats.

Election resultsEdit

1905 general electionEdit

The Returning Officer was Frank L. Farley.[4]

1905 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal John Thomas Moore 524 48.03%
Conservative Leonard Gaetz 479 43.90%
Independent Alexander D. McKenzie 88 8.07%
Total 1,091
Rejected, spoiled and declined N/A
Eligible electors / turnout 1,091 N/A
Liberal pickup new district.
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1905 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1909 general electionEdit

1909 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Edward Michener 657 51.29% 7.38%
Liberal John Thomas Moore 494 38.56% -9.47%
Independent Donald McClure 130 10.15% 2.08%
Total 1,281
Rejected, spoiled and declined N/A
Eligible electors / turnout 1,728 74.13% -25.87%
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing 4.30%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1909 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1913 general electionEdit

1913 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Edward Michener 869 46.92% -4.37%
Liberal Robert B. Welliver 786 42.44% 3.88%
Independent George Patton 197 10.64% 0.49%
Total 1,852
Rejected, spoiled and declined N/A
Eligible electors / turnout 2,497 74.17% 0.04%
Conservative hold Swing -4.12%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1913 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1917 general electionEdit

1917 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Edward Michener 1,295 45.68% -1.24%
Liberal Robert B. Welliver 1,272 44.87% 2.43%
Independent George Paton 268 9.45% -1.18%
Total 2,835
Rejected, spoiled and declined N/A
Eligible electors / turnout 0 N/A
Conservative hold Swing -1.84%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1917 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1918 by-electionEdit

Alberta provincial by-election, October 28, 1918
Upon appointment of Edward Michener to the Senate
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal John J. Gaetz 1,746 66.82% 21.95%
Conservative F. W. Galbraith 867 33.18% 12.50%
Total 2,613
Rejected, spoiled and declined N/A
Eligible electors / turnout N/A N/A
Liberal hold Swing
Source(s)
"By-elections". elections.ab.ca. Elections Alberta. Retrieved June 24, 2020.

1921 general electionEdit

1921 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
United Farmers George Wilbert Smith 2,192 70.69%
Liberal John J. Gaetz 909 29.31% -15.55%
Total 3,101
Rejected, spoiled and declined N/A
Eligible electors / turnout 4,793 64.70%
United Farmers gain from Conservative Swing 20.28%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1921 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1926 general electionEdit

1926 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
First count
United Farmers George Wilbert Smith 1450 42.65% -28.04%
Conservative William Ernest Payne 1329 39.09%
Liberal John J. Gaetz 621 18.26% -11.05%
Total 3400
Ballot transfer results
United Farmers George Wilbert Smith 1,641 51.85%
Conservative William Ernest Payne 1,524 48.15%
Total 3,165
Rejected, spoiled and declined 141
Eligible electors / turnout 5021 70.52% 5.83%
United Farmers hold Swing -18.91%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1926 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1930 general electionEdit

1930 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
United Farmers George Wilbert Smith 2,144 51.05% -43.12%
Conservative William Ernest Payne 2,056 48.95% -37.96%
Total 4,200
Rejected, spoiled and declined 120
Eligible electors / turnout 5,654 76.41% -54.34%
United Farmers hold Swing -0.77%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1930 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1935 general electionEdit

1935 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Social Credit Alfred J. Hooke 3,565 60.65%
Liberal M. H. W. Fizzell 788 13.41%
Independent Edgar G. Johns 622 10.58%
Conservative William Ernest Payne 612 10.41% -38.54%
Communist G. H. Palmer 291 4.95%
Total 5,878
Rejected, spoiled and declined 159
Eligible electors / turnout 7,049 85.64% 9.24%
Social Credit gain from United Farmers Swing 22.57%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1935 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1940 general electionEdit

1940 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
First count
Independent Alfred Speakman 2,760 47.47% 36.89%
Social Credit J. H. McCulloch 2,083 35.83% -24.82%
Independent Progressive Alban E. MacLellan 971 16.70%
Total 5,814
Ballot transfer results
Independent Alfred Speakman 3,142 57.42%
Social Credit J. H. McCulloch 2,330 42.58%
Total 5,472
Rejected, spoiled and declined 181
Eligible electors / turnout 7718 77.68% -7.97%
Independent gain from Social Credit Swing -17.80%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1940 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1943 by-electionEdit

December 18, 1943 by-election[5] Turnout %
Affiliation Candidate 1st % Votes % Count
  Social Credit David Ure 2,110 38.23% 2,539 57.20% 2nd
  Independent Wilfred J. Edgar 2,042 36.99% 2,354 42.80% 2nd
     Cooperative Commonwealth E.P. Johns 1,368 24.78% Eliminated 2nd
Valid Ballots 5,520 100% 4,839 100%
Exhausted Ballots 627 2 Counts

1944 general electionEdit

1944 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Social Credit David A. Ure 3,012 51.58% 15.75%
Independent Wilfred J. Edgar 1,545 26.46%
Co-operative Commonwealth D. C. Dandell 1,282 21.96%
Total 5,839
Rejected, spoiled and declined 109
Eligible electors / turnout 8,139 73.08% -4.60%
Social Credit gain from Independent Swing 12.56%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1944 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1948 general electionEdit

1948 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Social Credit David A. Ure 4,771 81.51% 29.93%
Co-operative Commonwealth Auburn C. Pye 1,082 18.49% -3.47%
Total 5,853
Rejected, spoiled and declined N/A
Eligible electors / turnout 6,794 86.15% 13.07%
Social Credit hold Swing 18.95%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1948 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1952 general electionEdit

1952 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Social Credit David A. Ure 4,907 76.64% -4.88%
Co-operative Commonwealth Aubrun C. Pye 1,496 23.36% 4.88%
Total 6,403
Rejected, spoiled and declined 303
Eligible electors / turnout 11,407 58.79% -27.36%
Social Credit hold Swing -4.88%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1952 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1955 general electionEdit

1955 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
First count
Conservative Cam Kirby 4,381 47.68%
Social Credit William K. Ure 4,170 45.39% -31.25%
Co-operative Commonwealth Auburn C. Pye 637 6.93% -16.43%
Total 9,188
Ballot transfer results
Conservative Cam Kirby 4,786 52.76%
Social Credit William K. Ure 4,286 47.24%
Total 7,072
Rejected, spoiled and declined 449
Eligible electors / turnout 13723 70.23% 11.44%
Conservative gain from Social Credit Swing -25.49%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1955 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1959 general electionEdit

1959 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Social Credit William K. Ure 6,691 63.80% 18.41%
Progressive Conservative Cam Kirby 3,797 36.20%
Total 10,488
Rejected, spoiled and declined 31
Eligible electors / turnout 15,660 67.17% -3.05%
Social Credit gain from Conservative Swing 12.65%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1959 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1963 general electionEdit

1963 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Social Credit William K. Ure 6,016 57.88% -5.92%
Progressive Conservative Walter M. Ogilvie 3,323 31.97% -4.23%
Liberal Denis Yunker 609 5.86%
New Democratic Herman H. Dorin 446 4.29%
Total 10,394
Rejected, spoiled and declined 55
Eligible electors / turnout 18,625 56.10% -11.07%
Social Credit hold Swing -0.84%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1963 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1967 general electionEdit

1967 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Social Credit William K. Ure 6,166 46.61% -11.27%
Progressive Conservative James L. Foster 4,628 34.98% 3.01%
New Democratic Ethel Taylor 1,799 13.60% 7.74%
Liberal Len Patterson 636 4.81% -5.34%
Total 13,229
Rejected, spoiled and declined 55
Eligible electors / turnout 19,677 67.51% 11.41%
Social Credit hold Swing -7.14%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1967 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1971 general electionEdit

1971 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Progressive Conservative James L. Foster 4,994 48.00% 13.02%
Social Credit Fulton Rollings 3,627 34.86% -11.75%
New Democratic Ethel Taylor 1,022 9.82% -3.78%
Liberal Len Patterson 761 7.31% 2.51%
Total 10,404
Rejected, spoiled and declined 21
Eligible electors / turnout 14,688 70.98% 3.47%
Progressive Conservative gain from Social Credit Swing 0.76%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1971 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1975 general electionEdit

1975 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Progressive Conservative James L. Foster 6,566 65.86% 17.86%
Social Credit Cecil Spiers 1,538 15.43% -19.44%
New Democratic Ken McMillan 1,317 13.21% 3.39%
Liberal Herb Fielding 549 5.51% -1.81%
Total 9,970
Rejected, spoiled and declined 18
Eligible electors / turnout 16,996 58.77% -12.21%
Progressive Conservative hold Swing 18.65%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1975 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1979 general electionEdit

1979 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Progressive Conservative Norman F. Magee 5,727 43.22% -22.64%
Social Credit Bob Mills 5,406 40.79% 25.37%
New Democratic Ken McMillan 1,861 14.04% 0.83%
Liberal Hubert Bouten 258 1.95% -3.56%
Total 13,252
Rejected, Spoiled and Declined N/A
Eligible electors / Turnout 23,640 56.06% -2.71%
Progressive Conservative hold Swing -24.00%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1979 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

1982 general electionEdit

1982 Alberta general election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Progressive Conservative Jim McPherson 10,659 54.84% 11.62%
Independent Bob Mills 5,396 27.76%
New Democratic Kendall Dunford 1,915 9.85% -4.19%
Western Canada Concept Wynne Richard Hanson 1,468 7.55%
Total 19,438
Rejected, Spoiled and Declined 49
Eligible electors / Turnout 30,560 63.77% 7.71%
Progressive Conservative hold Swing 12.33%
Source(s)
Source: "Red Deer Official Results 1982 Alberta general election". Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

Plebiscite resultsEdit

1957 liquor plebisciteEdit

1957 Alberta liquor plebiscite results: Grande Prairie[6]
Question A: Do you approve additional types of outlets for the
sale of beer, wine and spirituous liquor subject to a local vote?
Ballot Choice Votes %
Yes 3,565 56.88%
No 2,703 43.12%
Total Votes 6,268 100%
Rejected, Spoiled and Declined 80
14,151 Eligible Electors, Turnout 44.86%

On October 30, 1957 a stand-alone plebiscite was held province wide in all 50 of the then current provincial electoral districts in Alberta. The government decided to consult Alberta voters to decide on liquor sales and mixed drinking after a divisive debate in the Legislature. The plebiscite was intended to deal with the growing demand for reforming antiquated liquor control laws.[7]

The plebiscite was conducted in two parts. Question A asked in all districts, asked the voters if the sale of liquor should be expanded in Alberta, while Question B asked in a handful of districts within the corporate limits of Calgary and Edmonton asked if men and woman were allowed to drink together in establishments.[6]

Province wide Question A of the plebiscite passed in 33 of the 50 districts while Question B passed in all five districts. Red Deer voted in favour of the proposal with a solid majority. Voter turnout in the district was slightly under the province wide average of 46%.[6]

Official district returns were released to the public on December 31, 1957.[6] The Social Credit government in power at the time did not considered the results binding.[8] However the results of the vote led the government to repeal all existing liquor legislation and introduce an entirely new Liquor Act.[9]

Municipal districts lying inside electoral districts that voted against the Plebiscite were designated Local Option Zones by the Alberta Liquor Control Board and considered effective dry zones, business owners that wanted a license had to petition for a binding municipal plebiscite in order to be granted a license.[10]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Election results for Red Deer". abheritage.ca. Wayback Machine: Heritage Community Foundation. Archived from the original on December 8, 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  2. ^ Michener, Edward (March 17, 1909). "To the Electors of the Red Deer District". The Red Deer News. p. 5. Retrieved November 28, 2020.
  3. ^ "A Survey of the Field". The Saturday News. Edmonton. March 20, 1909. pp. 1, 4. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
  4. ^ "Territories Elections Ordinance; Province of Alberta". Vol VI No. 12. The Rocky Mountain Echo. October 30, 1905. p. 4.
  5. ^ "Social Credit Wins in Red Deer By-election". Vol. XLII No. 51. Red Deer Advocate. December 22, 1943. p. 1.
  6. ^ a b c d Alberta Gazette. 53 (December 31 ed.). Government of Alberta. 1957. pp. 2, 247–2, 249.
  7. ^ "Albertans Vote 2 to 1 For More Liquor Outlets". Vol L No 273. The Lethbridge Herald. October 31, 1957. pp. 1–2.
  8. ^ "No Sudden Change In Alberta Drinking Habits Is Seen". Vol L No 267. The Lethbridge Herald. October 24, 1957. p. 1.
  9. ^ "Entirely New Act On Liquor". Vol LI No 72. The Lethbridge Herald. March 5, 1958. p. 1.
  10. ^ "Bill 81". Alberta Bills 12th Legislature 1st Session. Government of Alberta. 1958. p. 40.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 52°16′16″N 113°48′47″W / 52.271°N 113.813°W / 52.271; -113.813