A recurring character or supporting character is a fictional character, usually in a prime time TV series, who frequently appears from time to time during the series' run. Recurring characters often play major roles in more than one episode, sometimes being the main focus. They may be contrasted with "regular" characters, who typically appear in every or almost every episode of a series. Recurring characters appear less frequently than regulars, but more frequently than guest star characters, who may appear in only one or two episodes without being expected to return.
Recurring characters sometimes start out as guest stars in one episode, who then reappear in future episodes because creators or audiences found the actors or storylines compelling enough to revisit. Sometimes a recurring character eventually becomes part of the main cast of characters; such a character is sometimes called a breakout character. Some notable examples of main characters who were originally recurring characters are: Eli Gold on The Good Wife; Leo Chingkwake on That '70s Show; Angel and Oz on Buffy the Vampire Slayer; Marc St. James on Ugly Betty; Vanessa Abrams on Gossip Girl; Zack Allan on Babylon 5; Steve Urkel on Family Matters; Donna Moss on The West Wing; Michelle Dessler and Chloe O'Brian on 24; Santana Lopez, Brittany S. Pierce & Blaine Anderson on Glee; Felicity Smoak on Arrow, Rebecca Katsopolis & Kimmy Gibbler on Full House; Gibby Gibson on iCarly, Lee Harris on American Horror Story: Roanoke, Steve Harrington on Stranger Things, and Carol Peletier on The Walking Dead.
In other cases, recurring characters have been given spin-off series of their own, such as Dr. Frasier Crane who originally was a recurring character on Cheers. Kelsey Grammer, along with fellow recurring actor John Ratzenberger were hired for seven episodes, to play Frasier Crane and Cliff Clavin respectively. Cliff was scheduled to recur during the 1982-1983 season, Frasier to recur during 1984-1985 season. Both actors were subsequently upgraded to the main cast, and Crane continued in his own series following the end of Cheers.
As we were building and evolving our sketch comedy, we would look for new types of sketches that had legs (not caterpillar legs). We liked the idea of recurring characters and themes. It gave us something we could start with and something the audience could connect with.— Sid Caesar, Caesar's Hours: My Life in Comedy, with Love and Laughter
Usually they appear in their own sketch and the sketch itself can become a regular part of the show. Some notable examples include the Church Lady and Hans and Franz from Saturday Night Live, the Gumbys from Monty Python's Flying Circus, and Bob and Doug McKenzie from SCTV. However, the characters are not always limited to their own sketches. Sometimes, characters from a recurring sketch go on to appear in other sketches, or develop into their own TV shows. For example, when The Carol Burnett Show was canceled the central character of a popular recurring sketch called The Family, Thelma "Mama" Harper, went on to have her own show Mama's Family. Also, recurring characters in sketch comedy shows can go on to have their own movies. This is especially true with Saturday Night Live which has had many recurring characters turn into movies such as Stuart Smalley, Wayne and Garth of Wayne's World, The Blues Brothers, and The Ladies Man. Recurring characters may even revisit shows long after the actor who played them has left the cast, for example, the character Mary Katherine Gallagher was portrayed by Molly Shannon when she hosted Saturday Night Live in 2007, six years after she left the cast. Sometimes a recurring character from one show appears on another show, such as when Dave Thomas and Rick Moranis hosted Saturday Night Live in 1983 and portrayed Bob and Doug MacKenzie, or when Emily Litella (portrayed by Gilda Radner) from Saturday Night Live appeared on The Muppet Show in 1978. Sacha Baron Cohen's character Ali G is another example, originating on the Channel Four series The Eleven O'Clock Show. The character was such a huge success that Cohen got his own show as the original show was cancelled.
Recurring characters are not limited to television. In the early 20th century, the Saturday Evening Post frequently had recurring characters in their cover art, such as Baby New Year. The Shmoo was a recurring character in the comic strip Li'l Abner, which eventually went on to appear in the TV cartoon series Fred and Barney Meet the Shmoo and The New Shmoo. The Sherlock Holmes series of novels by Arthur Conan Doyle featured well-known recurring characters such as Inspector Lestrade and Mrs. Hudson.
In US daytime soap operas, recurring characters are ones played by actors who do not have a contract. They are not obligated to play the role and have no guarantee of work. Actors on recurring status used to be referred to as day players.
- Epstein, Alex (2006). Crafty TV Writing: Thinking Inside the Box. Macmillan Publishers. pp. 27–28. ISBN 0-8050-8028-7.
- "Actress joins family at 'The West Wing'". Fresno Bee. 2000-12-21.
- "Grammer's fame will surpass '15 minutes'". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 2001-03-09.
- Caesar, Sid; Eddy Friedfeld (2006). Caesar's Hours: My Life in Comedy, with Love and Laughter. PublicAffairs. pp. 180. ISBN 1-58648-152-5.
- Harry, Lou; Sam Stall; Julia Spalding (2004). The Encyclopedia of Guilty Pleasures: 1001 Things You Love to Hate. Quirk Books. p. 238. ISBN 1-931686-54-8.
- "Critics' choice - a roundup of recommendations". The Denver Post. 2003-12-28.
- Hiltbrand, David (2004-06-09). "'SCTV's' NBC episodes are now on DVD for posterity". The Philadelphia Inquirer.
- Whitely, Sandy; Sandra Whiteley; H. C. Whiteley (2002). On This Date: A Day-by-Day Listing of Holidays, Birthdays, and Historic Events, and Special Days, Weeks and Months. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 226. ISBN 0-07-139827-9.
- Weintraub, Joanne (1991-04-08). "Add life to legacy of Rander's laughs". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.
- Lorimer, George Horace; Jan Cohn (1990). Creating America: George Horace Lorimer and the Saturday Evening Post. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 81–85. ISBN 0-8229-5438-9.
- Mansour, David (2005). From Abba to Zoom: A Pop Culture Encyclopedia of the Late 20th Century. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 418. ISBN 0-7407-5118-2.
- Conan Doyle, Arthur (2001). Eight Great Sherlock Holmes Stories. Courier Dover Publications. Note. ISBN 0-486-41777-8.