Qiniq (tribe)

Qiniq (Azerbaijani: Qınıq; Turkish: Kınık; Turkmen: Gynyk; Persian: قنق) also spelled Qïnïq, Qynyk or Qynyq, was an Oghuz Turkic (or Turkmen) tribe.[1][2][3]

Tamgha of the Kinik tribe according to Mahmud al-Kashgari
Regions with significant populations
Azerbaijan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Iran
Oghuz Turkic
Related ethnic groups
Oghuz Turks

Oghuz tribesEdit

Oghuz Turks were a branch of Turkic peoples. In the early Medieval Ages, most of them were nomads and their political structure was tribal. There were 22 or 24 Oghuz tribes. The tribes were listed in a number of medieval books with Islamic sources calling Muslim Oghuzes as Turkmen by the 10th century. They were also mentioned in Oghuz legend. According to the myth, there were 24 tribes in two main groups. Each group was represented by three brothers and each brother was supposed to have four sons. In this classification Qiniq tribe is the descendant of Deniz Khan who in turn was in the group of Üçok.[4]

According to Islam Encyclopaedia, Kınık means "Great everywhere".[5] In the 11th-century compendium of Turkic languages Dīwānu l-Luġat al-Turk, produced by Mahmud of Kashgar, the Qiniq tribe is listed first. However, in the list arranged by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani in the 13th century, Qiniq comes last.[6] In his work Shajara-i Tarākima (Genealogy of Turkmens), Abul-Ghazi, the khan and historian of the Khanate of Khiva, mentioned the Qiniq tribe as descendants of Tengiz Khan with the name of the tribe meaning "honourable".[7]

Qiniq and the SeljuksEdit

Qiniq is historically notable because the Seljuk Empire was founded by the representatives of the Qiniq tribe.[6] In the 10th century the tribe leader was Dukak (nicknamed Demiryaylı, "with iron bow"). He was followed by his son Seljuk and then grandson Arslan Yabgu. The Seljuk Empire was founded by Arslan's nephews Tughril and Chagri . The Seljuks of Anatolia, a branch of Seljuks, was founded by Suleiman ibn Qutulmish, Arslan Yabgu's grandson.

Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur wrote in his Shajara-i Tarākima the following:

"When Seljuks became masters of the Muslim world, they said: "We are of the Kinik tribe of the Turkmens," and then they said, "We fled from Kay Khosrow, the son of Afrasiab, and became the Kinik tribe of the Turkmens." The Seljuks counted their fathers and stopped at Afrasiab after 35 generations, saying that they were the sons and descendants of Afrasiab."[8]

Qiniq in AnatoliaEdit

Most of the Qiniq migrated to Anatolia during the reign of the Seljuk Empire and the Mongol Invasion in the 13th century. In the Ottoman official records of the 16th century, there were 81 settlements named Kınık.[6] Although they have been largely absorbed by other Oghuz tribes throughout the history, there are still many settlements which bear the name Kınık. For example, in İzmir Province, Kınık is the name of one of the ilçe (district) centers. There are also many villages. Currently, the total number of various towns and settlements in Turkey carrying the tribal name of Kınık is 28.[9]

Settlements bearing the name KınıkEdit

Afyonkarahisar Province
Ankara Province
Antalya Province
Bilecik Province
  • Kınık, Bilecik After the fall of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum,one of the Oghuz tribe's Kayi tribe bey Ertugrul fought with the Byzantines in the border region of Seljuk empire and the Niceae Empire called Soghut which is now located in the Bilecik province of Turkey. It is said that the Kayi tribe was given the responsibility of defence of western borders by Seljuk sultan, Kekubad. After the Mongol invasion of Anatolia, Ertugrul along with his Alps fought with the Byzantines from the west and established his own following. Later his son, Osman marked the beginning of great Ottoman Empire which ruled world for 600 years from 1299-1921 and gained peak in 1692.
  • Kınık, Pazaryeri

Qiniq in TurkmenistanEdit

Descendants of the Qiniq tribe formed the Soltanyz and Üçurug clans, which are now subdivisions of the Turkmen tribe of Tekke.[10][11] The Turkmen clan of Gabyrdy is believed to descend from Kara Arslan Ahmad Qavurt who belonged to the Qinik tribe and was a military commander and a son of Chaghri Beg, the co-ruler of the early Seljuk Empire.[10][12]


  1. ^ Bartold, Vasily (1993). "Lectures on the History of Turkic Peoples of Middle Asia". History Library (in Russian). The question of the attitude of the authorities to the people from which they emerged was even more complicated in the state of descendants of Seljuk than in the state of Karakhanids. ... And yet, they recognized themselves not only as Oghuzes, or as Turkmens, but also as descendants of the Kynyk clan (this pronunciation is indicated by Mahmud of Kashgar), one of the 24 (22 according to Mahmud of Kashgar) of Oghuz clans ...)
  2. ^ Atanyyazov, Soltansha (1988). Dictionary of Turkmen Ethnonyms (in Russian). Ashgabat, Ylym. ISBN 9785833800140.
  3. ^ * Jackson, P. (2002). "Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens". Journal of Islamic Studies. Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies. 13 (1): 75–76. doi:10.1093/jis/13.1.75.
    • Bosworth, C. E. (2001). 0Notes on Some Turkish Names in Abu 'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Mas'udi". Oriens, Vol. 36, 2001 (2001), pp. 299–313.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
    • Hancock, I. (2006). On Romani origins and identity. The Romani Archives and Documentation Center. The University of Texas at Austin.
    • Asimov, M. S., Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: "The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century", Part One: "The Historical, Social and Economic Setting". Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
  4. ^ "OĞUZLARIN BOY TEŞKİLATI | Turkmen page by Faruk Sümer". turkmensitesi.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-03-21.
  5. ^ Islam Encyclopedia
  6. ^ a b c "İslâm Ansiklopedisi | Islamic Encyclopaedia Vol 25 p.417-418". islamansiklopedisi.info. Retrieved 2016-03-21.
  7. ^ Абу-л-Гази, Бахадур-хан (1958). "Родословная туркмен". Восточная литература (Oriental literature).
  8. ^ Kononov, A.N. (1958). The Genealogy of the Turkmens, Work of Abu al-Ghazi, the Khan of Khiva (in Russian). USSR Academy of Sciences.
  9. ^ Eremeev, Dmitry (1971). "Enthnogenesis of the Turks". Google Books.
  10. ^ a b Atanyyazov, Soltansha (1994). Shejere (The Genealogy of the Turkmens) (in Turkmen). Ashgabat: Turan-1. pp. 128–129.
  11. ^ Atalay, Beshim (2006). Divanü Lügati't-Türk, Volume I. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi. p. 55.
  12. ^ Агаджанов, С.Г. (1969). Очерки истории огузов и туркмен Средней Азии IX-XIII вв. (Essays on the History of the Oghuz and Turkmens of Central Asia in the 9th-13th Centuries) (in Russian). Ylym. ISBN 978-5-517-60993-9.