Prahlad Jani

Prahlad Jani, also known as Mataji or Chunriwala Mataji, (13 August 1929 ― 26 May 2020) was an Indian breatharian monk who claimed to have lived without food and water since 1940. He said that the goddess Amba sustained him. However, the findings of the investigations on him have been kept confidential and viewed with skepticism. He made several media and public appearances.

Prahlad Jani
Other namesChunriwala Mataji
Personal
Born
Prahlad Jani

(1929-08-13)13 August 1929
Charada, British India
Died26 May 2020(2020-05-26) (aged 90)
Charada, Mehsana district, Gujarat, India
Resting placeAmbaji, Gujarat, India
ReligionHinduism
Known forInedia
Other namesChunriwala Mataji

BiographyEdit

Prahlad Jani was born on 13 August 1929 in Charada village in British India (now in Mehsana district, Gujarat, India).[1] According to Jani, he left his home in Gujarat at the age of seven, and went to live in the jungle.[citation needed]

At the age of 12, Jani underwent a spiritual experience and became a follower of the Hindu goddess Amba. From that time, he chose to dress as a female devotee of Amba, wearing a red sari-like garment, jewellery and crimson flowers in his shoulder-length hair.[citation needed] Jani was commonly known as Mataji ("[a manifestation of] The Great Mother"). Jani believed that the Goddess provided him with water which dropped down through a hole in his palate, which allowed him to live without food or drink.[1]

Since the 1970s, Jani had lived as a hermit in a cave in the forest in Gujarat. He died on 26 May 2020 at his native Charada. He was given samadhi in his ashram at Gabbar Hill near Ambaji on 28 May 2020.[2][3]

InvestigationsEdit

Two observational studies and one imaging study of Jani have been conducted. The observational studies were one in 2003 and one in 2010, both involving Dr. Sudhir Shah, a neurologist at the Sterling Hospitals in Ahmedabad, India, who had studied people claiming to have exceptional abilities, including other fasters such as Hira Ratan Manek. In both cases the investigators confirmed Jani's ability to survive healthily without food and water during the testing periods, although neither study was submitted to a scientific journal.[4] When questioned six days into the 2010 experiment, the DRDO spokesperson announced that the study's findings would be "confidential" until results were established.[5] Uninvolved doctors and other critics have questioned the validity of the studies[6][7] and stated their belief that, although people can survive for days without food or water, it is not possible to survive for years,[7] especially since glucose, a substrate critical to brain function, is not provided.[8]

2003 testsEdit

In 2003, Dr. Sudhir Shah and other physicians at Sterling Hospitals, Ahmedabad, India observed Jani for 10 days. He stayed in a sealed room. Doctors said that he passed no urine or stool during the observation, but that urine appeared to form in the bladder.[1] A hospital spokesperson said that Jani was physically normal, but noted that a hole in the palate was an abnormal condition.[1] The fact that Jani's weight dropped slightly during the 10 days has cast some doubt on his claim to go indefinitely without food.[9]

2010 testsEdit

From 22 April until 6 May 2010, Prahlad Jani was again observed and tested by Dr Sudhir Shah and a team of 35 researchers from the Indian Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), as well as other organizations.[10][11][12] The director of DIPAS said that the results of the observations could "tremendously benefit mankind", as well as "soldiers, victims of calamities and astronauts", all of whom may have to survive without food or water for long durations.[13] The tests were again conducted at Sterling Hospitals.[14] Professor Anil Gupta of SRISTI,[15] involved in monitoring the tests, described the team as being "intrigued" by Jani's kriyas apparently allowing him to control his body's physiological functions.[16]

The team studied Jani with daily clinical examinations, blood tests, and scans. Round-the-clock surveillance was reportedly followed using multiple CCTV cameras and personal observation. The researchers say that Jani was taken out of the sealed room for tests and exposure to sun under continuous video recording.[17]

After fifteen days of observation during which he reportedly did not eat, drink or go to the toilet, all medical tests on Jani were reported as normal.[17] The doctors reported that although the amount of liquid in Jani's bladder fluctuated and that Jani appeared "able to generate urine in his bladder",[16] he did not pass urine. Based on Jani's reported levels of leptin and ghrelin, two appetite-related hormones, DRDO researchers posited that Jani may be demonstrating an extreme form of adaptation to starvation and water restriction.[18] DIPAS stated in 2010 that further studies were planned,[19][20] including investigations into how metabolic waste material is eliminated from Jani's body, from where he gets his energy for sustenance, and how he maintains his hydration status.[21]

2017 Brain Imaging StudyEdit

Independent of DRDO studies, IIT Madras team has conducted an imaging study in 2017. They have collected Jani's brain images and measured the size of Pineal and Pituitary glands. The result of the imaging study shows that the size of Jani's Pineal and Pituitary glands are of the same order of a 10-year-old boy. The study results have been published in scientific journals.[22]

ReactionsEdit

Dr. Michael Van Rooyen, director of the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, dismissed the observation results as "impossible", observing that the bodies of profoundly malnourished people quickly consume their own body's resources, resulting in renal/liver failure, tachycardia and heart strain. A spokeswoman for the American Dietetic Association stated that, "The bottom line is that even fasting for more than a day can be dangerous. You need food to function."[6] Nutrition researcher Peter Clifton also disagreed with study results, accusing the research team of "cheating" by allowing Jani to gargle and bathe, and stating that a human of average weight would die after "15 to 20 days" without water.[7] People who avoid food and water to emulate mystical figures often die.[7] Sanal Edamaruku characterized the experiment as a farce for allowing Jani to move out of the CCTV cameras' field of view, claiming that video footage showed Jani was allowed to receive devotees and to leave the sealed test room for sunbathing. Edamaruku also said that the gargling and bathing activities were insufficiently monitored. Edamaruku was denied access to the site where the tests were conducted in both 2003 and 2010,[4] and accuses Jani of having "influential protectors" responsible for denying him permission to inspect the project during its operation, despite having been invited to join the test during a live television broadcast.[4] The Indian Rationalist Association observed that individuals making similar claims in the past have been exposed as frauds.[citation needed] In 2010, the prominent scientific sceptic James Randi criticized the studies performed by the Indian government, citing insufficient scrutiny of the subject. He also proposed that if Prahlad Jani could prove his claims, he would receive the One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge prize.[23]

In September 2010, Dr. Shah announced that scientists from Austria and Germany had offered to visit India to carry out further research on Jani, and scientists from the United States had also offered to join the research. Jani has expressed interest in cooperating in further investigations.[24]

Television, video and public appearancesEdit

In 2006, The Discovery Channel aired a documentary called "The Boy with Divine Powers" featuring a five-minute interview with Jani and Shah.[25] In 2010, the Independent Television Network (ITN) posted an article and video featuring Prahlad Jani, commenting on the 2010 tests.[26] In 2010 Prahlad Jani was featured in an Austrian documentary "Am Anfang war das Licht" (English title In the Beginning There Was Light).[27][28]

In October 2010, the Italian television station Rai 2 broadcast a program named "Voyager" which presented an extensive report on Prahlad Jani and the tests.[29][30]

In October 2011 Jani was the param pujya (master of ceremony) in a large shobha yatra performed near Gandhinagar. 1000 paaths of goddess Durga were chanted.[further explanation needed][31]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Rajeev Khanna (25 November 2003). "Fasting fakir flummoxes physicians". BBC News. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
  2. ^ "Prahlad Jani death news | Yogi Prahlad Jani, who claimed to have survived for over 70 years without food and water, no more | India News".
  3. ^ "Prahlad Jani, known as Chundadiwala Mataji passes away". 26 May 2020.
  4. ^ a b c Edamaruku, Sanal (18 May 2010). "India's man who lives on sunshine". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  5. ^ "DRDO watching man who hasn't eaten 'in 70 yrs'". The Indian Express. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
  6. ^ a b "Scientists Baffled by Prahlad Jani, Man Who Doesn't Eat or Drink". ABC News. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  7. ^ a b c d "Yogi beaten by bear necessities of life without food" Glenda Kwek, 14 May 2010, The Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, Australia.
  8. ^ Magistretti, Pierre et al. "Brain Energy Metabolism Archived 19 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine" American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000.
  9. ^ Nelson, Dean (28 April 2010). "Man claims to have had no food or drink for 70 years". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
  10. ^ Mirror, Ahmedabad. "Man who lives on air undergoes defence tests". Ahmedabadmirror.com. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  11. ^ "Hermit Claims 70 Years Survival Without Food". Wusa9.com. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  12. ^ "Defence study on ascetic's claim of surviving on air". Thaindian.com. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
  13. ^ "Yogi sans food gives medical fraternity food for thought". Daily News and Analysis. 27 April 2010. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
  14. ^ "Prahlad Jani Breaks a Record,No Food & Water for 74 years". Kerala365.com. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  15. ^ SRISTI. "SRISTI official site". Sristi.org. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
  16. ^ a b "Man survives without food, water for 65 yrs - India News - IBNLive". Ibnlive.in.com. 3 February 2010. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
  17. ^ a b "Experts baffled as Mataji's medical reports are normal". Daily News and Analysis. 7 May 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  18. ^ Radha Sharma (17 July 2010). "Fast-hungry Mataji's claim endorsed". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  19. ^ Manas Dasgupta (9 May 2010). "DIPAS concludes observational study on 'Mataji'". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
  20. ^ "Tests on Gujarat's miracle Yogi concludes,researchers amazed!". Deshgujarat.com. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
  21. ^ "Study proves Gujarat man's claim of living without food, water". Daily News and Analysis. 17 July 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
  22. ^ Raghuprasad, MS et al."Volumetric and Morphometric Analysis of Pineal and Pituitary Glands of an Indian Inedial Subject". Annals of Neurosciences, 2018;25:279–288. June 2018.
  23. ^ Randi, James. "James Randi Speaks: Powered by Sunlight" – via YouTube.
  24. ^ "Mataji to go under international scanner". In.com. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
  25. ^ "The Boy with Divine Powers". Discovery Channel. 2006. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  26. ^ Indian hermit stuns doctors surviving without food "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 31 August 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. ^ "Am Anfang war das Licht". Kino-zeit.de. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
  28. ^ "Am Anfang war das Licht". Dw-world.de. 29 October 2010. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
  29. ^ "L'uomo che non-mangia e non-beve". Rai.it. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
  30. ^ http://www.ilsussidiario.net/News/Programmi-e-ascolti-Tv/2010/10/13/VOYAGER-Anticipazioni-stasera-13-ottobre-2010-In-questa-puntata-Prahlad-Jani-l-uomo-che-non-mangia-e-beve-mai-21-05-Rai-Due/119435/ VOYAGER/ Anticipazioni stasera 13 ottobre 2010. In questa puntata Prahlad Jani l’uomo che non-mangia e beve mai.
  31. ^ "Chandi yagna performed near Gandhinagar". Daily News and Analysis. 19 October 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2013.