Pope John XVIII
Pope John XVIII (Latin: Ioannes XVIII; died June or July 1009) was the bishop of Rome and nominal ruler of the Papal States from January 1004 (25 December 1003 NS) to his abdication in July 1009. He wielded little temporal power, ruling during the struggle between John Crescentius and Emperor Henry II for the control of Rome.
|Papacy began||January 1004|
|Papacy ended||July 1009|
|Born||Rome, Papal States|
Rome, Papal States
|Other popes named John|
John owed his election to the influence and power of the Crescentii clan. During his whole pontificate he was allegedly subordinate to the head of the Crescentii, who controlled Rome, the patricius (an aristocratic military leader) John Crescentius III. This period was disrupted by continuing conflicts between the Ottonian Emperor Henry II and Arduin of Ivrea, who had claimed the Kingdom of Italy in 1002 after the death of Emperor Otto III. Rome was wracked with bouts of plague, and Saracens operated freely out of the Emirate of Sicily ravaging the Tyrrhenian coasts.
As pope, John XVIII occupied his time mainly with details of ecclesiastical administration. He authorized a new Diocese of Bamberg to serve as a base for missionary activity among the Slavs, a concern of Henry II. He also adjudicated the over-reaching of the bishops of Sens and Orléans regarding the privileges of the abbot of Fleury. John was successful in creating, at least temporarily, a rapprochement between the Eastern and Western churches. His name could be found on Eastern diptychs and he was prayed for in masses in Constantinople.
- "John XVIII (or XIX) POPE [1004-1009]". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
- Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope John XVIII (XIX)." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 18 September 2017
- Mann 1906, p. 126.
- Mann 1906, p. 127.
- Mann 1906, p. 140.
- Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI, (HarperCollins Publishers, 2000) ISBN 978-0060878078. P. 168.
- Mann 1906, pp. 129–130.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope John XVIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Mann, Horace Kinder (1906). The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages. Volume 5: The Popes In The Days of Feudal Anarchy, from Formosus to Damasus II, Part 2. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
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