Pope Adrian II (Latin: Adrianus II; also Hadrian II; 792 – 14 December 872) was the bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from 867 to his death. He continued the policy of his predecessor, Nicholas I. Despite seeking good relations with Louis II of Italy, he was placed under surveillance, and his wife and daughters were killed by Louis' supporters.
|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||14 December 867|
|Papacy ended||14 December 872|
|Died||14 December 872 (aged 79–80)|
Rome, Papal States
|Other popes named Adrian|
Adrian was a member of a noble Roman family. In his youth, he married a woman named Stephania and had a daughter with her.[page needed] Adrian was selected to become pope on 14 December 867. He was already at an advanced age, and objected to assuming the papacy. His wife and daughter moved with him to the Lateran Palace.[page needed]
Adrian II maintained, but with less energy, the policies of his predecessor, Nicholas I. King Lothair II of Lotharingia, who died in 869, left Adrian to mediate between the Frankish kings with a view to secure the imperial inheritance to Lothair's brother, Louis II of Italy. Adrian sought to maintain good relations with Louis, since the latter's campaigns in southern Italy had the potential to free the papacy from the threat posed by the Muslims.
Patriarch Photius I of Constantinople, shortly after the council in which he had pronounced sentence of deposition against Pope Nicholas I, was driven from the patriarchate by a new Byzantine emperor, Basil the Macedonian, who favoured Photius' rival, Ignatius. The Fourth Council of Constantinople was convoked to decide this matter. At this council, Adrian was represented by legates who presided at the condemnation of Photius as a heretic, but did not succeed in coming to an understanding with Ignatius on the subject of jurisdiction over the Bulgarian Church.
Like Nicholas I, Adrian was forced to submit in temporal affairs to the interference of Emperor Louis II, who placed him under the surveillance of Bishop Arsenius of Orte, his confidential adviser, and Arsenius' nephew, Anastasius the Librarian. In 868, Adrian's wife and daughter were carried off and murdered by Arsenius' son Eleutherius, who had forcibly married the daughter.[page needed]
Adrian died on 14 December 872, after exactly five years of pontificate.
- ""Adrian II", The Holy See".
- Riche, Pierre (1993), The Carolingians, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 9780812213423
- Loughlin, James (1907). "Pope Adrian II". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Riche, Pierre, The Carolingians
- Chisholm 1911.
- Kleinhenz, Christopher (2 Aug 2004). "Hadrian II, Pope". Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 9781135948795.
Hadrian sought to alienate no one in Rome, while also maintaining good relations with Louis II, whose campaigns in the south might free the papacy from the threat posed by the Muslims.
- Riche, Pierre, The Carolingians
- Dvornik, Francis (1948). The Photian Schism: History and Legend. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
- Siecienski, Anthony Edward (2010). The Filioque: History of a Doctrinal Controversy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195372045.
- Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes
- public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Adrian s.v. II". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 215. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
- Loughlin, James Francis (1907). Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company. . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.).