Pont-Saint-Esprit

Pont-Saint-Esprit (Occitan: Lo Pònt Sant Esperit, "Holy Spirit Bridge") is a commune in the Gard département in southern France. It is situated on the Rhône River and is the site of a historical crossing, hence its name. The Ardèche River flows into the Rhône, just to the north of the bridge. The residents are called Spiripontains.

Pont-Saint-Esprit
Saint Saturnin church and the medieval bridge over the Rhône River
Saint Saturnin church and the medieval bridge over the Rhône River
Coat of arms of Pont-Saint-Esprit
Coat of arms
Location of Pont-Saint-Esprit
Pont-Saint-Esprit is located in France
Pont-Saint-Esprit
Pont-Saint-Esprit
Pont-Saint-Esprit is located in Occitanie
Pont-Saint-Esprit
Pont-Saint-Esprit
Coordinates: 44°15′27″N 4°38′57″E / 44.2575°N 4.6492°E / 44.2575; 4.6492Coordinates: 44°15′27″N 4°38′57″E / 44.2575°N 4.6492°E / 44.2575; 4.6492
CountryFrance
RegionOccitanie
DepartmentGard
ArrondissementNîmes
CantonPont-Saint-Esprit
Government
 • Mayor (2001–2008) Gilbert Baumet
Area
1
18.49 km2 (7.14 sq mi)
Population
 (2017-01-01)[1]
10,336
 • Density560/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
30202 /30130
Elevation36–187 m (118–614 ft)
(avg. 59 m or 194 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

HistoryEdit

The bridge was observed by the Irish pilgrim Symon Semeonis in 1323 on his way to the Holy Land: "Pont-Saint-Esprit where there is a famous stone bridge over the Rhône, half a mile in length, the height of which and the breadth of its arches are greatly admired by all those who cross over it."[2]

Bouvier family originsEdit

Pont-Saint-Esprit is famous as the town of origin of Michel Bouvier, a cabinetmaker, who was the ancestor of John Vernou Bouvier III, father of Jacqueline Kennedy.

1951 mass poisoning incidentEdit

On 15 August 1951, an outbreak of poisoning, marked by acute psychotic episodes and various physical symptoms, occurred in Pont-Saint-Esprit. More than 250 people were involved, including 50 persons interned in asylums and four deaths.[3] Most academic sources accept ergot poisoning as the cause of the epidemic, while a few theorize other causes such as poisoning by mercury, LSD-25, mycotoxins, or nitrogen trichloride.[4][5][6][7][8]

PopulationEdit

YearPop.±%
17935,766—    
18004,055−29.7%
18064,331+6.8%
18214,545+4.9%
18314,953+9.0%
18415,239+5.8%
18515,538+5.7%
18615,123−7.5%
18724,350−15.1%
18814,726+8.6%
18915,262+11.3%
19014,798−8.8%
19114,685−2.4%
19215,801+23.8%
19314,652−19.8%
19464,149−10.8%
19544,925+18.7%
19625,778+17.3%
19686,951+20.3%
19756,709−3.5%
19828,067+20.2%
19909,277+15.0%
19999,265−0.1%
20069,661+4.3%
201110,640+10.1%
201210,651+0.1%

International relationsEdit

Pont-Saint-Esprit is twinned with:

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ "Populations légales 2017". INSEE. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  2. ^ https://celt.ucc.ie//published/T300002-001/index.html
  3. ^ Gabbai, Lisbonne and Pourquier (1951-09-15). "Ergot Poisoning at Pont St. Esprit". British Medical Journal. 2 (4732): 650–651. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4732.650. PMC 2069953. PMID 14869677.
  4. ^ Lisbonne, Gabbai (15 September 1951). "Ergot Poisoning at Pont St. Esprit". British Medical Journal. 2 (4732): 650–651. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4732.650. PMC 2069953. PMID 14869677.
  5. ^ Finger, Stanley (2001). Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations Into Brain Function. Oxford University Press. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-19-514694-3. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  6. ^ Pommerville, Jeffrey C.; Alcamo, I. Edward (2013). Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology: Body systems edition. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 734. ISBN 978-1-4496-0594-0. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  7. ^ Cavaciocchi, Simonetta, ed. (2010). Economic and biological interactions in pre-industrial Europe, from the 13th to the 18th century. Istituto internazionale di storia economica F. Datini. Settimana di studio. Firenze University Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-88-8453-585-6. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  8. ^ Frederick Burwick (1 November 2010). Poetic Madness and the Romantic Imagination. Penn State Press. pp. 180–. ISBN 978-0-271-04296-1. Retrieved 24 February 2013.

Further readingEdit

  • John G. Fuller, The Day Of St. Anthony's Fire (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1968).

External linksEdit