Politics of Nicaragua
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|Life in Nicaragua|
Nicaragua is a presidential republic, in which the President of Nicaragua is both head of state and head of government, and there is a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government.
In 1995, the executive and legislative branches negotiated a reform of the 1987 Sandinista constitution which gave extensive new powers and independence to the National Assembly, including permitting the Assembly to override a presidential veto with a simple majority vote and eliminating the president's ability to pocket veto a bill. Members of the unicameral National Assembly are elected to concurrent five-year terms.
|President||Daniel Ortega||FSLN||11 January 2016|
|Vice President||Rosario Murillo||FSLN||11 January 2016|
The president and the vice president are elected for a single five-year term. With the reform of the constitution in 2014 the ban on re-election of the president has been removed. The president appoints the Council of Ministers.
The National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) consists of 90 deputies elected from party lists drawn at the department and national level, plus the outgoing president and the runner-up in the presidential race, for a total of 92. In the 2011 elections, the Sandinista National Liberation Front won 63 seats (securing a majority), the Independent Liberal Party won 27 seats, and the Constitutionalist Liberal Party won 2 seats. This includes seats given to outgoing Vice President Jaime Morales Carazo and presidential runner-up Fabio Gadea Mantilla.
Outgoing Vice President Jaime Morales Carazot's seat would usually be given to the outgoing president. However, Danial Ortega was re-elected after the Constitution was modified to remove term limits.
Political parties and electionsEdit
|Candidates – Parties||Votes||%|
|José Daniel Ortega Saavedra – Sandinista National Liberation Front||1,569,287||62.46|
|Fabio Gadea Mantilla – Independent Liberal Party||778,889||31.00|
|José Arnoldo Alemán Lacayo – Constitutionalist Liberal Party||148,507||5.91|
|Édgar Enrique Quiñónez Tuckler – Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance||10,003||0.40|
|Róger Antonio Guevara Mena – Alliance for the Republic||5,898||0.23|
|Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional)||1,583,199||60.85||63*|
|Independent Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Independiente)||822,023||31.59||27*|
|Constitutionalist Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Constitucionalista)||167,639||6.44||2|
|Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance (Alianza Liberal Nicaragüense )||19,658||0.76||—|
|Alliance for the Republic (Alianza por la República)||9,317||0.36||—|
* The runner-up in the presidential election (Fabio Gadea Mantilla of the PLI) and the outgoing president are special members of the National Assembly; as Ortega was reelected, the outgoing Vice President (Jaime Morales Carazo of the FSLN), who was not Ortega's running mate in this election (having been replaced by Omar Halleslevens, will take up his seat. (AFP)
The Supreme Court of Justice supervises the functioning of the still largely ineffective and overburdened judicial system. As part of the 1995 constitutional reforms, the independence of the Supreme Court was strengthened by increasing the number of magistrates from 9 to 12. In 2000, the number of Supreme Court Justices was increased to 16. Supreme Court justices are nominated by the political parties and elected to 5-year terms by the National Assembly.
Led by a council of seven magistrates, the Supreme Electoral Council (CSE) is the co-equal branch of government responsible for organizing and conducting elections, plebiscites, and referendums. The magistrates and their alternates are elected to 5-year terms by the National Assembly. Constitutional changes in 2000 expanded the number of CSE magistrates from five to seven and gave the PLC and the FSLN a freer hand to name party activists to the council, prompting allegations that both parties were politicizing electoral institutions and processes and excluding smaller political parties.
Freedom of speech is a right guaranteed by the Nicaraguan constitution, but media has come under censorship from time to time. Other constitutional freedoms include peaceful assembly and association, freedom of religion, and freedom of movement within the country, as well as foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation. The government also permits domestic and international human rights monitors to operate freely in Nicaragua.
The constitution prohibits discrimination based on birth, nationality, political belief, race, gender, language, religion, opinion, national origin, economic or social condition. Homosexuality has been legal since 2008.
All public and private sector workers, except the military and the police, are entitled to form and join unions of their own choosing, and they exercise this right extensively. Nearly half of Nicaragua's work force, including agricultural workers, is unionized. Workers have the right to strike. Collective bargaining is becoming more common in the private sector.
Nicaragua is divided in 15 departments : Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Estelí, Granada, Jinotega, León, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rivas, Río San Juan, as well as in two autonomous regions: North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region.
Nicaragua President Daniel Ortega said March 6, 2008 that the nation is breaking relations with Colombia "in solidarity with the Ecuadoran people", following the 2008 Andean diplomatic crisis. The relations were restored soon after.
Political pressure groupsEdit
Some political pressure groups are:
- National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions, including
- Farm Workers Association or ATC
- Health Workers Federation or FETSALUD
- Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO
- National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN
- National Union of Employees or UNE
- National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG
- Sandinista Workers' Centre or CST
- Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN
- Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions, including
- Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union
- Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups
- "Nicaragua: Ortega allowed to run for third successive term". BBC. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- Avenue, Committee to Protect Journalists 330 7th; York, 11th Floor New; Ny 10001. "Nicaragua Special Report: Daniel Ortega's Media War". cpj.org. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
- "Last founder of Sandinistas dies". BBC News. 2012-05-01. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
- McDonald, Michael. "Nicaragua Suffers Worst Slump in 30 Years Amid Ortega Crackdown". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
- USA, IBP (August 2013). Nicaragua Investment and Business Guide Volume 1 Strategic and Practical Information. Lulu.com. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-4387-6836-6.
- Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Report Submitted to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives and Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate by the Department of State in Accordance with Sections 116(d) and 502B(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as Amended. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1994. p. 511.
- Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices: Report Submitted to the Committee on Foreign Relations, Committee on Finance of the U.S. Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Committee on Ways and Means of the U.S. House of Representatives by the Department of State in Accordance with Section 2202 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1994. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-16-043951-3.