Pierre Corbineau (1600 – 23 September 1678, Rennes) was a French architect, a member of a family of French architects: the Corbineau. They are found simultaneously in Anjou and in the Comté de Laval.
- 1 Life
- 1.1 Style
- 1.2 Ursulines of Laval
- 1.3 Benedictines of Laval
- 1.4 Retable lavallois
- 1.5 Buron d'Azé
- 1.6 College of the Jésuits of la Flèche
- 1.7 Churches of Laval
- 1.8 Domalain, Piré, Drouges, Verger-au-Coq
- 1.9 Saint-Pierre de la Couture Abbey
- 1.10 Architect and marble
- 1.11 Ursulines
- 1.12 Parliament of Brittany
- 1.13 Torcé, Brie, Rennes
- 1.14 Rennes Cathedral
- 1.15 Dol-de-Bretagne
- 1.16 Rennes
- 2 Main works
- 3 References
- 4 Bibliography
Corbineau had a son, Gilles who received with his stepbrother the lessons of his father and was an architect like his father and a daughter, Marie, born a little before 1630, who, in 1650, made her religious profession with the Ursulines of Château-Gontier.
For Jacques Salbert, it is possible that his training as an architect was completed with another architect, perhaps Jacques Corbineau.
The Corbineau were attached to the school of Jean Bullant and like him, they liked to use the apparatus in bossing, the superposed orders, the friezes decorated with triglyphs.
Ursulines of LavalEdit
In 1623, this building was sufficiently advanced that a new contract could be concluded between Pierre Cornillau, representative of the Ursulines, and "Estienne and Pierre les Corbineaulx, buttres architectes", who agreed to make and supply for the price of 1.300 Livres the high altar, the "pulpit of the preaching" in stone with Saint-Berthevin marble and black Chamberière marble, and two marble stoups, all in conformity with the drawings they have given them and where the Saint-Berthevin stone is figured in red. In 1627, the Ursulines took possession of their monastery. This was the first collaboration between father and son. The altarpiece disappeared in 1848.
Benedictines of LavalEdit
On July 10, 1630, Étienne and Pierre Corbineau made a commitment to the Benedictines of Laval to build their monastery, chapel, dormitories, refectory, chapter, parlours, etc. The portal, with stained glass above, will be enrichi au moins autant que celui des Monastère des Ursulines de Laval. Six years later, in 1636, the Corbineau signed a contract for the high altar of tuf and marble, for the fence of the choir supporting the gates, also in marble-enriched tuf, for a portal on the Gast.
Corbineau is at the origin of most of the large altarpieces of Laval: the high altar of the Église des Cordeliers before 1636, the altar of Saint-François in 1637, and probably the altars of Saint-Joseph, Saint-Pierre du Sacré-Cœur of the same church, as well as the main altar of the Église de la Trinité.
College of the Jésuits of la FlècheEdit
On November 24, 1633, Corbineau obliged himself, vis-à-vis the Jesuits of La Flèche, to make the high altar of their Église Saint-Louis de La Flèche, which one of their own was building, Étienne Martellange. The work was supervised by François Derand.
The altar was finished and consecrated with the church in 1637 by Claude de Rueil, Bishop of Angers. It is possible that he was also at the origin of the construction of the hospital of La Flèche, and perhaps the portal of the Collège Henri-IV de La Flèche.
Churches of LavalEdit
At the same time, several churches in Laval were rebuilding their high altars according to the new architecture in vogue. On April 29, 1638, the first stone of the high altar of the Église Saint-Vénérand de Laval was laid and the work was completed the following year.
Jacques Salbert attributes the elevation of the main altarpiece to Corbineau at the Église des Cordeliers de Laval. In addition, a contract was signed on July 31, 1637 with Corbineau, "master architect", by which he promised to keep the altar of Saint-François of the église des Cordeliers de Laval finished for the first Sunday of Lent. This altarpiece was to be completed by the first Sunday of Lent of the following year.
Domalain, Piré, Drouges, Verger-au-CoqEdit
Corbineau made a deal with the inhabitants of Piré-sur-Seiche on December 12, 1637, to build two altars in their church where, in 1631, he had already raised a high altar that still remains. He worked on its realization with Pierre Biardeau.
The church of Drouges has 2 small side altarpieces, the one on the left being a work of Corbineau carried out between 1637 and 1640. He also designed the one for the church of the convent of the Cordeliers of Rennes.
Saint-Pierre de la Couture AbbeyEdit
Architect and marbleEdit
Appointed architect of the city of Laval in 1645, Corbineau is associated, like his father, with other architects for the operation of the Saint-Berthevin marbles. This marble found its use in the altars built by the Corbineau.
In 1642, it was for Henri de La Trémoille, Duke of La Trémoille and Count of Laval and "following the drawing given to him by Monseigneur le duc", that he made an important contract with the marble makers Jean Nicquet and Philippe Cuvelier. There is no indication of which church or residence, Château de Laval, Olivet or other, this marble decoration was intended for. For Abbot Angot, they were intended for the balustrade of the choir of Les Cordeliers in Laval. It is very possible that its direction was that of Thouars, Domain of the Trémoille. For Jacques Salbert, it is much more likely that it is the jaspered marble balusters that adorn the grand staircase of the Château des Ducs de La Trémoille. For him, it must be considered that Corbineau participated in the major works of the Château de Thouars, and is perhaps the architect whose name is not determined by historians. The activity of Corbineau between 1642 and 1646 remains unknown.
The first half of the 17th century saw the rise of many Ursuline monasteries. On December 27, 1642, the prosecutor of the Convent of the Ursulines of Château-Gontier, François Débonnaire, signed an agreement with Ambroise, Antoine and Gilles Ravaux. They undertook to work from their profession in dormitories, in the church, in buildings other than the Ursulines feront bastir suivant et au désir du plan qui leur sera faict et fourni par Pierre Corbineau, maître architecte. This work is of long duration. It was only on July 26, 1658, that the nuns made a deal with Pierre and Gilles Corbineau to build the church.
Jacques Salbert attribue le retable de Ursulines d'Angers to Corbineau. Consecrated in 1651, it is comparable to those of Corbineau carried out for the Cordeliers de Laval, for the altarpieces of Piré, La Flèche and Domalain. Jacques Salbert indicates that the major altarpiece of the Ursulines d'Angers, attributed without proof to Pierre Biardeau or one of his students by E. Rondeau in his Histoire du monastères des Ursulines d'Angers presents such analogies of structure and ornamental vocabulary with Pierre Corbineau's works at Les Cordeliers de Laval, Piré, La Flèche and Domalain that the hypothesis hardly stands up to scrutiny realized for the Ursulines of Château-Gontier.
Parliament of BrittanyEdit
The work of the Palais du Parlement de Bretagne was interrupted by a plague epidemic in 1627; they did not resume until 1640 under the direction of Tugal Caris, Laval's prime contractor, and then by Pierre Corbineau from 1647 to 1655. The construction site was again disrupted during the parliamentary fronde between 1648 and 1649 and it was not until 1654 that the work was completed. On 13 January 1655, the Parliament awarded him 6,000 Livres for work not included in his contract, an amount that was to be paid to him after the completion of the structure and roofing. Two days earlier, the Court had taken possession, on great solemnity, of the completed Palace, which only needed to be decorated.
Torcé, Brie, RennesEdit
Corbineau made the high altar of the Carmes de Rennes in 1648. The altarpiece of the high altar of the church of Torcé is by Corbineau, and dates from 1652.
On January 2, 1653, the foundation stone of two altars was laid in Brie. entrepris par honorables hommes Pierre Corbineau, maître architecte du Palais de Rennes, et Gilles Corbineau, son fils. For Jacques Salbert, the two side altars are by Gilles Corbineau alone, like a work of a sculptor.
During this period, Pierre Corbineau lived in Rennes, parish of Saint-Germain, or in la Talmouzière in Montgermont rather than in his Laval properties, which he left to the Houdault family.
According to Léon Palustre, Caris would have led the work to the cornice on the first floor. After him, Corbineau, from 1654 to 1678, completed the superposition of the three orders and placed the coat of arms of Louis XIV above the immense window in the facade of the monument. Then François Huguet removed the two towers, gave them two independent floors, and in 1703 put the finishing touches to this work. He brought the levels to their current height to 48 metres and added Louis XIV's motto: (Nec pluribus impar, the incomparable) on the pediment at the top of the facade.
Corbineau built a campanile in 1660 at the Cathédrale Saint-Samson de Dol-de-Bretagne. In 1664, Corbineau was called to Dol-de-Bretagne to examine the plans proposed by the Rennes architect Deschamps for the reconstruction of the clock building, and proposed various modifications. He completed a lantern to crown the cathedral tower.
In 1661 Corbineau was the architect of the monastery buildings of the Couvent des Jacobins de Rennes. Abbess Magdelaine de la Fayette presided over the construction of the Saint George Palace in Rennes in 1670 by Corbineau. The large gallery overlooking the garden towards the Vilaine is very similar to the cloister of the Monastery of the Ursulines of Laval.
Widowed for several years, Corbineau lived in Rennes where he died on 23 September 1678 He is buried in the chapel of the Cordeliers de Rennes A service was performed in the parish church of Saint-Germain in accordance with the Edict of His Majesty
- Monastère des Bénédictines de Laval
- Palais du Parlement de Bretagne (Rennes)
- High altar of the Jesuit Church of la Flèche
- Altarpiece of the Église des Cordeliers de Laval
- Couvent des Ursulines de Château-Gontier
- Rennes Cathedral
- Saint George Palace of Rennes
- Front of the bell tower of Notre-Dame-en-Saint-Melaine of Rennes
- Altarpiece of the church of Rouez-en-Champagne
- Altarpiece of the church of Domalain
- His death certificate bears the age of 78 years.
- Of whom she had two children, Anne, married to François Beaucé, Sieur de la Lande, master harquebusier, who died before 1671, and François who, raised in Pierre Corbineau's home, became an architect. François Houdault married Françoise Fayau, who died on 15 September 1690, and who himself had died before 1680. In 1646, he lived in Château-Gontier and had once built a high altar in the church of Saint-Berthevin. The inhabitants of Parigné, who found it to their liking, signed with François Houdault, "master architect at Château-Gontier" an agreement by which he undertook to build un grand autel en ladite église de Parigné, suivant et conformément au dessin représenté par luy et sur lequel il a desjà marchandé un autre autel en l'église de Saint-Berthevin, et auquel sera adjousté deux portes pour aller au derrière dudit autel, et sur le hault sera adjousté une niche avec deux petites colonnes de marbre rouge de 3 pieds et demi de long, et quatre colonnes de marbre rouge ou noir au choix des-dits habitans, qui seront de longueur de 5 pieds et demi chacune, et lequel autel sera enrichy d'architecture et ornemens suivant ledit dessin. He had to provide the marble, tuf and plaster, transported at the expense of the inhabitants, who took care of the building stone, sand and lime; he received 1,520 livres tournois and had, during his work, a room with a bed and a table. In 1675, François Houdault attended his daughter Catherine's wedding with François Huguet and died shortly afterwards. In 1680, his widow lived in the house of La Guinoisellerie, inherited from Marie Beaugrand; she died there in 1690; he left six children François, sieur du Fresne, architect like his father and grandfather; Pierre, master surgeon Adrien, soldier in the King's army, Catherine, wife of François Huguet Françoise and Marie, single dead, the first on 16 September 1715, the second on 4 January 1736.
- On the death of his parents, Marie Beaugrand inherited a house adjacent to the porte Beucheresse. On February 9, 1627, the household moved there. The Count of Laval, Henri de La Trémoille, seemed to have taken pleasure in making this residence pleasant to his architect. In 1632, he granted him a perpetual concession, for an annual fee of six French livres, of gardens adjoining his house avec l'exploit de ladite porte du costé dudit jardin in 1646, by deed dated from the Château d'Olivet, he remitted this royalty to him, describing him as the "architect and private master of our city of Laval". In 1643, he authorized him to clore de deux portes l'espace des murailles qui est depuis la guérite proche la porte Beucheresse jusqu'à la tour qui est au droit des cours des maisons dudit Corbineau et de M. Hiérosme Freulon, sieur de la Soucherie. Thus Corbineau received, on a perpetual basis, although revocable in law, the enjoyment of part of the rampart and platform of one of the towers of the Beucheresse gate. A little later, he owned the closet and the dwelling of the Guinoisellerie, near Laval.
- He agreed to build the church, the monastery house and other buildings, at the price of 65 sols la toise, twenty-one counted for twenty, all the necessary materials and scaffolding being provided to him on site the market stipulates some details of the portal and the tribune of the church.
- During a redesign of the interior decoration.
- Au prix de 60 sols la toise carrée, la pierre leur étant fournie sur carrière l'église aura telles dimensions qui seront fixées par les religieuses
- Les pignons seront faits a rempaulx et pareils à ceux des Ursulines ou de Monastère de Patience de Laval.
- The settlement of accounts is dated 3 January 1639. A short text, written a few years later, shows that Corbineau did not disdain less valuable work. In 1638, he was forced, vis-à-vis his friend Jean Lemercier, Sieur des Chênes, to build the fence walls of his orchard in La Pirauderie. In 1641, contrary to what J.-M. Richard indicates, it was Corbineau alone who built the front wall of a house on rue des Orfèvres. This facade in marbre de Saint-Berthevin still exists.
- The sculptures were delivered in 1631 by Charles Hoyau, Étienne and Pierre fournissent le marbre et firent le marquetage du grand autel et du tombeau
- M.-F. Rose, Le décor des églises de Touraine au XVIIe siècle, p. 21.
- Convent of the Franciscans.
- The notarial archives of Château-Gontier keep a tuf contract between the religious and Abel Moreau of 26 April 1638: Moreau must provide tuf and the appliance of 6 fireplaces suivant et au désir du mémoire que en a faict le sieur Corbineau
- He was to provide everything, including masonry stone, lime and sand, and receive for his salary and supplies 7000 livres tournois, three seven-thirds wheat and three wine pipes.
- His style is very close to that of the great altarpieces.
- de tuffeau blanc pareil en couleur et de mesme nature à celluy du grand autel de ladite église, enrichy de marbre noir jaspé suivant le dessin que ledit Corbineau en a représenté, for the price of 900 French livres on outre gravera icelui Corbineau les armes dudit deffunt (François Cazet) dans les pierres d'attache qui sont au costé du vitrail de ladite chapelle.
- - Retable et gradin d'autel de Domalain
- - Retable latéral sud et tabernacle de Drouges.
- - Retable et tabernacle de Drouges
- - Chappele du Château du Verger-au-Coq
- He is surprised not to see any reference to it in all the studies carried out in Le Mans.
- Étienne obtained a career concession from Adenette Gastin, lady of the Chastellier. He had to open, filling in the abandoned part and carefully putting the good soil on top, and pay 4 Livres Tournois per marble cart.
- These undertook to provide him with twenty-six balusters of Saint-Berthevin marble, including fourteen 3 feet long and proportionally large, and twelve 2 feet 7 inches long, and six feet of estaux that will carry their cornices all around by the hault with a plinth at the bottom, 3 feet hault, and thirty feet of molded cornice.
- Abbé Angot, volume I, p. 720.
- Sieur de Chalus, gray man in the salt cellar of Laval
- Masters carpentiers in Bazougers.
- Among the works listed in this agreement is the construction of deux dosmes d'une belle ordonnance et pareils à celuy qui est faict à l'hôpital de la Flèche, l'un desquels sera posé sur l'église et l'autre sur le chœur pour servir de clocher.
- The father living in Rennes, the son in Nantes.
- près le chœur qui est à présent, les murailles d'une église laquelle aura environ de cent pieds de long et vingt-neuf pieds de large aveq deux chapelles en forme d'une croisée, qui seront à pans ou demye octogone feront le hault de ladicte église ainsy qu'il est requis par les plans et élévations qui en ont esté faiets et signes desdietes dames aussy feront un honneste portail au pignon de ladicte église suivant les dessains que lesdicts Corbineau leur fourniront they also had to build the sacristy, the confessionary and six arcades of the cloister along the refectory. The price set was 8 under the height, all materials provided by the Ursulines, who also had to give the accommodation and food to the architect or construction manager. This one was René Trouillard, architect and master mason in the suburb of Azé.
- And not to Pierre Biardeau.
- the work carried out at Palais du Parlement de Bretagne was deemed not to comply with the plans and specifications drawn up by Salomon de Brosse in 1618, and was destroyed in 1647 by order of the Parlement de Bretagne. Caris was stripped of his office in favour of Corbineau.
- - Retable de Torcé
- - Cathédrale de Rennes
- The son of Marie Beaugrand, therefore a son-in-law of Pierre Corbineau, his student, François Houdault, had a daughter, Catherine, who, on August 20, 1675, in the Trinité de Laval Church, married François Huguet, son of the late Jean Huguet and the late Anne Vilarde. Jean-François Huguet and Catherine Houdault were born to Jean-François Huguet, baptized on 29 December 1679, he was "ingénieur du Roy".
- Dossiers électroniques de l'Inventaire général - La cathédrale Saint-Samson de Dol-de-Bretagne
- Paul Banéat, volume I, p. 485.
- Archives départementales d'Ille-et-Vilaine, 4E. 154.
- Paul Banéat, Le Vieux Rennes. Rennes: Plihon et Hommay, 1911, p. 423-427.
- - Saint-Melaine de Rennes
- En limestone carved.
- In 1683, the workshop builtthe galleries of the cloister.
- Raymond Cornon, Les hôtels de Rennes au XVIIe siècle. Bulletin des Amis du Musée de Rennes, n°3, Spring 1979, p. 115.
- Paroisse Saint-Germain.
- Pierre Corbineau, vivant maistre architecte, âgé d'environ soixaute-dix-huct ans, est décédé le 23 septembre 1678 et a esté inhumé dans la chapelle des Cordeliers le 25e du susdit mois, après avoir esté apporté eu ceste église, et son service fait conformément à l'édict de Sa Majesté.
- These clerics served the chapel of the Palace.
- Abbot Angot, volume IV, p. 235.