- Occam's razor: Simpler explanations are more likely to be correct; avoid unnecessary or improbable assumptions.
- Grice's razor: As a principle of parsimony, conversational implications are to be preferred over semantic context for linguistic explanations.
- Hanlon's razor: Never attribute to malice that which can be adequately explained by stupidity.
- Hume's razor: "If the cause, assigned for any effect, be not sufficient to produce it, we must either reject that cause, or add to it such qualities as will give it a just proportion to the effect."
- Hitchens' razor: "What can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence."
- Newton's flaming laser sword: If something cannot be settled by experiment or observation, then it is not worthy of debate.
- Popper's falsifiability principle: For a theory to be considered scientific, it must be falsifiable.
- Sagan standard: Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.
- Rand's razor: Prior to philosophizing, the philosopher needs to identify their initial, irreducible, primary axioms.
- Garg, A. (17 May 2010). "Occam's razor". A.Word.A.Day. Archived from the original on 2014-03-09. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
- Hazlett, A. (2007). "Grice's razor". Metaphilosophy. 38 (5): 669. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9973.2007.00512.x.
- "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Implicature". Implicature, 5. Gricean Theory. Archived from the original on 2016-12-11. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
- "Hanlon's Razor". The Jargon File 4.4.7. Archived from the original on 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
- Miles, M. (2003). Inroads: Paths in Ancient and Modern Western Philosophy. University of Toronto Press. p. 543. ISBN 978-0802037442.
- Forrest, P. (2001). "Counting the cost of modal realism". In Preyer, G.; Siebelt, F. (eds.). Reality and Humean Supervenience: Essays on the Philosophy of David Lewis. Studies in Epistemology and Cognitive Theory. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 93. ISBN 978-0742512016.
- Mike Alder (2004). "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword". Philosophy Now. 46: 29–33. Archived from the original on 2017-12-04. Retrieved 2018-01-26.
- Ryan, Scott (27 January 2003). "Appendix: Theism, Rationalism, and Objective Idealism". Objectivism and the Corruption of Rationality: A Critique of Ayn Rand's Epistemology. iUniverse. ISBN 978-0595267330. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
‘Rand’s Razor’—that is, ‘state your irreducible primaries’ [Journals of Ayn Rand, pp. 699-700]
- Peikoff, Leonard (1993). Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand. The Ayn Rand Library. VI. Meridian. p. 139. ISBN 0-452-01101-9.
‘Rand’s Razor’…Rand’s Razor is addressed to anyone who enters the field of philosophy. It states: name your primaries. Identify your starting points, including the concepts you take to be irreducible, and then establish that these are objective axioms. Put negatively: do not begin to philosophize in midstream. Do not begin with some derivative concept or issue, while ignoring its roots, however much such issue interests you.
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