Implicature is a technical term in the pragmatics linguistics, coined by H. P. Grice, which refers to what is suggested in an utterance, even though neither expressed nor strictly implied (that is, entailed) by the utterance. As an example, the sentence "Mary had a baby and got married" strongly suggests that Mary had the baby before the wedding, but the sentence would still be strictly true if Mary had her baby after she got married. Further, if we append the qualification "not necessarily in that order" to the original sentence, then the implicature is now cancelled even though the meaning of the original sentence is not altered.
Paul Grice identified three types of general conversational implicatures:
1. The speaker deliberately flouts a conversational maxim to convey an additional meaning not expressed literally. For instance, a speaker responds to the question "How did you like the guest lecturer?" with the following utterance:
- Well, I'm sure he was speaking English.
If the speaker is assumed to be following the cooperative principle, in spite of flouting the maxim of relevance, then the utterance must have an additional nonliteral meaning, such as: "The content of the lecturer's speech was confusing."
2. The speaker's desire to fulfill two conflicting maxims results in his or her flouting one maxim to invoke the other. For instance, a speaker responds to the question "Where is John?" with the following utterance:
- He’s either in the cafeteria or in his office.
In this case, the maxim of quantity and the maxim of quality are in conflict. A cooperative speaker does not want to be ambiguous but also does not want to give false information by giving a specific answer in spite of his uncertainty. By flouting the maxim of quantity, the speaker invokes the maxim of quality, leading to the implicature that the speaker does not have the evidence to give a specific location where he believes John is.
3. The speaker invokes a maxim as a basis for interpreting the utterance. In the following exchange:
- Do you know where I can get some gas?
- There's a gas station around the corner.
The second speaker invokes the maxim of relevance, resulting in the implicature that "the gas station is open and one can probably get gas there".
A key characteristic of conversational implicature is that it is context dependent. This means that the utterance will not give rise to the implicature if said in a different context. Conversational implicatures are cancellable, meaning that the implicature may be cancelled with further information or context:
a) That cake looks delicious.
I would like a piece of that cake.
b) That cake looks delicious, but it looks too rich for me.
We see in example a) the implicature underneath is created. However, with the introduction of new information in example b), the speaker is able to cancel the conversational implicature which was arisen.
According to Grice (1975), another form of conversational implicature is also known as a scalar implicature. This concerns the conventional uses of words like "all" or "some" in conversation.
- I ate some of the pie.
This sentence implies "I did not eat all of the pie." While the statement "I ate some pie" is still true if the entire pie was eaten, the conventional meaning of the word "some" and the implicature generated by the statement is "not all".
Conventional implicature is independent of the cooperative principle and its four maxims. A statement always carries its conventional implicature.
- Donovan is poor but happy.
This sentence implies poverty and happiness are not compatible but in spite of this Donovan is still happy. The conventional interpretation of the word "but" will always create the implicature of a sense of contrast. So Donovan is poor but happy will always necessarily imply "Surprisingly Donovan is happy in spite of being poor".
Implicature vs entailmentEdit
This can be contrasted with cases of entailment. The statement "the President was assassinated", for example, not only suggests that "the President is dead" is true, but requires this to be so. The first sentence could not be true if the second were not true; if the President were not dead, then whatever it is that happened to him would not have counted as a (successful) assassination. Similarly, unlike implicatures, entailments cannot be cancelled; there is no qualification that one could add to "the president was assassinated" which would cause it to cease entailing "the president is dead" while also preserving the meaning of the first sentence.
- Blackburn 1996, p. 189.
- Wayne, Davis (24 June 2014). "Implicature". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- Kordić 1991, pp. 89–92.
- Birner, Betty J. (2013). Introduction to Pragmatics. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication. pp. 62–66.
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- Blackburn, Simon (1996). "implicature," The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, Oxford, pp. 188–89.
- Cole, P. (1975) "The synchronic and diachronic status of conversational implicature." In Syntax and Semantics, 3: Speech Acts (New York: Academic Press) ed. P. Cole & J. L. Morgan, pp. 257–288. ISBN 0-12-785424-X.
- Davison, A. (1975) "Indirect speech acts and what to do with them." ibid, pp. 143–184.
- Green, G. M. (1975) "How to get people to do things with words." ibid, pp. 107–141. New York: Academic Press
- Grice, H. P. (1975) "Logic and conversation." ibid. Reprinted in Studies in the Way of Words, ed. H. P. Grice, pp. 22–40. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (1989) ISBN 0-674-85270-2.
- Hancher, Michael (1978) "Grice's "Implicature" and Literary Interpretation: Background and Preface" Twentieth Annual Meeting Midwest Modern Language Association
- Kordić, Snježana (1991). "Konverzacijske implikature" [Conversational implicatures] (PDF). Suvremena lingvistika (in Serbo-Croatian). Zagreb. 17 (31-32): 87–96. ISSN 0586-0296. OCLC 440780341. ZDB-ID 429609-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 September 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Searle, John (1975) "Indirect speech acts." ibid. Reprinted in Pragmatics: A Reader, ed. S. Davis, pp. 265–277. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (1991) ISBN 0-19-505898-4.
- Kent, Bach (2006). "The Top 10 Misconceptions about Implicature" (PDF). in: Birner, B.; Ward, G. A Festschrift for Larry Horn. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
- Benjamin Brown, '“But Me No Buts”: The Theological Debate Between the Hasidim and the Mitnagdim in Light of the Discourse-Markers Theory'
- 'Benjamin Brown, "Some Say This , Some Say That": Pragmatics and Discourse Markers in Yad Malachi's Interpretation Rules'